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AUXILIARY

MACHINERY 2

Submitted by:
Espiritu, Joshua A.
Lizo, Karlgim M.

Submitted to:
Engr. Kim Aztrid Artocillo

Chapter I

REFRIGERATIO
Is a process of removing heat from a
N
place where it is not wanted and reject
it into another place where heat is in
outside the conditioned space.
It is also used for cooling of foods
stores and cargo, air conditioning for
crew members.

REFRIGERAN
a chemical T
substance used

Is
for
heat transfer in a refrigerating system. It
absorbs heat in evaporator by change of
state from liquid to a gas, and
gives up this heat by condensing at
a higher temperature and pressure from gas
to liquid state.

SAFETY PRECAUTION IN USING


REFRIGERANT

Because refrigerant are heavier


than air, proper ventilation is
important. For example, if a leak in a
large container of refrigerant should
occur in a basement, the oxygen
could be displaced by the refrigerant
and a person be overcome.

Never add R-410A to a system


that was manufactured for use
with
R-22.
R-22
system
components are typically not
manufactured to accept the higher
operating pressures that are
present in R-410A systems.

Avoid open when a refrigerant is


present.
When
refrigeration
equipment or cylinders are located
in a room with an open gas flame,
such as a pilot light on a gas water
heater or furnace, the equipment
must be kept leak free.

If the refrigerant escapes and gets


to the flame, the flame will
sometimes burn an off-blue or bluegreen, which means it is giving of a
toxic and corrosive gas that will
deteriorate and steal in the vicinity.
The refrigerants themselves will not
burn.

FOUR MAIN COMPONENTS OF


REFRIGERATION SYSTEM
Compressor
Condenser
Expansion Valve
Evaporator

Its main function is to transform a lowtemperature vapor in to a high-temperature


vapor, to increase pressure. Vapor is released
from the compressor into a discharge line. The
compressors use is to pull the low-temperature
and low-pressure vapor from the evaporator,
through a suction line.

COMPRESSORS
Considered as the heart of there refrigeration
system. Also a pump of a refrigeration system
which draws a low pressure on the cooling side
of a refrigerant cycle and squeezes or
compresses the gas into the high pressure or
condensing side of the cycle.

COMPRESSOR

CONDENSE
R
Is a part of the refrigeration system which
receives hot, high pressure refrigerant gas from
the compressor and cools it until it returns to a
liquid state. Its main purpose is to liquefy the
refrigerant gas sucked by the compressor from
the evaporator.

CONDENSER

EXPANSION VALVES
Regulates the flow of refrigerant to the
evaporator from high sided to the low side of the
system. It reduces the pressure of the liquid
refrigerant, and adjustment by means of
thermostatic or by hand settling control.

EXPANSION VALVE

Refrigeration cycle

EVAPORATOR
Is a component of a refrigeration system in
which saturated refrigerant absorbs heat and
turns into a gas. It is here that the liquid
refrigerant is expanded and evaporated.
It acts as a heat exchanger that transfers heat
from the substance being cooled to a boiling
temperature.

EVAPORATOR

Compressor

We can use the Ammonia Tables or the NIST


Web book to evaluate V1 because it is a saturated
vapor at a known pressure of 140 kPa.
T1 -26.682oC
V1 0.83074m3/kg
H1 1409.0kJ/kg
M dot 0.0301kg/s

Next, plug values back into Eqn.2 Now, we


need to determine V2. We can make use of the
fact that the compression process follows a
polytrophic process path with d = 1.08
Equation 3.

Now, we can plug numbers into Eqn 4 and


then Eqn. 1 to complete this part of the
problem.
V2-0.22156m3/kg (Ws)
rev -7.059kW
Equation 4.

To determine the heat transfer rate for


the compressor, we must apply the 1st
Law for steady-state, SISO
processes.
For
this compressor, changes in kinetic and potential
energies are negligible and only flow work
and shaft work cross the system boundaries.
Equation 5:

In part (a) we evaluated all of the unknowns


on the right-hand side of Eqn. 6 except H2. So,
now we need to evaluate H2. For state 2, we
know the values of two intensive properties: P2
and V2.
Equation 6

We begin by determining the phases present.


At P = 750 kPa : Vsatliq0.0016228 m3/kgVsat
vap 0.169798 m3/kg.
Finally, we can plug values back into Eqn. 5 to
evaluate Q and complete this problem.
Q-0.4586kW

Verify the assumptions made in the solution


of this problem cannot be verified with the given
information.
Answers.
a.) (Ws) int rev-7.06kW
b.)Q-0.459kW

REFRIGERANT IN RELATION TO
STATES, PRESSURE AND
TEMPERATURE
Compressor Vapor, High Temperature High Pressure
Condenser Liquid, Low Temperature High Pressure
TEV Liquid/Vapor, Low Temperature Low Pressure
Evaporator Vapor, High Temperature, Low Pressure

COEFFICIENT OF
PERFORMANCE
Is a ratio of heating or cooling provided to
work required. Higher COPs equate to lower
operating costs. COP is highly dependent on
operating conditions, especially absolute
temperature and relative temperature between
sink and system.

