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Chapter 1 - Introduction

Leadership
Chapter 1 - Introduction
Northouse, 4th edition

Chapter 1 - Introduction

Overview
Conceptualizing Leadership
Leadership Definition
Components of the Definition
Followers & Leadership

Chapter 1 - Introduction

Conceptualizing Leadership
Some definitions view leadership as:
The focus of group processes
A personality perspective
An act or behavior
In terms of the power relationship
between leaders & followers
An instrument of goal achievement
A skills perspective

Chapter 1 - Introduction

Leadership Defined

Leadership
is a process whereby an
individual influences a group of
individuals to achieve a
common goal.

Chapter 1 - Introduction

Components Central to the


Phenomenon of Leadership
Leadershi
p Is a process

Involves influence
Occurs within a group context
Involves goal attainment

Leaders
Are not above followers
Are not better than followers
Rather, an interactive relationship with followers

Chapter 1 - Introduction

LEADERSHIP
DESCRIBED
Trait vs. Process Leadership
Assigned vs. Emergent Leadership
Leadership & Power
Leadership & Coercion
Leadership & Management

Chapter 1 - Introduction

Trait vs. Process Leadership


Trait definition of leadership:
Certain individuals
have special innate
or inborn
characteristics or
qualities that
differentiate them
from nonleaders.
Resides in select
people
Restricted to those
with inborn talent

LEADER
Leadership

Height
Intelligence
Extroversion
Fluency
Other Traits

FOLLOWERS

Chapter 1 - Introduction

Trait vs. Process Leadership


The process definition of Leadership:
Leadership is a
property or set of
properties possessed
in varying degrees by
different people (Jago,
1982).
Observed in leadership
behaviors
Can be learned

LEADER
Leadership
(Interaction)

FOLLOWERS

Chapter 1 - Introduction

Assigned vs. Emergent Leadership


Assigned

Leadership based
on occupying a
position within an
organization

Team leaders
Plant managers
Department heads
Directors

Emergent
An individual perceived by
others as the most influential
member of a group or
organization regardless of the
individuals title
Emerges over time through
communication behaviors
Verbal involvement
Being informed
Seek others opinions
Being firm but not rigid

Chapter 1 - Introduction

Leadership & Power


Power

The capacity or
potential to influence.
Ability to affect others
beliefs, attitudes &
actions

Bases of Social Power


French & Raven
(1959)

Referent
Expert

Legitimate
Reward

Power is a relational
concern for both leaders
and followers.

Coercive

Chapter 1 - Introduction

Leadership & Power


Five
Five
Bases
Bases
of
of
Power
Power

Chapter 1 - Introduction

Leadership & Power

Five
Five Bases
Bases of
of Power
Power
REFERENT POWER Based on followers identification
and liking for the leader.
ex. A schoolteacher who is adored by her students has referent
power.

EXPERT POWER Based on followers perceptions of


the leaders competence.
ex. A tour guide who is knowledgeable about a foreign country
has expert power.

LEGITIMATE POWER Associated with having status or


formal job authority.
ex. A judge who administers sentences in the courtroom exhibits
legitimate power

Chapter 1 - Introduction

Leadership & Power


Five
Five Bases
Bases of
of Power
Power
REWARD POWER Derived from having the capacity to
provide rewards to others.
ex. A supervisor who gives rewards to employees who work hard
is using reward power.

COERCIVE POWER Derived from having the capacity


to penalize or punish others.
ex. A coach who sits players on the bench for being late to
practice is using coercive power.

Chapter 1 - Introduction

Leadership & Power


Types and Bases of Power
Position Power
Power derived from
office or rank in an
organization
Legitimate
Reward
Coercive

Personal Power

Power is
influence derived
from being seen
as likable &
knowledgeable
Referent
Expert

Chapter 1 - Introduction

Leadership & Coercion


Coercion
Involves
Use of force to effect
change
Influencing others to do
something via
manipulation of rewards
and penalties in the
work environment
Use of threats,
punishments, &
negative rewards

Examples of Coercive
Leaders

Adolf Hitler
Jim Jones
David Koresh
Power & restraint
used to force
followers to
engage in extreme
behavior

Chapter 1 - Introduction

Leadership & Management


Kotter (1990)
Management
Activities
Produces order
and consistency

Leadership
Activities
Produces change
and movement

Planning & Budgeting

Establishing direction

Organizing & Staffing

Aligning people

Controlling & Problem Solving

Motivating / Inspiring

Major activities of management & leadership


are played out differently; BUT, both are essential
for an organization to prosper.

Leadership & Management

Chapter 1 - Introduction

Kotter (1990)

Major activities
of management
and leadership
are played out
differently;
BUT, both are
essential for an
organization to
prosper.

Chapter 1 - Introduction

Leadership & Management


Zaleznik (1977)
Managers

Leaders

Unidirectional Authority

Multidirectional Influence

Are reactive
Prefer to work with
people on problem
solving
Low emotional
involvement

Are emotionally active


& involved
Shape ideas over
responding to them
Act to expand
available options
Change the way people
think about what is
possible