Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 17

Basic Electronics

Lab 1

Application of Electronics
Rectification. The conversion of a.c. into d.c. is called rectification.
Electronic devices can convert a.c. power into d.c. power.
Amplification. The process of raising the strength of a weak signal is
known as amplification.
Control. Electronic devices find wide applications in automatic control.
For example, speed of a motor, voltage across a refrigerator.
Generation. Electronic devices can convert d.c. power into a.c. power
of any frequency. When performing this function, they are known as
oscillators.
Conversion of light into electricity. Electronic devices can convert
light into electricity. This conversion of light into electricity is known as
photo-electricity. Photo-electric devices are used in Burglar alarms,
sound recording on motion pictures etc.
Conversion of electricity into light. Electronic devices can convert
electricity into light. This valuable property is utilized in television and
radar.

Most Common Electronic


Components
Electronic components are categorized as
being active or passive. Both are generally
used together to form complete circuits in all
types of electronic equipment.
Active components are capable of rectifying,
amplifying or changing energy from one form
to another. E.g: diodes, transistors, vacuum
tubes.
Passive components can control energy, but
they cannot modify it. E.g: Resistors, Capacitors
and inductors.

Passive Components
1. Resistor:
. Resistors are perhaps the most common component
is electronic circuit.
. The main function is to limit the flow of current or
reduce voltage in a circuit.
. Different types of resistor may be fixed or variable.
. Some fixed resistors are color coded to indicate their
resistance value, while others have their resistance
values printed on the body.
. Resistance is the measure of the degree to which a
conductor opposes an electric current through that
conductor. It is measured in ohms

Fixed and variable Resistors


Type

Schematic
Symbol

Limits current
and reduces
voltage.

Fixed

Variable

Notes

Potentiometer

- Has three
external
connections
- Varies
Voltage.

Rheostat

- Has two
external
connections
- Varies
Current.

Fixed Resistor

The temperature coefficient band specifies the maximum change in resistance with change in
temperature, measured in parts per million per degree Centigrade (ppm/C).
20% tolerance value when no color has been defined except than the above mentioned.

Variable Resistors
Type
Potentiometersare
variable resistors that
feature an adjustable
knob or dial used to
change the location of
the output contact.By
varying the output
contact, users can vary
theresistance of the
device, effectively
controlling circuit
potential levels.
Rheostatsaretwo-terminal
variableresistorswhich
functionsimilarlyto
potentiometers.Athreeterminalpotentiometercan
beusedasarheostat,with
thethirdterminalleft
unconnected.

Symbol

Picture

Passive Components
2. Capacitor:
A capacitor is a component that is able to hold or
store an electric charge.
It consists of 2 metal plates separated by an
insulator.
It blocks direct current and pass alternating current.
Capacitance is the ability of a body to store an
electrical charge. A material with a large
capacitance holds more electric charge at a given
voltage, than one with low capacitance. The basic
unit of capacitance is farad (F).

CAPACITORS
Type
Fixed

Electrolytic

Variable

Schematic Symbol

Notes
- Stores electric
charge.
- Blocks dc, passes
ac.
- Has large
capacitance
- Must be connected
with proper
polarity.
- Fixed values only
Used for tuning
radios, TVs, and
other electronic
communications
equipment.

CAPACITORS

Passive Components
3. Inductor:
Its physical construction is simply a coil of wire.
And often called coils.
They are opposite of capacitors in that they are
able to pass a dc current and blocks ac current.
Inductanceis the property of an electrical
conductor by which a change in current flowing
through it induces an electromotive force in both
the conductor itself and in any nearby
conductors. It is measured in Henry (H).

Inductor
Type

Schematic Symbol

Notes

Air

- Induce voltage
when current
changes.
- Passes dc and
limits ac.

Iron Core

- Use for low


frequency.

Variable

- Used for tuning


radios, TVs and
other electronic
communication
equipment .

Inductors

Variable Inductor

Active Component
1. Diode:
. A diode is an electronic component
which allows current to flow through
it in one direction.
. It changes ac voltage to pulsating dc.

2. Transistor
An electronic component that can be
used to amplify small ac signals or
switch to dc voltage

BJT
Transistor

FET
Transistor

Tools of Trade
Digital Multimeter: A DMM is used to
measure voltage, current or resistance in
electronic circuit.
Oscilloscope: A test equipment that is
used to measured ac waveforms.
Power Supply: Supply dc voltage or
current to electronic equipment.
Function Generator: Produce a number
of different output waveforms. Used for
troubleshooting electronic equipment.

Circuit
Interconnection of electrical or
electronic components.
Circuit boards:
1. Breadboard
2. Vero board