REFRIGERATION PROCESS
The refrigerant comes into the compressor as
a low-pressure gas, it is compressed and then
moves out of the compressor as a high-pressure
gas. The gas then flows to the condenser. Here
the gas condenses to a liquid, and gives off its
heat to the outside air

The liquid then moves to the expansion valve


under high pressure. This valve restricts the flow
of the fluid, and lowers its pressure as it leaves
the expansion valve.
The low-pressure liquid then moves to the
evaporator, where heat from the inside air is
absorbed and changes it from a liquid to a gas.

As a hot low-pressure gas, the refrigerant


moves to the compressor where the entire cycle
is repeated. Note that the four-part cycle is
divided at the center into a high side and a low
side.
This refers to the pressures of the refrigerant
in each side of the system.

TEMPERATURE FOR SPACES CONTAINING:


FROZEN MEAT, FROZEN FISH, VEGETABLES

Temperature Range of:

Frozen Meat
-in a freezer at 0F (-18 C) will always be safe as long
as it hasn't thawed.

Frozen fish
Stored at a controlled temperature of 30C will keep in good condition for nine
months or more; the same fish kept at a
temperature of - 10C will not remain in good
condition for much longer than a month.

Frozen Vegetables
Keep your freezer at a constant temperature
of -18C (0F) or lower. Frozen fruits and
vegetables lose moisture in a dry freezer if they
are not properly packaged. This drying is called
freezer burn.

REFLECTION

In this topic, We learn the working principle


of the refrigeration and the function of the
refrigerant use in the system and the different
properties of the common refrigerant.

TOPIC
II

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN
REFRIGERATION, AIR
CONDITIONING AND
VENTILATION

REFRIGERATION
Is a process that involves the removal of heat
from an area which is desired to be kept cool and
there injection of that heat to an area whose
temperature remains practically constant.

REFRIGERATION

AIR CONDITIONING
Process of alternating the properties of air
to more comfortable conditions. Typically with
the aim of distributing the conditioned air to
an occupied space such as building or a vehicle
to improve thermal comfort and indoor air
quality.

AIR CONDITIONING

VENTILATION
Is the process of supplying and removing air
by natural or mechanical means to and from any
space. It should be supplied to the occupants
breathing space. These procedures remove some
of the polluted air and dilute the remaining
pollutants with outside air.

VENTILATION

VAPOR COMPRESSION
CYCLE
Uses a circulating liquid refrigerant as the
medium, happens in the four main components in
refrigeration
systems.
Which
the refrigerant undergoes phase changes. And it
is most widely used method for airconditioning of buildings and also used in
domestic and commercial refrigerators.

VAPOR COMPRESSION CYCLE

OIL SEPARATOR
Device for separating oil and oil
vapor from the refrigerant, designed to separate
gross amounts of oil by using Stokes law.
Separate oil from the bilge water accumulated
in ships and define the rise velocity of oil
droplets.
Commonly
used
in electrical
substations.

OIL SEPARATOR

RECEIVER
A cylinder (tank) connected to the condenser
outlet for storage of liquid refrigerant in the
system. And basically designed to hold excess
refrigerant not in circulation. Installed in the
liquid line close to
the outlet of the condenser.

RECEIVER

DRIER
A component of the refrigeration system
with a substance used to remove moisture from
the system and also to filter out particles. Main
function of a drier is to absorb system
contaminants such as water and to provide
physical filtration.

DRIER

ACCUMULATOR
A storage tank which receives liquid
refrigerant from the evaporator and prevents it
from flowing into the suction line and
entering the compressor.
It prevents compressor damage from a
sudden surge of liquid refrigerant and oil that
could enter the compressor from the suction
line.

REFLECTION
In this topic, we learn the difference
of the refrigeration to air conditioning
and to ventilation, and how it works.
We learn that each of component have
different function.

TOPIC
III

COMPRESSOR USED IN
REFRIGERATION SYSTEM
There are various types of compressors used
in the refrigeration and air conditioning
machines, these are:
Reciprocating, Rotary, Screw, Centrifugal and
Scroll and many more.

Types of compressors

ROTARY COMPRESSORS
Have two rotating elements, like gears,
between which the refrigerant is compressed.
These compressors can pump the refrigerant to
lower or moderate condensing pressures. Since
they can handle small volume of the gas and
produce lesser pressure, they are used in fewer
applications.

ROTARY COMPRESSORS

RECIPROCATING
COMPRESSORS
Are one of the most widely used types of the
refrigerating compressors. They have piston and
cylinder arrangement like the automotive
engine. The reciprocating motion of the piston
due to external power compresses the refrigerant
inside the cylinder.

RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS

SCREW COMPRESSORS

Comprise of the pair of meshing screws


between which the refrigerant gets compressed.
They can produce high pressure for small
quantity of gas. They consume less power than
the reciprocating compressors and are
being used widely.

SCREW
COMPRESSORS

CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS

Centrifugal compressors comprise the


impeller or the blower that can handle large
quantities of gas but at relatively lower
condensing pressure.

CENTRIFUGAL
COMPRESSORS

SCROLL COMPRESSOR
Comprises of two interleaved scrolls of which
one is fixed and the other orbits eccentrically
without rotating. During its motion small gaps
are created between the scrolls where the
refrigerant gets compressed.

SCROLL COMPRESSOR

The scrolls can have different shapes like


involute, Archimedean spiral or hybrid curve. In
another arrangement both the scrolls may be
rotating eccentrically to produce the
compression.

EXCESSIVE PRESSURE IN THE


SYSTEM IS BEING RELIEVED
Some fluid power systems, even when
operating normally, may temporarily develop
excessive pressure when an unusually strong
work resistance is encountered. Relief valves
are used to control this excess pressure.
It is automatic valves used on system lines
and equipment to prevent over-pressurization.

Most relief valves simply lift at a preset


pressure and reset when the pressure drops
slightly below the lifting pressure. They do not
maintain flow or pressure at a given amount,
but prevent pressure from rising above a
specific
level
when
the
system
is
temporarily overloaded.

FUNCTIONS OF DIFFERENT TYPES


OF EXPANSION VALVES
Automatic expansion valve maintains a
constant pressure in the evaporator by more or
less flooding the evaporator surface, depending
on the heat load of the cold chamber. It has been
mainly used in applications where the cooling
load is fairly constant and low evaporating
pressures must be avoided.

EXPANSION VALVE - BI-FLOW


Expansion Valve - Bi-Flow is a type of TEV
that will meter refrigerant in either direction
which makes it ideally suited for package heat
pump applications. Bi-flow capability means
reduced system complexity and resulting cost. A
single bi-flow TEV can replace 2 conventional
TEV's and 2 check valves

EXPANSION VALVE

ELECTRIC EXPANSION VALVE


The electric expansion valve is a type of
valve that controlled by an electronic circuit
which is often designed to allow the valve to
control some aspect of system operation in
addition to superheat at the outlet of the
evaporator.

ELECTRIC
EXPANSION

INTERNAL EQUALIZED EXPANSION


VALVE

A type of TEV senses the suction pressure at


the valve outlet to control the metering of
refrigerant. It limited the single circuit
evaporator coils having a pressure drop no
greater than the equivalent of a 2 degree F
saturated temperature change.

INTERNAL EQUALIZED
EXPANSION VALVE

FLOAT VALVE
Actuated by a float that is immersed in the
liquid refrigerant. Both low-side float and high
side-float are used to control the flow of liquid
refrigerant. Low-side float helps to maintain a
constant level of liquid refrigerant in the
evaporator.

FLOAT VALVE

THERMOSTATIC EXPANSION
VALVE
Regulates refrigerant flow by maintaining a
nearly constant superheat at the evaporator
outlet. The effect of this type of regulation is, it
allows the evaporator to remain as nearly fully
active as possible under all load conditions.

THERMOSTATIC EXPANSION VALVE

PRESSURE LIMITED EXPANSION VALVE


A type of TEV that has a power element
charge that causes the TEV to close above a
predetermined evaporator pressure, thereby
restricting flow to the evaporator and limiting
the maximum evaporator pressure at which the
system can operate. It may not be used on
conjunction with a CPR.

PRESSURE LIMITED EXPANSION


VALVE

REFLECTION
In this topic, we learn the difference
of the refrigeration to air conditioning
and to ventilation, and how it works.
We learn that each of component have
different function.

TOPIC
IV

SECONDARY REFRIGERANT

Secondary refrigerants are usually liquids,


and are used to transfer heat from the substance
being cooled to a heat exchanger where the heat
is absorbed by a primary refrigerant. In an air
conditioning system it could be said that air is
acting as a secondary refrigerant.

These fluids are cooled by a primary


refrigerant then exposed to the source, being
sensibly heated by that source, thus absorbing its
energy, and the warmer fluid returned to the
chiller, rejecting the heat to the primary
refrigerant.

SECONDARY REFRIGERANT SHOULD HAVE


THE FOLLOWING FEATURES:

Non corrosive
Inexpensive
High specific heat
Good heat transfer characteristics.
Chemically stable
Low viscosity

Brines
Usually used in marine refrigeration system
on a reefer vessel where a large cold storage
room or cargo hold to transport perishable
cargoes. Also often installed in commercial
purposes like large power output of air
conditioning building factory etc.

BRINES CAN BE DIVIDED INTO FOUR


CLASSES:

Brines with a salt base, commonly being


water solutions of calcium or sodium chloride.
Brines for low temperature heat transfer being
pure substances, such as methylene chloride,
trichloroethylene, Rll, acetone, methyl or ethyl
alcohol.

