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American Sectionalism

and Internal

What is sectionalism?

Sectionalism loyalty to the interests of

ones region (section) of the country as
opposed to nationwide interests
Issue of sectional differences not new:
consider conflicts between big states and
small states in the early years of the Republic
In the 19th century, sectional differences
between North and South became a major
source of conflict

Money Money Money

Tensions stemmed primarily from the economic differences that existed between
each region

Type of Economy/labor

Regional desires



Protective tariffs, improvements

in transportation systems



Protection of slavery, no trade




Cheap land, better


How do you think their different desires might raise problems?

Roots of sectional conflict

While economic differences were at the heart of

sectional tensions, they tended to play out in
debates over five key issues:

States rights
Internal improvements

These issues became even more important as

Americans tried to figure out what to do with land
they had gained in the 1840s

Slavery and Representation

Debates involving slavery and representation

in government dates back to the Constitution
In the 1800s, the issue of representation
shifts from whether or not to allow slavery in
new states to the concept of slave states
versus free states in Congress
Much more about tension over slavery later

The Tariff of Abominations


Tariff = a tax added to the

cost of goods imported from
another country (see page
Northern states tended to
support protective tariffs,
but the South did not
Differing opinions over the
tariff issue ultimately led to
conflict in 1828 with the
passing of the Tariff of

Nullification Crisis


Leading state against the tariff:

South Carolina

To John C. Calhoun comes up with

the doctrine of nullification, which
asserted that a state has the right
to reject a federal law deemed

The Challenge of States

Rights [review]

At the heart of Calhouns ideas was the

concept of states rights vs federal control
Major debate emerges in U.S. Senate do
individual states have the right to nullify a law?

Senators Webster (MA) and Hayne (SC) represent

the two major sides of the debate

people, not the states, make up the Union,
therefore nullification is unlawful
nullification gives the states a lawful way to
maintain a balance of power with the federal government

Where does sectionalism play a role?

Nullification and Secession

Although Jackson tries to address SCs

concerns, the crisis almost leads to military
confrontation when South Carolina threatens
to secede
Violence is averted with a compromise by
Henry Clay, but this is not the last time South
Carolina will threaten the Union with

Industrial Revolution

the process by which machines replace hand

new sources of power replaced human and
animal power
factories need to be near a water source for
power and transportation
towns grew around factories

The Textile Mills

Samuel Slater is considered the Father of

the Industrial Revolution

he was born in England and worked in the textile

industry [the design and making of clothing]
he learned everything he could about the factories
and the machines that made the cloth
he smuggled the designs out of England and
brought them to the U.S.

it was illegal to leave the country if you were in

manufacturing because England did not want

The Textile Mills

Slater sold his plans

to a business man in
Rhode Island
the first factory in
America was built in
1793 in Pawtucket,
the idea spread
quickly and soon
there were factories
all over the East and

Cotton Gin

Eli Whitney graduated from

Yale and went to live with a
relative in Georgia
as he watched the cotton being
picked he realized there was an
easier way
he invented a box that would
turn the cotton with hooks and
through a mesh that would
separate the seeds
this allowed the slaves to
drastically increase their
production of cotton
Slavery expanded and slaves
became more valuable

Interchangeable Parts

Eli Whitney

he signed a contract with the government to produce 10,000

muskets within 2 years
he realized it was much easier and cheaper with
interchangeable parts

parts would be interchangeable

this meant that if a part broke it could be taken apart and

fixed with a new part rather than replacing the whole machine
this was done more cheaply, easily, and in a short amount of
less skill was required to produce goods, lower paid jobs
replaced skilled craftsmen

Lowell Mills

these mill towns were created by Francis Cabot Lowell

he created a system of factories that employed women
and children
they would also live near the factories in dormitories
many women loved the idea because it was the first
opportunity they had to work outside of the home
many people saw it as a form of low-wage slavery
there were often accidents and deaths caused by unsafe
working conditions
this was the first sign of the emerging Industrial

Lowell Mills

Steam Power

James Watt perfected a steam engine in

1781 that could produced continuous rotary
this allowed for spinning mules [turns cotton
into yarn] and power looms [took the yarn
and made into cloth]
these two machines allowed for much larger
scale production in the textile mills

Steam Power

the steam engine allowed large machines to move

the steamboat was able to move up and the
Mississippi River faster than flatboats (this
allowed for cheaper transportation of more goods)

This also allowed factories to be built anywhere (not

just by a water source
Steam engines powered the first train across

Mechanical Reaper

harvesting crops had always been done by

hand with sickles and other small tools
Cyrus McCormick created a larger version of
the blades that quickly cut through stalks of
grain while being pulled by a work animal
this invention led to the ability to harvest
many more fieldsa whole acre in one hour
more fields were planted which led to more
crops yielded

The Steel Plow

John Deere invented the first steel-tipped


This invention allowed farmers to cultivate hard

packed soil in less time
These plows could now be pulled by animals
allowing the farmer to plow more land in a faster
period of time

