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Research Methodology

Prof. M. Harun-Ar-Rashid
Treasurer, IIUC
Chief, IIUC-DC
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Definition of Research
Business

Research is defined as the systematic


and objective process of gathering, recording
and analyzing data for aid in making business
decision. The term Research consists of two
words Research = Re + Search. Literally
research (re-search) means search again. So
research is purposeful investigation. It
provides a structure for decision-making.
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Definition of Research
There are three parts involved in any investigation
(i) the implicit question posed
(ii) the explicit answer proposed, and
(iii) collection, analysis, and interpretation of the
information leading from the question to the answer.
Research always starts with a question or problem. Its
purpose is to find answers to question through the
application of the scientific method. The word
research identifies a process by which the
organization attempts to supply the information
required for making sound management decision.
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Research
R
E
S
E
A
R
C
H

Recognition of information needs


Effective decision making
Systematic and objective
Exude or disseminate information
Analysis of information
Recommendation for action
Collection of information
Helpful to managers
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Redman and Mory defines research as a


systematized effort to gain new knowledge.
Some people consider research as a
movement, a movement from the unknown
to the known. It is actually a voyage of
discovery.

According to P.M Cook:


Research is an honest exhaustive, intelligent
searching for facts and their meanings or
implications with to a given problem. The
product or findings of a given piece of
research should be an authentic, verifiable
and contribution to knowledge in the field
studied
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Mr. P.M. Cook has emphasized the following


characteristics of research in his definition.
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.

It is an honest and exhaustive process.


The facts are studied with understanding.
The facts are discovered in the light of
problem. Research is problem centered.
The finding are valid and verifiable.
Research work should contribute new
knowledge in that field.
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Definition of Research (contd.)


Definitions:
Oxford Learners dictionary: Research is careful
study or investigation in order to discover facts or
information.
Chamber Dictionary: Systematic investigation
towards increasing the sum of knowledge.
P.V. Young: Research is a systematic method of
discovering new facts or verifying the old facts, their
sequences, interrelationship, causal explanations and
natural laws which govern them.
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Emery and Cooper: Research is a systematic inquiry


aimed at providing information to solve problems.
Isaac& Michael:
Research, having its origin in science, is oriented
towards the development of theories and its familiar
paradigm is the experimental method, in which
hypotheses are logically derived from theory and put
to a test under controlled conditions.
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Definition of Research (contd.)


Clifford Moody:
A research comprises defining and redefining
problem; formulating hypotheses or suggested
solutions;
collecting,
organizing
and
evaluating data, making deduction and making
conclusion; and it last carefully testing
conclusions to determine whether they fit the
formulated hypotheses.
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General Characteristics of
Research
The following characteristics may be gathered from
the definitions of Research:
1.
It gathers new knowledge or data from primary
or first-hand sources.
2.
It places emphasis upon the discovery of general
principles.
3.
It is an exact systematic and accurate
investigation.
4.
It uses certain valid data gathering devices.
5.
It is logical and objective.
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6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

11.
12.

The researcher resist the temptation to seek only


the data support his hypothesis.
The researcher eliminates personal feelings and
preferences.
It endeavors to organize data in quantitative
terms.
Research is patient and unhurried activity.
The researcher is willing to follow his procedures
to the conclusions that may be unpopular and
bring social disapproval.
Research is carefully recorded and reported.
Conclusions and generalization are arrived at
carefully and cautiously.

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Criteria of a good research


1.
2.

3.

4.

The purpose of the research should be clearly defined


and common concepts be used.
The research procedure used should be described in
sufficient detail to permit another of what has already
been attained.
The procedural design of the research should be
clearly planned to yield results that are as objective as
possible.
The researcher should report with complete frankness,
flaws in procedure design and estimates their effects
upon the findings.
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Criteria of a good research (contd.)


5.

6.

7.

The analysis of data should be sufficiently


adequate to reveal its significance and the
methods of analysis used should be appropriate.
The validity and reliability of the data should be
checked carefully.
Conclusions should be confined to those justified
by the data of the research and limited to those
for which the data provide an adequate basis.
Greater confidence in research is warranted if
the researcher is experienced, has a good
reputation in research and is a person on
integrity.
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Criteria of a good research (contd.)


According to Danny N Bellenger and Barnett, A.
Greenberg, the qualities of good research as under:
1.

2.

Good research is systematic. It means that


research is structured with specified steps to be taken in a
specified sequence in accordance with the well defined set
of rules.
Good research is logical: This implies that research
is guided by the rules of logical reasoning and logical
process of induction and deduction are of great value in
carrying out research. Induction is the process of
reasoning from a part to the whole whereas deduction is
the process of reasoning from some premise to a
conclusion which follows from that very premise.
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Criteria of a good research (contd.)


3.

Good research is empirical: It implies that


research is related basically
aspects of a real situation
concrete data that provides a
validity to research results.

4.

Good

research

is

to one or more
and deals with
basis for external

replicable:

This
characteristics allows research results to be
verified by the replicating the study and thereby
building a sound basis for decisions.
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Steps of Research process,


This definition of research states various steps involved in a
research process. The steps are:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Formulating the research problem


Extensive literature survey
Developing hypotheses
Preparing research design
Determining sample design
Collecting the data
Execution of the project
Analysis of data
Testing of hypotheses
Generalizing and interpretation
Preparation of the report.
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Research and Scientific Method


The two terms Research and Scientific Methods are closely
related. For clear perception of the term research, one should
know the meaning of scientific method.

Characteristics of science:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

A Science is a system
A Science is empirical
A Science is based on critical discrimination
A Science is a body of reasoned knowledge
A Science is self-corrective in nature
A Science formulates law
A Science can predict

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What is a Good Scientific


Research?
Purposiveness
Started with a definite aim and purpose
Rigor
A good theoretical base and a sound
methodological design
Testability
Lends itself to testing logically developed
hypotheses
Replicability
Research results supported when research is
repeated in other similar circumstances

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What is a Good Scientific Research?


Precision and Confidence
Closeness of findings to reality and
probability that estimations are correct,
respectively
Objectivity
Conclusions drawn are based on facts
resulting from the actual data
Generalizability
The scope of applicability of the research
findings in one settings to other settings
Parsimony
Simple
in
explaining
phenomena
or
problems that occur, and in the application
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of solutions to problems

Research and Scientific Method


The scientific method is, thus, based on certain basic
postulates, which can be stated as under:
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.

It relies on empirical evidence;


It utilizes relevant concepts;
It is common to only objective considerations;
It presupposes ethical neutrality, i.e., it aims at
nothings but making only adequate and correct
statements about population objects;
It results into probabilistic predictions;
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Research and Scientific Method


6.

7.
8.

Its methodology is made known to all concerned for


critical scrutiny are for use in testing the conclusions
through replication;
It aims at formulating most general axioms or what can
be termed as scientific theories
Accordingly, scientific method implies an objective;
logical and systematic method, i.e., a method free from
personal bias or prejudice, a method to ascertain
demonstrable qualities of a phenomenon capable of being
verified, a method wherein the researcher is guided by the
rules of logical reasoning, a method wherein the
investigation proceeds in an orderly manner and a
method that implies internal consistency.
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