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States of

Matter

States of Matter

Matter can mainly be


classified in three ways:
1.Classical States of matter
2.Non classical states of
matter
3.States classified according
to the energy content in them.

Phase changes of matter


Solid

Meltin
g

Liquid

Freezing
Condensati
on
Sublimatio
n
Depositi
on

Gas

Vaporizati
on
Ionizatio
n

Plasm
a

Deionizatio
n

Gases
Properties of Gases
Gas Pressure

Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases


A gas consists of small particles that:

Move rapidly in straight lines

Have essentially no attractive (or


repulsive) forces

Are very far apart

Have very small volumes compared


to the volume of the container they
occupy

Have kinetic energies that increase


with an increase in temperature
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Properties of Gases

Gases are described in terms of four properties:


pressure (P), volume (V), temperature (T), and
amount (n).

12

Gas Pressure
Gas pressure:
Is described as a force acting on a specific area
Pressure (P) = Force
Area
Has units of atm, mm Hg, torr, and pascals
1 atmosphere (1 atm) is 760 mm Hg
1 mm Hg = 1 torr
1.00 atm = 760 mm Hg = 760 torr

13

Origin of Pressure

Units of Pressure
Gas pressure,
Is described as a force acting on a specific area

15

Learning Check
A. What is 475 mm Hg expressed in atm?
1) 475 atm
2) 0.625 atm
3) 3.61 x 105 atm
B. The pressure in a tire is 2.00 atm. What is this
pressure in mm Hg?
1) 2.00 mm Hg
2) 1520 mm Hg
3) 22 300 mm Hg

16

Solution
A. What is 475 mm Hg expressed in atm?
2) 0.625 atm
475 mm Hg x 1 atm
= 0.625 atm
760 mm Hg
B. The pressure of a tire is measured as 2.00 atm. What is
this pressure in mm Hg?
2) 1520 mm Hg
2.00 atm x 760 mm Hg = 1520 mm Hg
1 atm

17

Atmospheric Pressure
The atmospheric pressure:
Is the pressure exerted
by a column of air from
the top of the
atmosphere to the
surface of Earth
Is about 1 atmosphere
or a little less at sea
level

18

Altitude and Atmospheric Pressure


Atmospheric pressure:
Depends on the
altitude and the
weather
Is lower at high
altitudes where the
density of air is less
Is higher on a rainy
day than on a sunny
day

19

Barometer
A barometer:
Measures the pressure
exerted by the gases
in the atmosphere
Indicates atmospheric
pressure as the height
in mm of the mercury
column

20

Learning Check
A. The downward pressure of the Hg in a barometer is
_____ than (as) the pressure of the atmosphere.
1) greater
2) less
3) the same
B. A water barometer is 13.6 times taller than a Hg
barometer (DHg = 13.6 g/mL) because:
1) H2O is less dense
2) H2O is heavier
3) air is more dense than H2O

21

Solution
A.The downward pressure of the Hg in a barometer is
3) the same (as) the pressure of the atmosphere.
B. A water barometer is 13.6 times taller than a Hg
barometer (DHg = 13.6 g/mL) because:
1) H2O is less dense

22

Atmospheric Pressure
Atmospheric pressure is the
force per unit area exerted into a
surface by the weight of air
above that surface.
Atmospheric pressure is calculated in various
units. The following equivalence is the most
commonly used.

1 atm= 1105 Pa= 760 mmHg=


760 torr
Atmospheric pressure can simply be measured
by a barometer by balancing the weight of

Temperature
It is a measure of the thermal
energy of molecules or atoms of a
substance.
Temperature too has many units as
pressure.
The relationship between these
scales can be summarized as
follows:

F= (9/5)C + 32
K= C + 273

Gas Laws
There are six main gas laws
associated with the behavior of
gases:
1.Boyles Law
2.Charles' Law
3.Charles-Gay-Lussacs law
4.Combined Gas Law
5.Avogadro's law
6.Daltons law of partial pressure

THE GAS
LAWS

BOYLES LAW
The
inverse
relationship
between pressure and volume
It states that the volume of a
sample
of
gas
changes
inversely with the pressure of
the gas as long as the
temperature and the amount
of the gas remain constant.

Boyles Law
Applicable only if: Temperature
stays constant
Applicable to:
1.Ideal gases at any temperature
2.Real gases which behave
approximately as ideal gases
specially at high temperatures.

