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SQL 2 The Sequel

CS 186, Spring 2007,


Lecture 8
R&G, Chapter 5
Mary Roth
The important thing is not
to
stop questioning.
Albert
Life
is just a bowl of
Einstein
queries.
-Anon
(not Forrest Gump)

Review: SQL DML


DML includes 4 main statements:
SELECT (query), INSERT, UPDATE and DELETE
PROJECT

e.g:

SELECT S.name, E.cid


FROM Students S, Enrolled E
WHERE S.sid = E.sid AND
JOIN
S.age=19
SELECT

Example: Find sailors who have reserved


a red and a green boat
SELECT R.sid
FROM Boats B,Reserves R
WHERE B.color = red
AND R.bid=B.bid

Now lets do this with


a self-join

Boats
bid

bname

colo
r

101

Nina

red

102

Pinta

blue

103

Santa
Maria

red

INTERSECT
SELECT R.sid
FROM Boats B,Reserves R
WHERE B.color = green
AND R.bid=B.bid
sid
1
2

sid
1

Reserves
105 Titanic
sid

bid

gree
n
day

sid

101

9/12

103

9/13

105

9/13

Find sids of sailors whove reserved a red and a


green boat
SELECT R1.sid
FROM Boats B1, Reserves R1,
Boats B2, Reserves R2
WHERE B1.color = red
AND B1.bid=R1.bid

Find red reserved


boats
Find green reserved
boats
Find matching green and
red reserved boats

AND B2.color = green


AND B2.bid=R2.bid
AND R1.sid=R2.sid
bid

bname

color

101

Nina

red

102

Pinta

blue

103
105

Santa Maria
Titanic

red
green

si
d

bid

day

101

9/12

103

9/13

105

9/13

sid

sid
1

sid
1

Nested Queries
The WHERE clause can itself contain an SQL query!
(Actually, so can FROM and HAVING clauses can too)

e.g. Find the names of sailors whove reserved boat #103


Reserves

SELECT S.sname
FROM Sailors S
WHERE S.sid IN (SELECT R.sid
FROM Reserves R
sname
WHERE R.bid=103)
Sailors
sid

Bilbo

sname rating age

S 1

Frodo

22

S 2

Bilbo

39

S 3

Sam

27

si
d

bid

day

101

9/12

103

9/13

105

9/13

First compute the set of all sailors that have


reserved boat 103
and then check each the sid of
each tuple in Sailors to see if it is
in S1

sid
2

Nested Queries
This nested query was uncorrelated because the subquery
does not refer to anything in the enclosing query

SELECT S.sname
FROM Sailors S
WHERE S.sid IN (SELECT R.sid
FROM Reserves R
WHERE R.bid=103)

It can evaluated once and then checked


for each tuple in enclosing query

Nested Queries with


correlation
Nested queries can also be correlated; the
subquery refers to the enclosing query
SELECT S.sname
FROM Sailors S
WHERE EXISTS (SELECT *
FROM Reserves R
WHERE R.bid=103 AND R.sid=S.sid)
The subquery must be re-evaluated for each tuple in
enclosing query
EXISTS is a set operator that is true if result of set
expression has at least one tuple

Nested Queries

e.g. Find the names of sailors whove reserved boat #103


Notice that this query
computes the same
answer as the previous
query!

SELECT S.sname
FROM Sailors S
WHERE EXISTS (SELECT *
FROM Reserves R
WHERE R.bid=103 AND R.sid=S.sid)
1
2
3
Sailors
sid

S 1

Reserves

sname rating age


Frodo

22

S 2

Bilbo

39

S 3

Sam

27

si
d

bid

day

101

9/12

103

9/13

105

9/13

si
d

bid

day

103 9/13

Set-Comparison Operators
<tuple expression> IN <set expression>
True if <tuple> is a member of <set>
Also, NOT IN
EXISTS <set expression>
True if <set expression> evaluates to a set with at least one member
Also, NOT EXISTS
UNIQUE <set expression>

True if <set expression> evaluates to a set with no duplicates;


each row can appear exactly once
Also, NOT UNIQUE
<tuple expression> comparison op ANY <set expression>
True if <set expression> contains at least one member that
makes the comparison true
Also, op ALL

Use NOT Exists for Division


Recall: X/Y means only give me X tuples that have a match in Y.

