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Hybrid & Electric

Vehicles

Architecture, Design, Modeling and


Testing

Avantajele Autoturismelor
Electrice & Hibride
Nu polueaz
Consum puin carburant (3-4 Roni/100 Km
BMW i8);
Fiabilitate crescut (arhitectura mai simpl)
Demaraj i depiri f. rapide datorit cuplului
disponibil integral instantaneu n modul electric;
Sistemul de nclzire mai rapid (nu depinde de
nclzirea motorului)
Zgomot f. redus

Dezavantajele autoturismelor
electrice si hibride
Destul de scumpe (fr subvenii);
Pierd rapid din valoare (autonomia
bateriei scade f. rapid ntr-un an);
Sunt destul de grele (exceptnd BMW
i3, i8)
Sunt destul de rigide (confort redus);
Spaiul interior redus (datorit
bateriei i a transmisiei);

Full EV and HEV


Full Electrical Vehicles (FEVs) and Hybrid
Electrical Vehicles (HEVs) are vehicles with
many:
Electric components compared to conventional
ones
The power train consists of: electrical machines,
power electronics and electric energy
storage systems (battery, super capacitors)
connected to mechanical components
(transmissions, gear boxes and wheels)

and, for HEV, to an Internal Combustion


Engine (ICE).

Electric/Hybrid Vehicle Components

Architecture of Electric
Vehicles

Architecture of Electric
Vehicles
Contains:
1-4 electric machines (DC or AC machines:
IM, PMSM, SRM)
With/without gearbox (transmission
system)
High/low battery voltage
One/three phase battery charging
Auxiliary loads: lighting system, safety
system, confort system, braking resistor

Power Converter
Architecture

Architecture of HEV

V2G Framework(Integration of the


aggregators into V2G concept)

Computer/Communication/Control Network
for V2G Framework

BMW-i3 & Tesla-S (Top ten EV cars in 2015)

225 kW-375
kW(500 Km);
212 Km/h;
0-100 Km/h in 4,6
sec;
Garantia bateriei: 8

Block diagram with HEV Components

Series and Parallel Hybrid Vehicles


The Series Hybrid Vehicle connects the gasfueled engine to the battery by means of a
generator, which converts the mechanical energy
produced by the engine into electrical energy
that is stored in the battery; The battery, in turn,
powers the electric motor that moves the
vehicles. Thus, the engine itself has no direct
connection to the transmission and does not
contribute directly to turning the wheel axel.
The Parallel Hybrid Vehicle allows for both the
engine and the electric motor to be
independently connected to the transmission.
This system has the advantage to provide more
power or acceleration.

The series Hybrid


Vehicles

Components for HEV


series

HEV parallel connected components

Modeling and Testing of HEVs and EVs

Modeling HEVs using Simscape/SPS Tools

HEV Model Components

HEV Control
system

Advanced Hybrid & EV Batteries


Research, Development and
Testing
Developing advanced anode and cathode

materials, higher energy density materials;


Improving Li-Ion battery technology: types of
rechargeable, lighter weight, higher power & energy;
Developing higher capacity electrode materials and
electrolyte systems to increase the energy
density for extending electric range;
Battery safety issues: thermal properties;
Higher efficiency during regenerative braking;
Increasing life and performance: cell aging,
reducing losses;
Fast charging versus smart charging solutions;
New wireless charging technology

EVs integration platform into a Smart Grid

Electric Vehicle Batteries Testing


in a Smart Grid using Renewable Energy

Hybrid and Electric Vehicle


Batteries Testing

Experimental Performance Tests and Results

Fast Charging Tests


90%
80%
70%
60%

F
P

Ebatt(%)
50%

C
P

40%
30%
20%
-5

10

Time (min)

15

20

Smart Charging Tests


The tests have been performed with a series
of 6 hours driving-charging tests cycles with
the driving loads emulating real driving
patterns (based on vehicle driving data
recorded in the Copenhagen area by GPS
loggers

The influence of the charging power of the EV on the total


power of DER components, in order to balance the grid
power, When the battery was connected to the grid the
power fluctuations have been reduced from 8.053 kW to
5.932 kW, which means 26 %.

EV Battery (V2G) modeling based on


equivalent circuit

41

Implementation of the EV battery model

42

Simulation results

44

45

Tools for Success in a


Smart Distribution System

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Methodology to study the impact analysis

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