Brines for special use or unusual applications


due to availability, extreme temperature range,
experimental usage. Brines with a glycol base,
commonly water solutions of ethylene or
propylene glycol.

BRINE IS COMPOSE
A solution of Sodium
OF: Chloride (Salt) in

water. Brine may refer to salt solution


ranging 3.5% of typical concentration of
sea water up to 26%.

ADVANTAGE AND
DISADVANTAGES OF THE
BRINE
Require less expensive
refrigeration Can
easily control the temperature No danger of
leakage of poisonous in cold storage remain
liquid, not freezing at lowest temperature
Corrosive effect to metal is minimum. Have
specific heat, enough high to permit economical
operation

IMPORTANCE OF THE
DIFFERENT DENSITY OF THE
BRINE
The maximum density of a solids-free fluid
depends on the type of salt used. Each salt
has a maximum concentration before it
reaches saturation.

BRINE FLUIDS APPLICATIONS :


Drilling Fluids
Packer Fluids
Gravel-Pack Fluids
Perforating Fluids
Under-reaming Fluids
Work-over Kill Fluids

SYSTEMS
Potassium Chloride .......KCl
Sodium Chloride ..........NaCl
Potassium Bromide .......KBr
Calcium Chloride ....... CaCl2
Sodium Bromide ..........NaBr
Calcium Bromide .......CaBr2
Zinc Bromide ...............ZnBr2

DESIRABLE ALKALINITY OF A
BRINE, AND THE
LIMIT OR FALL SHORT OF THE
If the alkalinityLIMIT.
is too low, the ability

of your water to resist pH changes


decreases. This means that the pH will
yo-yo up and down, changing from
acidic to basic fairly rapidly.

ADVANTAGE
When properly sized and operated, the use
of water softeners are very effective in
removing harness from boiler make up water.
The initial equipment cost was well as the
operating cost is reasonable. And softener
maintenance is low compared to Other
softening methods.

DISADVANTAGES
While water softeners are good at
removing hardness, they do not reduce the
mineral content of the water; nor do they
remove silica or alkalinity. For some boiler
systems, reducing these compounds is
required.

GIVE THE STEPS IN MAKING A


BRINE.
The simplest method of evaporating
brine is solar evaporation, but it can
only be used in hot, dry, sunny places. The
brine is collected into shallow ponds and
allowed to evaporate in the sun.

The salt is scooped up by machines


running on temporary railroad tracks laid
on top of the layer of salt. It is then washed
with highly concentrated salt water.

Most brine is processed by a multipleeffect vacuum evaporator. This device


consists of three or more closed metal
cylinders with conical bottoms. Brine is
first treated chemically to remove calcium
and magnesium compounds.

REFLECTION
In this topic, we learned the
difference of primary and secondary by
means of uses and function of this two
refrigerant. We also learn the uses of
brine on the system and the precaution
to be made by making the brine.

TOPIC
V

PRECAUTIONS AND PREPARATION


IN STARTING A REFRIGERATOR.
Inspect the compressor oil level and check
the oil periodically. The typical oil level is from
one half to three quarters up on the sight glass.
the typical oil pressure is 45 to 55 psi above the
suction pressure.

PRECAUTIONS AND PREPARATION


IN STARTING A REFRIGERATOR
Do not start a compressor without ensuring
that shutoff valve between the compressor and
the condenser are open. Do not jack or turn the
compressor by hand when the power is on.
Monitor compressor operation carefully during
initial start up.

PRECAUTIONS AND
PREPARATION IN STARTING A
REFRIGERATOR

Do not attempt to add oil to the compressor


crankcase while the compressor is in
operation. Do not bypass or jump any
protective device because it is operating
improperly. Do not wipe down near moving
parts.

PRECAUTIONS AND
PREPARATION IN STARTING A
In case REFRIGERATOR
of electrical fire, secure power
to the circuit and extinguish with CO2.Be
sure power is turned off before working
on electrical equipment and circuits.

PRECAUTIONS AND
PREPARATION IN STARTING A
REFRIGERATOR
Recover the charge from a system
before repairs following the requirements
outlined in the beginning. Do not open any
part of the system to the atmosphere that in
under a vacuum or air and moisture will be
drawn in.

PRECAUTIONS AND
PREPARATION IN STARTING A
REFRIGERATOR

Do not use a torch on a line that has not


been bled of refrigerant since some
fluorocarbons decompose into phosgene, a
highly toxic gas, when exposed to high
temperatures. Always wear goggles and
gloves when handling refrigerants.

PRECAUTIONS AND
PREPARATION IN STARTING A
REFRIGERATOR
Drain the cooling water system to prevent a
freeze up during system shut down in freezing
weather. After inspection or repair that required
opening the system and prior to recharging,
evacuate the system with a vacuum pump.

