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NETWORKS PROTECTIONS

Block 5.7

Electrical Distribution for maintenance engineer

typical MV protections per application

Block 5 ELECTRICAL NETWORKS PROTECTIONS 5.7

Slide 1

Institut
Schneider
Formation

Protections, 2 main objectives


Contribute to the safety of
people and equipment...

t
Safe

while optimising continuity


of service

ty
i
u
n
i
Cont vice
r
of s e

on
i
t
a
mis s
i
t
p
o
ost
c
f
o

Electrical Distribution for maintenance engineer

Block 5 ELECTRICAL NETWORKS PROTECTIONS 5.7

Slide 2

Institut
Schneider
Formation

What exactly is a protection ?


Detect and isolate the fault
Preserve continuity of supply

current
Sensor voltage
Measure
Compare
Decide

Tripping
coil
A protection device does not prevent the fault from
occurring, but limits the consequences ...

Electrical Distribution for maintenance engineer

Block 5 ELECTRICAL NETWORKS PROTECTIONS 5.7

Slide 3

Institut
Schneider
Formation

The protection plan


Network
architectures

Types of
disturbance

Earthing
systems

CHOICE
OF
RELAY

PROTECTION PLAN
Type of protection function
Discrimination
Settings

Components
to protect

Electrical Distribution for maintenance engineer

Block 5 ELECTRICAL NETWORKS PROTECTIONS 5.7

Slide 4

Institut
Schneider
Formation

List of functions available


with ANSI codes

RMS

Electrical Distribution for maintenance engineer

Block 5 ELECTRICAL NETWORKS PROTECTIONS 5.7

Slide 5

Institut
Schneider
Formation

List of functions available


with ANSI codes

Electrical Distribution for maintenance engineer

Block 5 ELECTRICAL NETWORKS PROTECTIONS 5.7

Slide 6

Institut
Schneider
Formation

Link protection: underground cables


Underground distribution in urban
environments

Downstream faults:
short-circuits
Phase breakage

No reclosing
X

Recommended protections:
Directional earth protection (67N)
(for long capacitive feeders)

incomer
cable feeder

Electrical Distribution for maintenance engineer

Overcurrent protection (50/51)


Residual overcurrent protection (50N/51N)
Phase unbalance protection (46)
Line differential protection (87L)

Block 5 ELECTRICAL NETWORKS PROTECTIONS 5.7

Slide 8

Institut
Schneider
Formation

Just a HV Short-circuit on
225kV underground cable

Electrical Distribution for maintenance engineer

Block 5 ELECTRICAL NETWORKS PROTECTIONS 5.7

Slide 9

Institut
Schneider
Formation

Busbars protection
Electrical switchboards
energy concentration !
need to eliminate the fault quickly
Schma F2

Fault
short-circuits (between bars and
with the earth)
temperature rise
insulation loss

Recommended protections
Logic discr.:
Line overcurrent (50/51)
Residual overcurrent
(50N/51N)
Time discrimination
Busbar differential (87B)

Electrical Distribution for maintenance engineer

Block 5 ELECTRICAL NETWORKS PROTECTIONS 5.7

Slide 10

Institut
Schneider
Formation

- Protection example of substation


busbars with 2 incomers

Directional protection set if


fault

protections
Overcurrent protection (50/51)
Residual overcurrent protection
(50N/51N)
Directional phase protection (67)

discrimination
Current and direction

Electrical Distribution for maintenance engineer

Block 5 ELECTRICAL NETWORKS PROTECTIONS 5.7

Slide 11

Institut
Schneider
Formation

Transformer protection
Faults

Protections

Short-circuit

Windings
Tank
Magnetic circuit

Overcurrent 50/51
transformer
differential 87T
Buchholz
DGPT 63

Earth fault

Windings
Magnetic circuit

Max. Io
50N/51N
Restricted
differential 64REF
Tank earth
50N/51N, 50G/51G

Insulators

Overcurrent 50/51
Thermal overload
49RMS
Temperature 49T
Thermostat 26
Level switch 71

