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Chevron 2009

Work at Height

Awareness Plus

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Chevron 2009

Training Objectives
To explain the type of work which may constitute
Work at Height.
To understand what controls should be in place
when work is performed at height.
To understand the basic principles of ladder safety.
To provide details on where additional information
can be obtained.

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Chevron 2009

Work at Height
Work at height is any work activity that is
performed where the work is to be performed
at a height of 2 meters (6 ft.) or higher.
Work at height hazards can occur during a
number of work tasks, such as:
Daily operations (e.g. manually gauging (dipping) of
bulk storage tanks)
Routine maintenance or repair work (e.g.
maintaining tank pressure/vacuum vents, cleaning
building windows, work on overhead pipelines, etc.)
Non-routine tasks (e.g. replacing warehouse roofing,
installing or replacing signage)

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Chevron 2009

Falls from Height


Falls from height are the most common cause
of fatal injury and the second most common
cause of major injury to personnel.
All industry sectors are exposed to the risks
presented by this hazard although the level of
incidence varies considerably.

Source;

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http://www.hse.gov.uk/falls/index.htm

Chevron 2009

Potential of falls can be present


On:

Ladders and stairways


Elevated platforms
Top of Trucks or Rail Cars
Portable ramps

During:

Scaffold installation or its removal


Construction work
Inspection of process equipment and
other mechanisms
Personnel rescue
Confined space entry
During excavation work when the
depth is greater than 2 meters
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Chevron 2009

Falls from Height


Experience shows that these events usually
arise due to poor management control rather
than because of equipment failure.
Common factors include, but are not limited
to:
Failure to recognize a problem.
Failure to have adequate safe work practice
procedures in place
Failure to follow safe work practices.
Failure to provide safe systems of work.
Inadequate information, instruction,
training or supervision provided.
Failure to use appropriate equipment.
Failure to provide safe plant/equipment.
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Chevron 2009

Controlling Height Hazards


The most effective form of fall protection is fixed
protection designed into the original facility.
Means to design out work at height hazards include:
Placing equipment that requires regular maintenance
or repair at ground level.
Providing adequate access and work platforms, where
work is required to be performed at height.
Ensuring all accessways, ladders, platforms, and
handrails conform to acceptable design criteria.
Restricting unauthorized access to elevated work
areas.

Check with the clients Safety Personnel to verify job


site specific fall protection requirements.

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Chevron 2009

2 Types of Fall Protection


Systems:
Passive systems
Active systems

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Chevron 2009

Passive Systems
A passive fall protection system is one
which is built into the facility.
Passive systems may include:
Ladders and stairs
Guardrails
Handrails
Access platforms
Barricading
Gangways
Ramps

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Chevron 2009

Active Systems
Active fall protection
systems can be either fall
restraint or fall arrest
systems.

Active fall protection


systems are required when
passive fall protection is
not enough or unavailable.

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Chevron 2009

Examples of Work at Height


The following are some typical examples of tasks
that may involve work at height that occur at
facilities, but is not an all inclusive list:
Construction or demolition work.
Roof work, including cleaning, replacement, or
maintenance.
Work performed in man baskets.
Work with hoists.
Working on scaffolds.
Work on bulk storage tank roofs.
Changing light bulbs when at or above 2 meter
high.
Tanker truck inspections.
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Chevron 2009

Access and Egress


A safe means of access and egress should
be provided to work areas.
Where regular access is required, steps,
fixed ladders, platforms and walkways
should be provided.
Where access is on an irregular basis
portable ladders or suitable mechanical
plant, such as a scissor lift or power
operated elevated platform, may be
acceptable.
Suitable access should take into account
environmental conditions such as weather
and lighting, as well as what people may
need to carry and other relevant factors.
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Chevron 2009

Work on top of Trucks


Serious injuries may result from falls from
the top of tank trucks, or other large trucks.
Where access to the top of trucks is required
a safe means of access should be provided.
This may include:
Provision of steps, permanent access ways,
walkways and guardrails.
Provision of non-slip walkways along the tank
truck top.
Provision of fall protection anchor points to
tie-off a safety harness.