PRECAUTIONS AND
PREPARATION IN STARTING A
REFRIGERATOR

Treat as if the skin had been frostbitten if


liquid refrigerant comes in contact with the
skin. Do not work in a closed area where
refrigerant may be leaking unless adequate
ventilation is provided. Use care in handling
and storing refrigerant.

PRECAUTION AND CHECKING


POINTS ON A REFRIGERATOR
WHILE IT IS RUNNING
Follow carefully the preventive maintenance schedule below including a
regular check all system pressures, temperature and compressor crankcase oil level.
Maintain proper discharge pressure by controlling seawater flow with water
regulating valve. Change over to standby

PRECAUTION AND CHECKING


POINTS ON A REFRIGERATOR
WHILE IT IS RUNNING

Check for an open hand expansion valve or malfunctioning thermostatic valve if


frosting occurs. Bypass the heat interchangers is the compressor discharge gas
temperature exceeds 240 F. Crack hand expansion valve and open gradually to avoid
liquid flood back if valves must be used to permit inspection or repair.

PREPARATION FOR
OPERATION OF
Remove all the packing materials. including the foam pad. Check the accessories
and data sheets supplied
with the refrigerator. Check the items against the packing list.
REFRIGERATOR
If something is missing, contact your vendor. Stand still to ensure trouble free
operation, do not put the plug into the power supply socket until 30 minutes after
setting-up and cleaning.

STARTING THE REFRIGERATOR


Do not put food into the refrigerator at once.
After the power is on, Normally, let it run
without load for 2-3 hours. After it is cooled
down inside, food can be placed in. For the first
operation, the compressor may run in a long
time. It is no fault.

Adjust the temperature inside the


refrigerator. Normally, Turn the knob for
temperature is about -18 C in the freezing
compartment, and 3- 6 C in the refrigerating
compartment.

The refrigerating compartment - If the


knob points to "1" the temperature inside is
about 3 C higher than at the "4-5" position.
If it points to "7" the temperature is about 3
C lower. Please adjust it to meet your
requirement.

The above temperatures are average


temperatures at the centers of the refrigerating
compartment and the freezing compartment
without food in it, with the door closed and when
the environment temperature is about 30 C.
Adjustment can be conducted according to the
environment temperature operation condition.

TROUBLESHOOTING THE
REFRIGERATOR
The refrigerator do not work. If the
power is on (plug, socket, ). If the power
voltage is too low. The lamp cannot light
up. If the power switch is on. If the bulb is
damage

THE TEMPERATURE IN THE


REFRIGERATOR IS NOT LOW
ENOUGH
The thermostat is not set correctly, set it at
higher position if necessary. If the floor is flat; if
the refrigerator stands firmly. If a part of it touch
the wall or other matters.

The lamp can not light up too much noise.


The temperature in the refrigerator is not low
enough. The door is not closed tightly or opened
frequently or in a long time.
It may be directly under the sunlight or near
heat souses. Bad air circulation or something
blocking the grids or the compressor is too dirty.

REFRIGERANT CHARGING
PROCEDURE
The first thing we will need to do is connect
our gauges. Yellow to the refrigerant, blue to
low
side(evaporator),
red
to
high
side(condenser). Fill the system with nitrogen to
check for leaks because we dont want to be
wasting potentially hazardous or expensive
refrigerant.

Connect the bottle of nitrogen to the


refrigerant line and open the low side valve
on gauge set and allow nitrogen to enter the
system until its gets to about 250psi then
close the valve.

Use a rag or similar to drip some over


every joint and watch for bubbles as the
system is cycling. If there is leak put them
back into the bottle. Let it run to your
desired vacuum level then detach it from
your system.

Watch the psi on the high side wait for it


to get to about 150 psi then close the valve.
Take your main adapter and put it on the
low side shredder valve and if using
refrigerant other than R134 another to that
access valve on that and.

Connect it to the other end of the hose.


Now turn on your system and open the
refrigerant valve allow refrigerant to flow
into the system until the evaporator begins
to get cold then stop the flow.

Let it cycle for a few minutes and add a bit of


refrigerant the temperature at the evaporator
should get even colder due to a better flow of
liquid Freon and watch the temperatures until
you get the highest temperature.

REFLECTION
In this topic, we learned how to
start the refrigerator and what are the
dos and dont in operating it. We also
learned the steps on how to trouble
shoot of there is any problem, or
leakage of refrigerant in the system.

TOPIC
VI

COMFORT CONDITION
Comfort condition is a process of being
aesthetically pleasing, the human environment
must provide light, air, and thermal comfort.
Maintaining this standard of thermal comfort
for occupants of buildings or other enclosures is
one
of
the
important
goals
of HVAC (heating, ventilation,
and air
conditioning) design engineers.

PSYCHOMETRIC
CHART
Shows the relationship
between air volume,
temperature, and relative humidity and is used to
calculate specific humidity, dew point, and vapor
pressure.