Overload

Electrical Distribution for maintenance engineer

Impacts

Block 5 ELECTRICAL NETWORKS PROTECTIONS 5.7

Slide 12

Institut
Schneider
Formation

Transformers protection
Applications Examples

Small MV/LV transformer


fuse protected

Electrical Distribution for maintenance engineer

Large MV/LV transformer


breaker protected

Small HV/MV transformer

Block 5 ELECTRICAL NETWORKS PROTECTIONS 5.7

Large HV/MV transformer

Slide 13

Institut
Schneider
Formation

Motor protection
Faults

Upstream

Voltage sag
Unbalance

Impacts

Protections

Active power
return: voltage sag

Undervoltage 27
Max. reverse
component 46
Overpower 32P

Destruction of
coiling and magnetic
circuit
Motor deceleration

Overcurrent 50/51
Machine
differential 87M
Max. Io 50N/51N,
78PS

Overcurrent
Stator temperature
rise
Pump unpriming
Mechanical
breakage
Temperature rise

Thermal overload
49RMS
48
51LR
Min. I 37, P, 37P

Internal
Short-circuit
Earth fault
Loss of
synchronism

Downstream
Overload
Starting too long
Locked rotor

Use
Frequent starting

Electrical Distribution for maintenance engineer

Block 5 ELECTRICAL NETWORKS PROTECTIONS 5.7

Limited number of
start-ups 66

Slide 14

Institut
Schneider
Formation

Motors protection
Applications Examples

Electrical Distribution for maintenance engineer

Block 5 ELECTRICAL NETWORKS PROTECTIONS 5.7

Slide 15

Institut
Schneider
Formation

Generator protection
Faults

Internal
50/51V

Impacts

Protections
Overcurrent 50/51
Machine
differential 87M
Voltage restrained
overcurrent 50/51V

Short-circuit

Destruction
of windings &
magnetic circuit

Earth fault

Destruction of
windings &
magnetic circuit

Max. Io 50N/51N
Restricted earth
differential 64REF
Residual
overvoltage 59N

Loss of synchronism

Overspeed
Absorption of
Reactive power
(runs as a motor)
temperature rise

78PS
Min. impedance
21B

External machinery, or load

Electrical Distribution for maintenance engineer

Faults relating to
incorrect regulation

Temperature rise
and poor efficiency

Over and under


frequency 81H/81L
Undervoltage 27
overvoltage 59

Active power return


Unbalance

Mechanical risk
for turbine + rotor
temperature rise

32P, 46

Block 5 ELECTRICAL NETWORKS PROTECTIONS 5.7

Slide 16

Institut
Schneider
Formation

Generators protection
Applications Examples

Electrical Distribution for maintenance engineer

Block 5 ELECTRICAL NETWORKS PROTECTIONS 5.7

Slide 17

Institut
Schneider
Formation

Capacitor protection
Faults

Impacts

Capacitor element
internal shortcircuit

Reduction in
capacity
unbalance
between 2 stars

Thermal overload
49RMS
Max. reverse
component 46
Specific

Short-circuit in the
connections

Destruction of
connections
and capacitors

Overcurrent
50/51
Thermal overload
49RMS
Max. reverse
component 46

(overpressure in
sealed tank, leakage
of dielectric liquid)

Frame fault
Without or with internal fuses

Destruction of
capacitors
(overpressure in
sealed tank, leakage
of dielectric liquid)
Unbalance

Surge

Electrical Distribution for maintenance engineer

Protections

Destruction of
insulation

Block 5 ELECTRICAL NETWORKS PROTECTIONS 5.7

Max. Io 50N/51N
Residual
overvoltage 59N
Max. reverse
component 46

Overvoltage 59

Slide 18

Institut
Schneider
Formation

Capacitors protection
Applications Examples

Electrical Distribution for maintenance engineer

Block 5 ELECTRICAL NETWORKS PROTECTIONS 5.7

Slide 19

Institut
Schneider
Formation

The protection guide


will provide you with more details
Networks
Earthing systems
Isc
Sensors
Protection functions
Selectivity
http://www.schneider-electric.com
search: Protection guide

Electrical Distribution for maintenance engineer

Network protection

Block 5 ELECTRICAL NETWORKS PROTECTIONS 5.7

Slide 20

Institut
Schneider
Formation