Effects of Industrialization

harsh working conditions for factory workers

12 hour days, 6 days a week

low wages
unsafe conditions
child labor with children as young as 6 and 7
breaks were short if they were given at all
hot and crowded

Effects of Industrialization


many people left rural farms and moved to cities

cities became overcrowded, unsanitary, and

Changes in Lifestyle

family members left home to earn money

womens roles changed because they worked
outside of the home for wages
having a wife who did not work became a sign of

Internal Improvements

War of 1812 and the embargos leading up to it

interrupted Americas supply of imported goods,
especially from Britain
After the war, Britain started dumping their goods on
American markets, hurting Americas new industries
Internal improvements were to help America become
more self-sufficient
As factories popped up all over they needed roads,
canals, and bridges to transport their goods to markets
This was part of the American System that also included
protective tariffs and a national bank

Public vs. Private

In 1800, the United States covered a large area, but most of the
population was located in cities in the east
The vast expanses of wilderness made transportation difficult in the
time before railroads
Before the War of 1812, the federal government considered
constructing a system of roads and canals to promote economic
growth and help move soldiers and supplies to defend the country.
These improvements would have been funded by the protective
During the War of 1812 the plan was abandoned, but it was
reintroduced to Congress in 1817. The bill passed by a bare
it was vetoed by President James Madison who said that it was not
the place of the federal government to build a transportation network
so the states began to buildand the problems began


system in which the factors of

production are privately owned and money is
invested in business ventures to make a profit

markets where buyers and sellers of

goods and services agreed on prices (competition
between businesses offers the consumer more
choices and better prices)


Individuals and businesses own property and the

means of production
Businesses follow their own self interest by
competing for the consumers money. Each
business tried to produce goods or services that
are better and less expensive then those of
Government should not interfere in the economy
because competition create efficiency in business.
Large scale projects such as internal
improvements require large investments of capital

Effects of Capitalism

The connection is that it:

Led to investing in factories

Led to increased production and higher demands
for raw materials
Led to world wide trade
Led to new inventions and new innovations
Led to changes in transportation, agriculture, and

The National Road

The National Road

The National Road began as the Cumberland Road, a

short route connecting Maryland and Virginia.
The National Road led to the development of Main
Street, USA
allowed for regular transportation routes to be
allowed for new goods and services to be brought to
the western frontier
thousands of new western settlers
The road ran in a east/west direction


a series of manmade waterways that connect

larger bodies of water
as more people settled in the West, it was clear
that the road was not always the best way to
get goods to market
flatboats were used, but they were very slow
there were three canals in the South prior to the
War of 1812
the Erie Canal would soon become the most
profitable and useful canal

The Erie Canal

Erie Canal

were financed by individual investors or the

purchase of bonds (private money)
created many jobs especially with the digging phase
the cost of moving one ton of goods to market
across New York went from $125 to $4
created many new industrial cities like Syracuse,
Rochester, and Cleveland
cost about $7 million but the tolls collected had that
paid off in ten years
connected farmers and goods from New Orleans to
the East coast

Erie Canal

the process of digging was much harder and more

expensive than thoughtrocks and no power tools
the canal often cut across farms, dividing the land
with no bridge built to help farmers get from one
side to another
many trees were cut down
the canal often flooded which then flooded the
nearby farms
the noise and commotion were not like by the
locals who had settled for a quiet life


the U.S. adopted the British steam engine

technology and began to build long rail lines
to increase transportation of goods and
the first railroads were in the South but they
were short and used only to connect the
cotton trade with the port cities
the Baltimore and Ohio [B&O] was completed
in 1830 and was the first to transport people


the government then began to grant land in

the western U.S. to build more railroads
the RR companies then sold bonds to
investors to subsidize the building
a railroad from Council Bluffs, Iowa, to San
Francisco was created: Trans Continental RR
this would connect the eastern rails to the
West coast

Trans Continental Railroad


the Union Pacific began building from the

eastern end and the Central Pacific began from
San Francisco
they met at Promontory Point, Utah
it would eventually cost about $100,000,000
was 1,776 miles long
the nation was truly connected
the UP used Civil War vets and Irish immigrants
the CP used over 14,000 Chinese immigrants

Trans Continental Railroad


many workers killed due to harsh conditions

many Native Americans were displaced or killed
as progress came to the West
the buffalo were slaughtered to protect the rails
diseases were spread faster
political corruption among the builders
racism was rampant in the Central Pacific build

Trans Continental Railroad


the journey from East to West now took about

9 days compared to 6 months by coach
new technologies emerged like the Bessemer
process which allowed for the mass
production of steel
cheaper transportation costs for businesses
many new depot cities emerged in the West

many immigrants that were threatened in

the East moved to the West

What do these improvements

have to do with
the creation of roads, canals, and railroads

led to a greater divide between the North and

West and the South
most of the improvements were in the North
and the West
the South was very upset that the tariff
money was going to support the other
sections of the U.S. and not theirs