DEW POINT
Is temperature at which vapor (at 100 percent
humidity) begins to condense and deposit as
liquid.

WET BULB TEMPERATURE


Is the lowest temperature that can be
obtained by evaporating water into the air
at constant pressure.

DRY-BULB TEMPERATURE
Is the temperature of air measured by
a thermometer freely exposed to the air
but shielded from radiation and moisture.

DEHUMIDIFYING PROCESS
Is a methods of relying on drawing air
across a cold surface. Once the saturation
vapor pressure of water decreases with a
decreasing temperature, the water in the air
will condense on the surface, resulting of
separation of water from the air.

HUMIDIFYING PROCESS
Is a process in which the moisture is
added to the air without changing its dry
bulb temperature. In this process the
moisture is added to the air bypassing it
over the stream of water which is at
temperature lower than the dry bulb
temperature of the air.

REFLECTION
In this topic, we can differentiate the
process
of
dehumidifying
to
humidifying and the difference
between wet and dry bulb temperature.
How it happens when air mixed to
vapour.

TOPIC
VII

FUEL OIL SYSTEM


Heavy residual fuel consists of residues left
after lighter and costlier distillates fuels and
gases are removed from petroleum crude oil in
an oil refinery. The purpose of this system is to
store and supply fuel from barge to consumers.

Heavy fuel oil (residual, blends & crudes);


Diesel fuel oil ( in restricted sense )
Residuals are residues from various rafinery
processes;
Blends are fuel oil mixtures of different
viscosity to obtain a product of desired
viscosity and density.

Crudes natural mixtures consisting of


hydrocarbons + sulphur, nitrogen and / or
oxygen derivatives of hydrocarbons.
Heavy fuel oil in navigation.
Diesel fuel oil in manuvering.

BARGE TO CONSUMERS
Oil is taken from the barge tank And pumped
into a settling tank. Then It is heated in the
settling tank Where the sediment are drawn off.
And The fuel is purified in a centrifuge, Then it
is admitted into a service tank.

From the service tank the oil is passed through


a heated buffer tank to the booster pumps. And it
will feed to the consumers like the main engine,
to the generator and to the auxiliary machineries
like boilers, fresh water generator and sea water
generators.

PURIFIER
Is a device that use to separate oil from
water and sludge. Purification is the
process that use in the purifier. The
purpose of the purifier is to purified or to
clean fuel for better combustion on board
the ship.

PARTS AND FUNCTION OF THE


PURIFIER

Tubular Shaft
Bowl
Gravity Disk

Tubular shaft
Is a hollow shaft that feeds fuel in the
purifier specially in the gravity discs. The
fuel then passes down the inside of the
tubular shaft out the bottom, and up into
the stack of discs.

A bowl produces high centrifugal forces


through
rotation
making
possible
separation of fuel, water and clarification.

A Gravity disc hold the interface between the


light liquid and heavy liquid in the bowl within a
definite rage.

FILTER
Is a fine mesh screen which is used
to removed impurities from oil, water
and air on ship. Filters are mounted in
pairs as a duplex system so that one
can be used and other is kept on stand
by at a time.

FINE MESH SCREEN FILTER


It is the most commonly used filter in
lube and fuel oil systems on board. It can
be used both on suction and discharge side
of the system. It is normally used in
cylinder lube oil line, main engine
and auxiliary engine

Fuel oil line & diesel oil line, boiler


fuel oil line and in different oil systems on
board etc.

MAGNETIC FILTER
This normally consists of filter elements
which are magnetic in nature and which
help in catching fine metal or ferrous
particles that run in the system. These
elements are surrounded by a basket screen
which also acts as a filter and simplifies the
cleaning of the filter.

CENTRIFUGAL FILTER
These filters work on the principal of
centrifugal force removing high density
fluids and impurity from the oil. It is
normally used for lube oil systems. Most
of the Auxiliary engines have attached
centrifugal filters.

Purifiers or centrifugal separators are


high-speed rotating machinery used on
board for purifying oil.
Purifiers or centrifugal separators are
high-speed rotating machinery used on
board for purifying oil.

OPERATION OF PURIFIER
Centrifugal force is the fundamental
operation principle used in the purification of
fluid. Centrifugal force is that force exerted on
a body or substance by rotation. Centrifugal
force impels the body or substance out ward
from the axis of rotation.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PURIFIER


AND CLARIFIER
Purifier is use gravity disc. By using
centrifugal force the purifier separates oil
from water and sediments. While Clarifier
doesnt have gravity disc and only
separates sediments from oil.