Find sailors whove reserved all boats.

X = set of sailors and Y = set of all boats with reservation


SELECT S.sname
Find Sailors S such that ...
FROM Sailors S
WHERE NOT EXISTS
there is no boat B...
(SELECT B.bid
FROM Boats B
WHERE NOT EXISTS
(SELECT R.bid
without a
FROM Reserves R
reservation
WHERE R.bid=B.bid
Sailor S
AND R.sid=S.sid))

by

Division
SELECT S.sname
FROM Sailors S
WHERE NOT EXISTS
(SELECT B.bid
FROM Boats B
WHERE NOT EXISTS
(SELECT R.bid
FROM Reserves R
101
103
WHERE R.bid=B.bid
1
3
AND R.sid=S.sid))
2
Reserves
Sailors
sid

Boats

sname rating age

S 1

Frodo

22

S 2

Bilbo

39

S 3

Sam

27

bid

bname

color

101

Nina

red

103

Pinta

blue

R
R
R
R
R

si
d

bid

day

103

9/12

103

9/13

103

9/14

101

9/12

103

9/13

UNIQUE
Find the names of sailors whove reserved boat
#103 exactly once
SELECT S.sname
FROM Sailors S
WHERE UNIQUE (SELECT sid, bid
FROM Reserves R
WHERE R.bid=103 AND S.sid=R.sid)
1
2
3
Sailors
sid

S 1

Reserves

sname rating age


Frodo

22

S 2

Bilbo

39

S 3

Sam

27

si
d

bid

day

103

9/12

103

9/13

103

9/13

si
d

bid

day

103 9/13

ANY
Find sailors whose rating is greater than that of
some sailor called Bilbo:
Correlated or
uncorrelated?

SELECT *
FROM Sailors S
WHERE S.rating > ANY(SELECT S2.rating
FROM Sailors S2
WHERE S2.sname=Bilbo)
S1

Uncorrelated!

S2

sid

sname rating age

sid sname rating age

Frodo

22

2
1

Bilbo
Frodo

2
7

39
22

Bilbo

39

Bilbo

39

Sam

27

Sam

27

Intermission

Aggregate Operators

Very powerful; enables computations over sets of


tuples
COUNT: returns a count of tuples in the SELECT COUNT (*)
set
FROM Sailors S

AVG: returns average of column


values in the set

SUM: returns sum of column values in


the set
MIN, MAX: returns min (max) value of
column values in a set.
DISTINCT can be added to COUNT,
AVG, SUM to perform computation
only over distinct values.

SELECT AVG (S.age)


FROM Sailors S
WHERE S.rating=10
SELECT AVG(DISTINCT

S.age)
FROM Sailors S
WHERE S.rating=10

Aggregate Operators
Find name and age of the oldest sailor(s)

SELECT S.sname, MAX


FROM Sailors S

(S.age)

What will the result


be?
sname age
Frodo

39

Bilbo

39

Sam

39

Sailors
sid

sname rating age

Frodo

22

Bilbo

39

Sam

27

Not legal syntax; no other


columns allowed in SELECT
clause without a GROUP BY
clause
(well learn about those next)

Aggregate Operators
Find name and age of the oldest sailor(s)
Instead:
SELECT S.sname, S.age And then find the
FROM Sailors S
sailors(s) of that
age
WHERE S.age =
Find the maximum
(SELECT MAX (S2.age) age
FROM Sailors S2)

GROUP BY and HAVING


So far, weve seen aggregate operators applied to
all tuples.
What if we want to apply ops to each of several groups of
tuples?

Consider: Find the age of the youngest sailor for


each rating level.
In general, we dont know how many rating levels exist,
and what the rating values for these levels are!
Suppose we know that rating values go from 1 to 10; we
can write 10 queries that look like this (!):

SELECT MIN (S.age)


For i = 1, 2, ... , 10: FROM Sailors S
WHERE S.rating = i

Queries With GROUP BY


To generate values for a column based on groups
of rows, use aggregate functions in SELECT
statements with the GROUP BY clause
Returning 1 row per group

SELECT [DISTINCT] target-list


FROM relation-list
[WHERE qualification]
GROUP BY grouping-list

And finally compute aggregate


function over each group
First select these rows
Then group them by the values
in these columns

target-list contains:
list of column names from groupinglist
terms with aggregate operations (e.g., MIN (S.age)).