Provision of fall protection should be


considered at both the loading and delivery
locations if access to the truck top is
required at both locations.
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Work on Truck Tops cont.


Where practicable the work should be designed so
as much work as possible can be performed at
ground level.
Prior to working on top of a tank truck the area
should be checked to ensure there are no overhead
power lines in the vicinity
A minimum of 4 meters (12 ft) safe distance must be
maintained between the person and the overhead power
lines at all times.

NOTE Should utilize full body harness, not waist belt only
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Chevron 2009

Work on Rooftops
Rooftop work may be one of the more dangerous
work at height tasks, as rooftops are not typically
designed with any fall protection system.
Where regular rooftop access is required
consideration should be given to installing
permanent access-ways and platforms or, where
this is not feasible, installing an anchor system
for securing safety harnesses.
Care must be taken on rooftops for unsafe areas.
These may often not be visible due to dirt, or
being painted over, and may include:
Brittle roofing material such as aged asbestos,
compressed fiber board, or corroded roofing iron.
Roof sky lights (these may not be visible if painted
over)
Deteriorated roof support structures.
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Chevron 2009

Work on Bulk Storage Tanks


A number of routine operations at a terminal or
depot facility may require access to the bulk tank
roof. The following safety precautions should be
observed when working on tank roofs:
Ensure the tank roof is structurally sound and can
be safely walked on.
If the roof is not fitted with guardrails wear
suitable fall protection.
Where designated walkways are indicated, only
walk on the designated walkway areas
(designated walkways on tank roofs should be
demarcated with non-slip paint).
Minimize the time required to work on the roof by
pre-planning tasks before accessing the roof.
Always hold the handrail when climbing and
ascending the tank stairs.
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Chevron 2009

Permanent Fixed Access and


Platforms
Permanently installed steps, stairs, ramps etc. shall
comply with all relevant local regulatory requirements,
and with the requirements of Chevrons Safety in
Designs manual.
Any stairway or platform more than 1.2 meters (4ft.)
above ground level should have guardrails fitted to
prevent falls.
Guardrails should be 0.9 1.1 meters (42 3) high,
and have a center rail fitted.
Guardrails must be able to withstand at least a 90 kg
(200 lb) force applied within 5 cm (2) of the top edge.
Where a platform is located above a work area, or area
where persons may pass, a toe-board or kickboard
should be fitted.
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Chevron 2009

Portable Ladder Safety


Whenever using a portable ladder the
following safeguards should be followed:
Use only on stable and level surfaces.
Do not use on slippery surfaces
unless adequately secured.
Keep the area around the base and
top of the ladder clear.
Use the ladder only for the purpose it
was designed and intended for.
Do not use the top of the ladder as a
step.
Do not move, shift, or extend a
ladder while it is occupied.
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Chevron 2009

Portable Ladder Safety cont.


Only use non-conductive ladders when
working around live power lines (e.g.
wooden).
Ladders should be placed at an angle of
approximately 1 in 4 (i.e. for every 4 meters
height, place 1 meter from the wall).

When ascending a ladder always:


Face the ladder.
Maintain 3 points of contact (one hand and two
feet, or two hands, one foot).

Do not carry onto a ladder any object or


load which may cause you to lose your
balance (tools or equipment to be taken up may be
roped up once up the ladder).
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Chevron 2009

Portable Ladder Safety cont.


For non self supporting ladders ensure:
The top of the ladder should extend 1 meter (3
ft.) past the step off point.
The ladder must be secured against movement
while in use.
While in use a second person should foot the
ladder and it should be tied off at the top.

Check the condition of the ladder before


use.
Before using a ladder always ask yourself
is a ladder the safest and best work
method to perform this task?