FUNCTION OF PURIFIER
In the fuel oil purifier, the untreated fuel
contains a mixture of oil, solids and water,
which the centrifuge separates into three
layers. While in operation, a quantity of oil
remains in the bowl to form a complete seal
around the

In the fuel oil purifier, the untreated fuel


contains a mixture of oil, solids and water,
which the centrifuge separates into three
layers. While in operation, a quantity of oil
remains in the bowl to form a complete
seal around the

DISCHARGING OF SLUDGE
If operating water for closing bowl
passes through there is no more force
acting on the main cylinder, the liquid
pressure within the bowl will push down
the main cylinder. Seal in the main ring
part is broken and sludge is instantly
discharged out of the bowl

COMMON ALARM, CAUSES AND


REMEDIES
Back Pressure shutdown this measures the
discharge oil pressure and alarms and initiates a
shut down when below a set value.
Heavy phase overflow oil has a much higher
viscosity than water. The heavy phase outlet is
led to a small catchment tank containing a float

OPERATING WATER SUPPLY


EQUIPMENT (TOTAL)
Operating water for opening bowl is supplied
from part A in figure and enters the water
pressure chamber for opening bowl. On the
other hand, water for water pressure for closing
bowl is supplied from part B and enters the
pressure chamber for closing bowl.

OPERATING WATER SUPPLY


EQUIPMENT (PARTIAL)
From point A, operating water is
supplied For closing bowl and operating
water for opening bowl for partial
discharge, while operating water for
opening bowl for total discharge is
supplied from the point B.

Temperature variation/needed in
fuel oil system Purifying process
The temperature in a fuel system should be
progressively increased in order to deliver fuel
at the correct viscosity to the injectors or
burners. System cleanliness is also very
important to reduce wear on the many finely
machined parts in the fuel injection equipment.

HOW SLUDGE IS DISPOSED OF


FROM THE SLUDGE TANK.
Describes the processes used to manage and
dispose
of sewage
sludge produced
during sewage treatment. Sludge is mostly
water with lesser amounts of solid material
removed from liquid sewage. Primary sludge
includes settle able solids removed during
primary treatment in primary clarifiers

REFLECTION
In this which we reported in the last
activity we had is that we know the
flow of the fuel inside the pipes before.
The separations happened in every
tank and also the working principle of
the purifier.

TOPIC
VIII

STEERING GEAR
Steering Gear is the equipment provided
on ships to turn the ship to Port side or to
Starboard side while in motion during
sailing. The Steering Gear works only
when the ship is in motion and, does not
work when the ship is stationary.

TYPES OF STEERING
GEAR

Fully hydraulic type - is used fluid to


control the steering gear system that
connects to the bridge.
Electro-hydraulic type - It uses
electricity and fluids o control the
steering gear on board a ship.

Fully Electric Type - It uses fully


electricity to control the steering gear
system on board the ship.

RUDDER
Rudder is supported by means of a
bearing pin tale or a lower bearing
depending upon the design. Where a lower
bearing is employed the rudder is actually
supported on split bearing rings fitted on
the lower face of the rudder and the upper
face of the sole.

FULLY BALANCE RUDDER


Reduces the amount of torque required
to turn a rudder the pivot point is moved
back from the leading edge. The amount of
torque then varies depending on the angle
of attack. Zero torque leads to instability
with rudder moving within its clearances.

COMPONENTS OF STEERING
GEAR
Telemotor control
Control Unit
Power Unit
Electric Control

TELEMOTOR
A hydraulic control system employing a
transmitter a receiver, pipes and a charging
unit.

TYPES OF TELEMOTOR
Transmitter which is build into the
steering wheel console, is located on the
bridge.
Receiver is mounted on the steering gear,

CONTROL UNIT
Is the link between the telemotor and the
Power Unit. receives signal from the
telemotor and operates the Power Unit until
it receives another signal, this time from the
Rudder through the Hunting Gear, to stop
the operation of Power Unit.

ELECTRIC REMOTE CONTROL


System is commonly used in modern
installations since it uses a small control
unit as transmitter control on the bridge
and is simple in reliability in operation.

TWO TYPES OF POWER UNIT


Ram type acting in hydraulic cylinders
operate the tiller by means of a swivel
crosshead carried in a fork of the rams.
Rotary Vane type type of steering gear a
vaned rotor is securely fastened onto the
rudder stock.

STEERING SYSTEM

OPERATION OF STEERING GEAR


When steering gear set to required
position, rudder is moved & when rudder
reaches the set position, steering gear still
remains at that position. This system uses
the hunting gear arrangement.

SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR OIL


TANKER

Requirements for Oil Tankers - Double Hulls


In 1992 MARPOL was amended to make it
mandatory for tankers of 5,000 dwt and more
ordered after 6 July 1993 to be fitted with
double hulls, or an alternative design approved
by IMO (regulation 19 in Annex I of
MARPOL).

Although the double hull requirement


was adopted in 1992, following the Erika
incident off the coast of France in
December 1999, IMO Member States
discussed proposals for accelerating the
phase-out of single hull
tankers.

IMPORTANCE OF STEERING GEAR


AND ITS FUNCTION
An Emergency Steering Drill is to be carried out
at least once every 3 months. It is to consist of
direct operation of the main steering gear by
manual control within the steering compartment.
Steering is to be directed by communication
from the bridge to the steering compartment.