Group By Example
For each rating, find the age of the youngest
sailor with age 18
Sailors
SELECT S.rating, MIN
FROM Sailors S
WHERE S.age >= 18
GROUP BY S.rating

22

21

27

sid

sname rating age

Frodo

22

Bilbo

39

Sam

27

Pippin

21

Merry

17

Group 1 1

Frodo

22

Bilbo

39

Pippin

21

Sam

27

(S.age)

Group 2

Group 3 3

Find the number of reservations for


each red boat.
SELECT B.bid, COUNT(*) AS
tot_res
FROM Boats B, Reserves R
WHERE R.bid=B.bid AND
B.color=red
GROUP BY B.bid

Boats
bid

bname

color

101

Nina

red

102

Pinta

blue

Santa
Maria

red

103

103

101

Reserves

103

9/13

101

9/14

101

9/14

sid

bid

day

102

9/12

103

9/13

101

9/14

101

9/14

Queries With GROUP BY and HAVING


SELECT
[DISTINCT] targetlist
FROM
relation-list
WHERE
qualification
GROUP BY grouping-list
HAVING
group-qualification
Use the HAVING clause with the GROUP BY clause to
restrict which group-rows are returned in the result set

Find the age of the youngest sailor with


age 18, for each rating with at least 2
such sailors
sid sname rating age
SELECT S.rating, MIN (S.age)
22 Dustin
7
45.0
FROM Sailors S
31 lubber
8
55.5
WHERE S.age >= 18
71 zorba
10 16.0
GROUP BY S.rating
64 horatio
7
35.0
HAVING COUNT (*) > 1
29 brutus
1
33.0
58
rating
1
7
7
2 8
10

age
33.0
45.0
35.0
55.5
35.0

rating
1
7
38
10

m-age
33.0
35.0
55.0
35.0

rusty

count
1
2
1
1

10

35.0

rating
7
35.0
Answer

Sailors

Sailors who have


reserved all boats
SELECT S.name
FROM Sailors S, reserves R
WHERE S.sid = R.sid
GROUP BY S.name, S.sid
HAVING COUNT(DISTINCT R.bid) =
( Select COUNT (*) FROM
Boats) sid bid
sname
Frodo

102

Bilbo

101

Bilbo

102

Frodo

102

Bilbo

103

sname

sid coun
t

Frodo

Bilbo

si
d

snam
e

ratin
g

age

Frodo

22

Bilbo

39

3
Sam
Boats

27

bid

bname

color

101

Nina

red

102

Pinta

blue

103

Santa
red
Maria
Reserves

count

sid

bid

day

102

9/12

102

9/12

sname

sid

bid

101

9/14

Frodo

102,102

Bilbo

101, 102,

102

9/10

103

9/13

More about Joins


SELECT (column_list)
FROM table_name
[INNER | {LEFT |RIGHT | FULL } OUTER] JOIN
table_name
ON qualification_list
WHERE

Explicit join semantics needed unless it is an


INNER join
(INNER is default)

Default semantics: Inner Join


Only rows that match search conditions are
returned.
SELECT s.sid, s.name, r.bid
FROM Sailors s INNER JOIN Reserves r
ON s.sid = r.sid
Returns only those sailors who have reserved boats
SQL-92 also allows:
SELECT s.sid, s.name, r.bid
FROM Sailors s NATURAL JOIN Reserves r
NATURAL means equi-join for each pair of
attributes with the same name

