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Topic 4: Basic Principles of

Assessment
Prepared by:
AS
AFI
LYL
NAZ

Objectivity
Washback Effect
Authenticity
Interpretability

Objectivity
Refers to the ability of
teachers/examiners who mark the
answer scripts.
Objectivity refers to the extent, in
which an examiner examines and
award scores to the same answer
script.
The test have high objectivity when
the examiner is able to give the
same score to the similar answers

Objective test = high objectivity


Scoring is not influenced by the
examiners skills and emotions

Subjective test = lowest objectivity


Different examiner tend to award
different score
Same examiner would give different
scores to the same essay if s/he is to recheck at different times.

Washback Effect
Washback is generally defined as the
influence of testing on teaching and
learning
Washback refers to the extent to which the
introduction and use of a test influences
language teachers and learners to do
things that they would not otherwise do
that promote or inhibit language learning.

The effect a test has on classroom


practice (Berry, 1994, p. 31).
How assessment instruments affect
educational practices and beliefs
(Cohen, 1994, p. 41).
Washback can be positive or
negative

Teachers
Prepare lesson
more thoroughly.
Various strategies
in providing
guidance.

The fear of poor


results, and the
associated guilt,
shame, or
embarrassment, might
lead to the desire for
their pupils to achieve
high scores in
whatever way seems
possible.
This might lead to
teaching to the test,
with an undesirable
narrowing of the
curriculum.

Learners
Using the target
language skills
Studying
Learning
Do their homework
Take the subject
being tested more
seriously

Memorizing
Worrying
Cheating
Anxiety

Authenticity
Authenticity is the degree of
correspondence of the characteristics
of a given language test task to the
features of a target language task
(Bachman & Palmer, 1996)

The language in the test is as natural as


possible
Items are contextualized rather than
isolated
Topics are relevant and meaningful for
learners
Some thematic organization to items is
provided
Tasks represent, or closely approximate,
real-world tasks (so that student would
authentically use the target language.)

Interpretability
Test interpretation encompasses all
the ways that meaning is assigned to
the scores.
Proper interpretation requires
knowledge about the test, which can
be obtained by studying its manual
and other materials along with
current research literature with
respect to its use

Considerations in Test Interpretation


1st : Consider Reliability
Reliability is important because it is a
prerequisite to validity and because the
degree to which a score may vary due to
measurement error is an important factor in its
interpretation.

2nd : Consider Validity


Proper test interpretation requires knowledge
of the validity evidence available for the
intended use of the test. Its validity for other
uses is not relevant.

3rd: Scores, Norms, and Related technical


Features
The result of scoring a test or subtest is usually
a number called a raw score, which by itself is
not interpretable.
Additional steps are needed to translate the
number directly into either a verbal description
(e.g., pass or fail) or into a derived score (e.g., a
standard score).
Less than full understanding of these procedures
is likely to produce errors in interpretation and
ultimately in counseling or other uses.

4th : Administration and Scoring


Variation
Stated criteria for score interpretation
assume standard procedures for
administering and scoring the test.
Departures from standard conditions
and procedures modify and often
invalidate these criteria.