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Hereby, I would like to take this great
opportunity to express most sincere thanks to
the people who helped me through the whole
course in smk Derma. This website may not
be finished without the assistant of their
useful help and advised.
First of all, I would like to take this opportunity
to present my gratitude to my teacher Mr.
Zulkhairi Man , who is also my science
teacher. He has been very helpful in leading
me to develop the project according to
schedule and planning.

Thanks for her concern and invaluable guidance

through out the period of my studies that lead to
the success of the project.
I would also like to express my profound thanks to
my friends to their helps, ideas and support.
Finally, I would like to extend my gratitude to my
lovely family member for all there support,
understanding and advise throughout all these

$Water has unique physical properties.

$Pure water is a colorless, odorless and
tasteless liquid.
$Water is neutral to litmus paper.
$When water is cooled to a certain
temperature, it freezes and becomes ice.
Ice is water in a solid state.
$The density of pure water is 1g/cm at

$Water is neutral to litmus paper.

$Water turn white anhydrous copper() sulphate blue.
$water turns blue cobalt chloride paper pale pink.

Water has a high specific heat. Specific heat is the

amount of energy required to change the temperature
of a substance. Because water has a high specific heat,
it can absorb large amounts of heat energy before it
begins to get hot. It also means that water releases
heat energy slowly when situations cause it to cool.
Water's high specific heat allows for the moderation of
the Earth's climate and helps organisms regulate their
body temperature more effectively.

Water in a pure state has a neutral pH. As a

result, pure water is neither acidic nor basic.
Water changes its pH when substances are
dissolved in it. Rain has a naturally acidic pH of
about 5.6 because it contains natural derived
carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide.

Figure 8a-1: The atomic structure of a water molecule consists of two hydrogen (H) atoms joined to
one oxygen (O) atom. The unique way in which the hydrogen atoms are attached to the oxygen atom
causes one side of the molecule to have a negative charge and the area in the opposite direction to
have a positive charge. The resulting polarity of charge causes molecules of water to be attracted to
each other forming strong molecular bonds.


#The temperature at which water becomes ice under

atmospheric pressure is called the freezing point of
#The arrangement and movement of the water particles are
different for each state.
#The particles in water are not arranged in a regular
pattern. They are free to move past each other.


#When water is cooled, heat energy leaves the water until

reaches the freezing point. Energy leaving the water
causes the particles to slow down.
#The particles arranges themselves into a solid and are
held together tightly.
#When enough heat is released from the water, the
particles will only vibrate about a fixed point.




The temperature when pure water boils and changes to

steam under atmospheric pressure is called the boiling
point of water.
When water is boiling, heat energy is absorbed by the
This causes the particles in the water to move quickly
and freely.


When enough heat is absorbed, water changes to steam

at the boiling point. The temperature stops increasing
until all the water has becomes gas.




Ice which contains dissolved substances will have a

lower freezing point compared to pure water.
Water which contains dissolved substances boils at
temperature higher than 100C. This is why sea water
boils at temperature greater than 100C
Impurities in water increase the density of water.


Pure water freezes at 0C.
Water containing impurities (example salt freezes at a
temperature below 0C.
Pure water boils at temperature of 100C.
Water containing impurities boils at temperature which is
above 100C.
Water which contain dissolved impurities is more dense
than pure water.


Text book
Reference book


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