HOW A WORKING STEERING


GEAR SYSTEM
When the ship is required to be turned
on receiving an order (say by 10 to port)
from the Master or, the Duty Officer, the
helmsman turns the steering wheel
towards port until the rudder has reached
10 to port as read on rudder indicator.

APPLICATION OF AUTOPILOT
SYSTEM
An autopilot is maybe one of the most
advanced and technically sophisticated
instruments you can have in your boat. It
does have all the intelligence needed to
automatically steer your boat ones you have
told it the direction to steer or where you
want to go.

AUTO MODE
The autopilot is activated and steers
the boat to the reference course which is
then shown on the display. The reference
course will be the course the boat has
when auto mode is selected.

REGAIN OF HYDRAULIC FAILURE


In the case of Telemotor failure, by
switching the change over pin, emergency
steering can be carried out by isolating the
receiver cylinder and directly controlling
the connecting rod of the main steering
power units pump lever.

REFLECTION
In this which we reported in the last
activity we had is that we know the
flow of the fuel inside the pipes before.
The separations happened in every
tank and also the working principle of
the purifier.

- END OF
PRESENTATION -

References :
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Refrigeration Slides 3
Modern Marine engineers handbook and review guide pg. 262 Slides 4

http://www.powershow.com/view/1ea38cOTI5M/Refrigerants_powerpoint_ppt_presentation
Slides 5-6-7
http://www2.worksafebc.com/i/posters/2013/ws_13_10.html slide 8-9
Refrigeration and air conditioning technology by bill whitman page 56
Slides 8-9-11-11-12-13

References :
Modern marine engineers handbook and review guide 266-267 Sides 14
http://www.johnguestspeedfit.com/sunroc/bottle/TechnicalInfoBottleWaterCooler
s.pdf Slides 15-16-17-19
Modern marine engineers handbook and review guide 269 Slides 18
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coefficient_of_performance Slide 22

References :
http://www.learnthermo.com/examples/example- Slides 23- 24-25-26-27-28-29-30-31-32-33
https://www.swtc.edu/Ag_Power/air_conditioning/lecture/basic_cycle.htm Slides 34-35-36-37

Modern Marine engineers handbook and review guide By F.G Marcos pg. 262 Slides 40-41-42
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Air_conditioning Slides 42
Refrigeration and air conditioning technology by bill whitman page 1002 Slides 45
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vaporcompression_refrigeration#Thermodynamic_analysis_of_the_system
Slides 48
http://www.hvacrinfo.com/definitions.htm Slides 49-50-51-52-53-54-55-56-57-58-59-60-

References :
http://www.brighthubengineering.com/hvac/51468-types-of-refrigeration-and-airconditioning-compressors/ Slides 61-62-63-64-65-66-67
http://www.tpub.com/fluid/ch2e.htm Slides 68-69-70-71-72
http://www.airconditioning-systems.com/expansionvalves.html Slide 75-76-78-79-82-83
http://www.coolinfo.co.uk/brines_steam/secondary_refrigerants/sec_refrig01.html
Slides 84-85-86-87-88-89-90-91-93-94
Modern marine engineers handbook and review guide pg. 285 Slides 95
Modern Marine engineers handbook and review guide pg. 286 Slides 96

References :
http://www.geodf.com/store/files/24.pdf Slide 96-97-98-99-100-101-102
http://www.safewater.org/PDFS/communitywatertestkit/Water_Quality_Tests.pdf Slides
103-104-105=106
http://www.accomn.com/index.php?id=36 Slides 107-108-109-110
http://www.madehow.com/Volume-2/Salt.html Slides 111-112-113-115-116-117-118
Whitman, William C. (2013). Refrigeration and air conditioning technology. Seventh
edition. Australia, Delmar: Cengage Learning,
Slides 123-124-125-126-127-128

References :
http://www.marinediesels.info/2_stroke_engine_parts/Other_info/purifiers
.htm Slides 132-133-134-135-136-137
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conical_plate_centrifuge Slide 142-143-44145
https://www.scribd.com/doc/281101605/Operation-Manual-2-Samgong
Slide 151-152
http://www.marineinsight.com/guidelines/filters-and-strainers-types-anduses-on-ship Slides153-154-155-156

References :
http://image.haier.com/manual/pakistan/refrigerator/tfdc/201209/P020121015623
020640535.pdf Slides 157-158-159-160
http://www.wc101.com/guides/refridgeration/page7.htm
Slides 161-162-163-164
http://www.hvacrinfo.com/definitions.htm Slides 165-174
http://www.scribd.com/doc/47644926/What-is-Humidification-Process#scribd
Slide 175
www.pfri.uniri.hr/~mborucin/documents/11_Fuel%20Oil%20Sys.ppt Slides 176177-178-179-180-