SELECT s.sid, s.name, r.bid


FROM Sailors s INNER JOIN Reserves r
ON s.sid = r.sid

sid sname rating age


22
31
95

Dustin
Lubber
Bob

7
8
3

s.sid

45.0
55.5
63.5

sid bid
day
22 101 10/10/96
95 103 11/12/96

s.name r.bid
22 Dustin
101
95 Bob
103

Left Outer Join


Left Outer Join returns all matched rows,
plus all unmatched rows from the table on the left of
the join clause
(use nulls in fields of non-matching tuples)
SELECT s.sid, s.name, r.bid
FROM Sailors s LEFT OUTER JOIN Reserves r
ON s.sid = r.sid
Returns all sailors & information on whether they have
reserved boats

SELECT s.sid, s.name, r.bid


FROM Sailors s LEFT OUTER JOIN Reserves r
ON s.sid = r.sid

sid sname rating age


22
31
95

Dustin
Lubber
Bob

s.sid

7
8
3

45.0
55.5
63.5

sid bid
day
22 101 10/10/96
95 103 11/12/96

s.name r.bid
22 Dustin
101
95 Bob
103
31 Lubber

Right Outer Join


Right Outer Join returns all matched rows,
plus all unmatched rows from the table on
the right of the join clause
SELECT r.sid, b.bid, b.name
FROM Reserves r RIGHT OUTER JOIN Boats b
ON r.bid = b.bid
Returns all boats & information on which
ones are reserved.

SELECT r.sid, b.bid, b.name


FROM Reserves r RIGHT OUTER JOIN Boats b
ON r.bid = b.bid

sid bid
day
22 101 10/10/96
95 103 11/12/96
r.sid

bid
101
102
103
104

b.bid
22
95

101
102
103
104

bname
Interlake
Interlake
Clipper
Marine

b.name
Interlake
Interlake
Clipper
Marine

color
blue
red
green
red

Full Outer Join


Full Outer Join returns all (matched or
unmatched) rows from the tables on both
sides of the join clause
SELECT r.sid, b.bid, b.name
FROM Reserves r FULL OUTER JOIN Boats b
ON r.bid = b.bid
Returns all boats & all information on
reservations

SELECT r.sid, b.bid, b.name


FROM Reserves r FULL OUTER JOIN Boats b
ON r.bid = b.bid

sid bid
day
22 101 10/10/96
95 103 11/12/96
r.sid

bid
101
102
103
104

b.bid
22
95

101
102
103
104

bname
Interlake
Interlake
Clipper
Marine

color
blue
red
green
red

b.name
Interlake
Interlake
Clipper
Marine

Note: in this case it is the same as the ROJ because


bid is a foreign key in reserves, so all reservations mus
have a corresponding tuple in boats.

INSERT
INSERT [INTO] table_name
[(column_list)]
VALUES ( value_list)
INSERT [INTO] table_name [(column_list)]
<select statement>

INSERT INTO Boats VALUES ( 105, Clipper, purple)


INSERT INTO Boats (bid, color) VALUES (99, yellow)

bulk insert from one table to another (must be type


compatible):
INSERT INTO TEMP(bid)
SELECT r.bid FROM Reserves R WHERE r.sid = 22;
bulk insert from files (in Postgres)
Copy

DELETE & UPDATE


DELETE [FROM] table_name
[WHERE
qualification]

DELETE FROM Boats WHERE color = red


DELETE FROM Boats b
WHERE b. bid =
(SELECT r.bid FROM Reserves R WHERE r.sid = 22)
Can also modify tuples using UPDATE statement.
UPDATE Boats
SET Color = green
WHERE bid = 103;

Null Values
Values are sometimes
unknown (e.g., a rating has not been assigned or
inapplicable (e.g., no spouses name).
SQL provides a special value null for such situations.
The presence of null complicates many issues. E.g.:
Special operators needed to check if value is/is not null.
rating>8 - true or false when rating is null? What about
AND, OR and NOT connectives?
Need a 3-valued logic (true, false and unknown).
Meaning of constructs must be defined carefully. (e.g.,
WHERE clause eliminates rows that dont evaluate to true.)
New operators (in particular, outer joins) possible/needed.

Null Values 3 Valued Logic


(null > 0)

is null

(null + 1)

is null

(null = 0)

is null

null AND true

is null

AND

Null

OR

Null

Null

Null

Null

Null

F
NUL
L

F
Null

F
F

F
Null

F
NUL
L