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Chevron 2009

Fall Arrest Systems


Where a person is required to work
more than 2 meters (6 ft.) above
ground level and no fixed fall protection,
such as guardrails, are installed then it
may be necessary to utilize a safety
harness.
The following are some of the basic
requirements around the use of safety
lines and harnesses:
Only full body harnesses should
be used (safety belts can cause fatal
injuries in fall situations)

Persons using a safety harness


shall be trained in the correct use
or adequately supervised.
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Chevron 2009

Fall Arrest Systems cont.


A shock absorbing lanyard
should be used whenever there
is potential to fall more than 4
meters (12 ft.).
The safety lines must be
secured to a structurally sound
anchor capable of withstanding
a minimum load of 22 kN (5000
lbs.) tensile force.
Safety lines must be capable of
being attached when still at
ground level (or on a safe
platform) this may require special
attention in the case of inertia lock
retractable lanyards.
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Chevron 2009

Fall Arrest Systems cont.


Safety lines, including an
allowance for the shock
absorbing lanyard if fitted, must
be shorter than the length of
the fall.
An emergency rescue plan must
be in place to ensure the rapid
recovery of anyone who falls
while using a safety harness.
A minimum of two people
should be present when using
fall arrest systems to ensure a
timely rescue.
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Chevron 2009

Scaffolding
All scaffolding shall be installed in
accordance with local regulations
and standards.
Scaffolding must be installed by a
competent person and inspected
prior to use. The inspection shall
include:

The surface on which the scaffold is


assembled is stable.
Guardrails & working platforms are in
place on all areas in use.
Safe access is provided to all platforms.
Sufficient scaffold ties and braces are in
place.
All load-bearing supports are in the
correct place and secured using the
correct fittings.
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Chevron 2009

Scaffolding
from previous slide
Working platforms are fully decked
with no gaps, and planks are
secured against movement.
Perimeter protection or guardrails
are correctly fitted.
Any scaffold poles protruding below
2 meters (6ft.) height above grade
have suitable end caps fitted.

Regular ongoing inspections


should be scheduled where
scaffolding is in place for more
than one week (to ensure no
unauthorized modifications)

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Chevron 2009

Mechanical Plant
There is a wide range of mechanical plant
available to perform elevated work tasks from.
These include

Power operated elevating work platforms


Forklift platforms
Crane lift platforms

Mechanical platforms must not travel with a


person in the bucket unless specifically designed
to do so.
Climbing into and out of platforms should only
occur at ground level whenever possible.

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Chevron 2009

Mechanical Plant cont.


When working in an elevated bucket a
fall protection harness suitably anchored
to the bucket, should be worn (note
harnesses are not required on elevated work
platforms (scissor lifts) if adequate guardrails are
fitted)

Mechanical buckets and platforms shall


only be operated by suitably trained and
qualified personnel.

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Chevron 2009

Forklift Platforms
It is vital that any forklift platform is
properly constructed and only used on
forklifts that have been well maintained.
Minimum requirements for forklift
platforms include:
Platforms shall be fitted with guardrails, mid
rails and kickboards.
Any gate on the platform should open inwards.
A 2 meter (6 ft.) high guard that is sufficiently
wide to prevent any contact with the lifting
mechanism shall be fitted to the back of the
platform.
..continued on next slide

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Chevron 2009

Forklift Platforms
from previous slide
The tilt lever of the forklift should be
locked out or made inoperable.
Operating instructions and the safe
working load of the platform must be
attached in a prominent position.
The platform must be secured to the
forks so it can not slide.
There must be an agreed signaling
system used to denote movement of
the hoist.
The forklift operator must be
competent and remain at the forklift
controls at all times the platform is
in use.
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Chevron 2009

Work at Height
Additional Information
For additional details on Work at Height
requirements refer to:
The Work at Height Safety Bulletin
Your Companys operating procedures
Your Safety Officer
The clients Safety Department

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