When the pressure of the


gas decreases, the volume
of the gas increases.
When the pressure of a gas
increases, the volume of the
gas decreases.

P1V1 = P2V2

Boyles Law: Relating


pressure and volume

SAMPLE PROBLEMS:
1. A tank of nitrogen has a
volume of 14.0 L and a
pressure of 760.0 mmHg.
Find the volume of the
nitrogen when its pressure is
changed to 400.0 mmHg
while the temperature is
held constant.

2. A 200-L helium gas at a


pressure of 280C and a
pressure of 2.0 atm was
transferred to a tank with a
volume of 68.0 L. What is
the internal pressure of the
tank if the temperature is
maintained?

3. A balloon contains 14.0 L of


air at a pressure of 760 torr.
What will the volume of the
air be when the balloon is
taken to a depth of 10 ft in a
swimming pool, where the
pressure is 981 torr? The
temperature of the air does
not change.

CHARLES LAW
States that the Kelvin temperature
and the volume of a gas are directly
related when there is no change in
pressure or amount of gas.
The relationship between volume
and temperature was first observed
by French physicist and balloonist
Jacques Charles.

Charles' Law
Applicable only if: Pressure stays
constant
Applicable to:
1.Ideal gases at any temperature
2.Real gases which behave
approximately as ideal gases
specially at low pressures.

V1 V2

T1 T2
V1 V2

T1 T2

SAMPLE PROBLEMS
1. A balloon has a volume of
2500.0 mL on a day when
the temperature is 30.00C. If
the temperature at night
falls to 10.00C, what will the
volume of the balloon if the
pressure remains constant?

2. Find the final


temperature of a 2.00L gas sample at 20.00C
cooled until it occupies
a volume of 500 mL.

Do the ff. exercises:


1. A sample of Freon gas used
in air conditioner has a volume
of 325.0 L and a pressure of
96.3 kPa at 200C. What will the
pressure of the gas be when
its volume is 975.0 L at 200C?

2. A balloon contains 30.0L


of helium gas at 100 kPa.
What is the volume when
the balloon rises to an
altitude
where
the
pressure is only 25.0 kPa?

3. What is the volume of


a sample of ethane at
467K and 2.25 atm if it
occupies 1.405 L at
300K and 2.25 atm?

4. The gas in a 1.00-L bottle


at 250C can be put into a
0.946 L bottle at the same
pressure
if
the
temperature is reduced.
What
temperature
is
required?

GAY-LUSSACS LAW
Temperature
and
pressure relationship

The pressure of a gas


is directly related to
its Kelvin temperature.

This means that an increase


in temperature increases
the pressure of a gas, and a
decrease in temperature
decreases the pressure of
the gas as long as the
volume and number of
moles of the gas remain
constant.

Gay-Lussacs Law: Relating


pressure and temperature

P1 P2

T1 T2
n1 n 2

V1 V2

SAMPLE PROBLEMS:
1. The gas left in a used
aerosol can is at a
pressure of 100 kPa at
270C. If the can is thrown
onto a fire, what will the
internal
pressure
be
when its temperature
reaches 9270C?

.
The
pressure
in
automobile tire is 200 kPa
at a temperature of 270C.
At the end of a journey on
a hot sunny day, the
pressure has risen to 223
kPa.
What
is
the
temperature of the air in
the tire?

AVOGADROS LAW

Law: Equal volumes of gases at the


same temperature and same pressure
contain the same no. of molecules /
atoms.
Modified law: Equal volumes of gases
at the same temperature and same
pressure contain the same no. of
moles.
(Since no. of moles= no. of atoms or
molecules Avogadro Number)

V1 V2

n1 n2

SAMPLE PROBLEMS
If 23.1 g of oxygen
occupies a volume of 5.0
L
at
a
particular
pressure
and
temperature,
what
volume will 2.5 g of
oxygen
gas
occupy
under
the
same
conditions?

Determine
the
volume
in
liters
occupied by 0.202
mol of a gas at STP.
How many oxygen
molecules are in 3.3
liters of oxygen gas
at STP?

Determine
the
volume
in
liters
occupied by 14.0 g
of N2 at STP.
What
volume
is
occupied by 4.02 x
1022 molecules of 22
g of H2 at STP?

THE COMBINED GAS LAW


The two gas laws can be
combined and treated as a
single law which describes
the relationship among the
pressure,
volume
and
temperature of a constant
amount of gas.

