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LECTUR

E-3

PROJECT
HUMAN RESOURCE
AND
COMMUNICATION
MANAGEMENT

Malik Bashir Ahmad

MOTIVATION
THEORIES
(What People Really
Want)
[Ref: PMBoK 5th Edition (C) Project
Management Institute, USA]

Keys to Managing People


Psychologists and management theorists have
devoted much research and thought to the field of
managing people at work.
Important areas related to project management
include:
Motivation theories
Influence and power
Effectiveness
3

[Ref: PMBoK 5th Edition (C) Project


Management Institute, USA]

Expectancy Theory
Employees who believe their
efforts will lead to effective
performance and who expect
to be rewarded for their
accomplishments will remain
productive as reward meet
their expectation
[Ref: PMBoK 5th Edition (C) Project
Management Institute, USA]

Intrinsic and Extrinsic


Motivation
Intrinsic motivation causes people to
participate in an activity for their own
enjoyment
Extrinsic motivation causes people to do
something for a reward or to avoid a penalty
For example, I take piano lessons for intrinsic
motivation (I enjoy it) while others take them
for extrinsic motivation (to get a reward)
5

[Ref: PMBoK 5th Edition (C) Project


Management Institute, USA]

Motivation Theories
Motivation Theories = What People Really
Want
Relate how to motivate people
Rewards is one big motivator
Rewards have to aligned with what people want

Four Main Theories

McGregors Theory of X and Y


Maslows Hierarchy of Needs
David McClellands Theory of Needs
Herzbergs Theory
[Ref: PMBoK 5th Edition (C) Project
Management Institute, USA]

Maslows Hierarchy of
Needs
Abraham Maslow argued that
human beings possess unique
qualities that enable them to make
independent choices, thus giving
them control of their destiny
Maslow developed a hierarchy of
needs, which states that peoples
behaviors are guided or motivated by
a sequence of needs
7

[Ref: PMBoK 5th Edition (C) Project


Management Institute, USA]

Maslows Hierarchy of
Needs
People are not motivated most by
money or security. Instead, they are
most motivated by contributing and
using their skills
One cannot ascend to a next level,
unless the level below is fulfilled

[Ref: PMBoK 5th Edition (C) Project


Management Institute, USA]

Maslows Hierarchy of Needs


(Contd...)

A satisfied need is no longer a


motivator
[Ref: PMBoK 5th Edition (C) Project
Management Institute, USA]

Maslows Hierarchy of Needs


(Contd...)

[Ref: PMBoK 5th Edition (C) Project


Management Institute, USA]

10

Douglas McGregors Theory of X & Y


(1960)
All people fit into either of the two groups, X and Y
Theory X Managers Believe:
People need to be watched all the time.
Employees are incapable, avoid responsibility, and avoid work
wherever possible

Theory Y Managers Believe:


People are willing to work without supervision
People want to achieve
Employees can direct their own efforts

PMIs belief: Theory Y


[Ref: PMBoK 5th Edition (C) Project
Management Institute, USA]

11

David McClellands Theory of


Needs
People are most motivated by one of
the three needs:
Achievement
Affiliation
Power

People falling in different categories


need to be managed differently
[Ref: PMBoK 5th Edition (C) Project
Management Institute, USA]

12

David McClellands Theory of


Needs (Contd)

[Ref: PMBoK 5th Edition (C) Project


Management Institute, USA]

13

Herzbergs Theory
Deals with hygiene factors and motivating agents
Hygiene Factors

Poor hygiene factors may destroy motivation, but improving them,


under most circumstances, will not improve motivation

Examples:

Working conditions
Salary
Personal life
Relationships at work
Security
Status

-These factors cause dissatisfaction if not present but dont motivate


workers to do more
[Ref: PMBoK 5th Edition (C) Project
Management Institute, USA]

14

Herzbergs Theory
(Contd)
Motivating Agents
What motivates people is the work itself
Examples:

Responsibility
Self-Actualization
Professional growth
Recognition

-These factors produce job satisfaction


[Ref: PMBoK 5th Edition (C) Project
Management Institute, USA]

15

Powers of Project
Manager
Formal (legitimate)
Based on position

Reward
Stems from giving rewards

Penalty (coercive)
Comes from ability to penalize team members

Expert
Comes from being the technical or project
management expert

Referent
Comes from another person liking you
[Ref: PMBoK 5th Edition (C) Project
Management Institute, USA]

Powers of Project
Manager
The best forms of power are EXPERT
& REWARD
PENALTY is the worst choice
FORMAL, REWARD, and PENALTY are
powers derived from the project
managers position in the company
EXPERT power is earned on your own

[Ref: PMBoK 5th Edition (C) Project


Management Institute, USA]

Break
[Ref: PMBoK 5th Edition (C) Project
Management Institute, USA]