Combined Gas Law


PV
T

When P is
maintained
constant,
V/T = k. Therefore
the system obeys

When T is
maintained
constant, PV =
k. Therefore the
system obeys
the Boyles law.

SAMPLE PROBLEMS:
1. A given mass of gas has a
volume of 800.0 mL at
23.00C and 300.0 torr. What
would the volume of the gas
be at 27.00C and 600.0 torr of
pressure? The amount of gas
is constant.

2. A 5.0 L air sample at a


temperature of 50.00C has
a pressure of 107.0 kPa.
What will the new pressure
be if the temperature is
raised to 100.00C and the
volume expands to 7.0 L?

3. A 3.50-L gas sample at


200C and a pressure of 86.7
kPa is allowed to expand to
a volume of 8.0 L. The final
pressure of the gas is 56.7
kPa. What is the final
temperature of the gas?

5. A weather balloon is filled


with 16.0 L of helium at a
temperature of 260C and a
pressure of 700 mm hg.
What is the pressure of the
helium in the balloon in the
upper atmosphere when the
temperature is -330C and
the volume becomes 35.0 L

THE IDEAL GAS LAW

The law that describes


the pressure, volume,
temperature,
and
number of moles of a
gas.

PV= nRT
Where:

P= pressure of the gas


V= volume of the gas
n= amount of gas
R= ideal gas constant
T= temperature of the
gas

At STP,
P= 1.0 atm= 101.325 kPa
V= 22.4 L
n= 1.0 mole
T= 273 K
R= 0.0821 atm x L/ mol x K
= 8.31kPa x L/ mol x K

SAMPLE PROBLEMS:

1. What volume will


1.27 mol of helium
gas
occupy
at
STP?

2. How many moles of


gas are contained in a
50.0-L cylinder at a
pressure of 100.0 atm
and a temperature of
35.00C?

3. What pressure will be


exerted by 0.450 mol
of a gas at 250C if it is
contained in a vessel
whose volume is 0.65
L?

4. You fill a rigid steel


cylinder with a volume
of 20.0 L with nitrogen
gas to a final pressure of
20 000 kPa at 270C. How
many moles of nitrogen
gas does the cylinder
contain?

Answer the following


exercises:
1. A deep underground cavern
contains 2.24 x 106 L of
methane
gas(CH4)
at
a
pressure of 1,500 kPa and a
temperature 420C. How many
kg of methane does this gas
deposit contain?

2. The volume of a gasfilled balloon is 30.0 L


at 40.00C and 150 kPa
pressure. What volume
will the balloon have at
STP?

3. The volume of a sample


of CO is 405 mL at 10.0
atm and 467 K. What
volume will it occupy at
4.29 atm and 467 K?

4. When a rigid hollow


sphere containing 680 L
of helium gas is heated
from 300 K to 600 K, the
pressure of the gas
increases to 1 800 kPa.
How many moles of
helium are in the sphere?

5. A container with an initial


volume of 1.0 L is occupied
by a gas at a pressure of 150
kPa at 250C. By changing the
volume, the pressure of the
gas increases to 600 kPa as
the temperature is raised to
1000C. What is the new
volume?

Summary

Ideal gas
equation
PV =nRT

When
either
mass
or the
no. of
moles
are
given

When T1 =
T2

Gas law
problems

When the
mass of a
given gas
is
constant

When P1=
P2
Charless
Boyles law
law
PV= k
V/T = k

Combined
gas equation
(PV)/T = k

When V1=
V2
Charles-Gay
Lussacs law
P/T = k

DALTONS LAW
At constant volume and
temperature, the total
pressure exerted by a
mixture of gases is
equal to the sum of the
partial pressures of the
component gases.

Ptotal=
P1+P2+P3

SAMPLE PROBLEMS

Determine
the
total
pressure of a gas mixture
that contains oxygen,
nitrogen, and helium if
the partial pressures of
the gases are 20.0 kPa,
46.7 kPa, and 26.7 kPa
respectively.

A balloon contains mostly He


and a little methane. The
partial pressure of helium is
101.2 kPa. If the pressure
inside the balloon is 101.3
kPa, what is the partial
pressure of methane?

A 5.73- L flask at 250C


contains 0.0388 mol of
N2, 0.1 47 mol of CO, and
0.0803 mol of H2. What
is the pressure in the
flask in atm and kPa?