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Fundamentals of

Bus Bar
Protection
GE Multilin

Outline
Bus arrangements

Bus components
Bus protection techniques
CT Saturation
Application Considerations:
High impedance bus differential
relaying
Low impedance bus differential
relaying
Special topics
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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

Single bus - single breaker


ZONE 1

----

n-1

Distribution and lower transmission


voltage levels
No operating flexibility
Fault on the bus trips all circuit breakers
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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

Multiple bus sections - single


breaker with bus tie
ZONE 1

ZONE 2

Distribution and lower transmission


voltage levels
Limited operating flexibility
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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

Double bus - single breaker with


bus tie
ZONE 1

ZONE 2

Transmission and distribution voltage levels


Breaker maintenance without circuit removal
Fault on a bus disconnects only the circuits
being connected to that bus
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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

Main and transfer buses


MAIN BUS
ZONE 1

TRANFER BUS

Increased operating flexibility


A bus fault requires tripping all
breakers
Transfer bus for breaker maintenance

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

Double bus single breaker w/ tran


ZONE 1

ZONE 2

Very high operating flexibility


Transfer bus for breaker
maintenance
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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

Double bus - double breaker


ZONE 1

ZONE 2

High operating flexibility


Line protection covers bus section between
two CTs
Fault on a bus does not disturb the power to
circuits

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

Breaker-and-a-half bus
ZONE 1

ZONE 2

Used on higher voltage levels


More operating flexibility
Requires more breakers
Middle bus sections covered by line or
other equipment protection

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

Ring bus
L1

L2

TB1

B1

B2

TB1

L3

L4

Higher voltage levels


High operating flexibility with minimum
breakers
Separate bus protection not required at

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

Bus components

breakers

BUS 1

BUS 2

ISO 1

ISO 2

Low Voltage circuit


breakers
CB 1
ISO 3
BYPASS

SF6, EHV & HV Synchropuff

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

Disconnect switches & auxiliary


contacts
BUS 1

BUS 1
BUS 2

ISO 2

ISOLATOR 1

ISO 1

+
7B

7A
ISOLATOR 1 OPEN
F1a
F1c
F1b

Contact Input F1a On


Contact Input F1c On

BUS 1

CB 1
ISO 3
BYPASS

ISOLATOR 1

+
7B

7A
ISOLATOR 1 CLOSED
F1a
F1c
F1b

Contact Input F1a On


Contact Input F1c On

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

Current Transformers
BUS 1

BUS 2

ISO 1

ISO 2

Gas (SF6) insulated


current transformer

CB 1
ISO 3
BYPASS

Oil insulated current


transformer (35kV up to
800kV)

Bushing type
(medium voltage
switchgear)

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

Protection Requirements
High bus fault currents due to large number of
circuits connected:
CT saturation often becomes a problem as CTs may not be
sufficiently rated for worst fault condition case
large dynamic forces associated with bus faults require fast
clearing times in order to reduce equipment damage

False trip by bus protection may create serious


problems:
service interruption to a large number of circuits
(distribution and sub-transmission voltage levels)
system-wide stability problems (transmission voltage levels)

With both dependability and security important,


preference is always given to security
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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

Bus Protection Techniques


Interlocking schemes
Overcurrent (unrestrained or
unbiased) differential
Overcurrent percent (restrained or
biased) differential
Linear couplers
High-impedance bus differential schemes
Low-impedance bus differential schemes

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

Interlocking Schemes

BLOCK

50

50

50

50

50

50

Blocking scheme
typically used
Short coordination time
required
Care must be taken with
possible saturation of
feeder CTs
Blocking signal could be
sent over
communications ports
(peer-to-peer)
This technique is limited
to simple one-incomer
distribution buses
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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

Overcurrent (unrestrained)
Differential
Differential signal formed

51

by summation of all
currents feeding the bus
CT ratio matching may be
required
On external faults,
saturated CTs yield
spurious differential
current
Time delay used to cope
with CT saturation
Instantaneous differential
OC function useful on
integrated microprocessorbased relays
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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

Linear Couplers

ZC = 2 20 - typical coil impedance


(5V per 1000Amps => 0.005 @ 60Hz )

40 V

10 V

10 V

0V

20 V

0V

59

External
Fault
If =
8000 A
2000

2000 A

4000

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

Linear
E = I *X - secondary voltage on relay terminals
Couplers
sec

prim

IR= Iprim*Xm /(ZR+ZC) minimum operating current


where,
Iprim primary current in each circuit
Xm liner coupler mutual reactance (5V per 1000Amps => 0.005 @
60Hz )
ZR relay tap impedance
ZC sum of all linear coupler
impedances
If = self
Internal
Bus
8000 A

Fault

40 V
0V

10 V

2000

10 V

2000

0V

59

20 V

4000

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

Linear
Couplers
Fast, secure and proven
Require dedicated air gap CTs, which may not
be used for any other protection
Cannot be easily applied to reconfigurable
buses
The scheme uses a simple voltage detector
it does not provide benefits of a
microprocessor-based relay (e.g.
oscillography, breaker failure protection,
other functions)
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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

High Impedance Differential


Operating signal created by
connecting all CT secondaries in
parallel
CTs must all have the same ratio
o Must have dedicated CTs
o

59

Overvoltage element operates


on voltage developed across
resistor connected in secondary
circuit
o

Requires varistors or AC
shorting relays to limit energy
during faults

Accuracy dependent on
secondary circuit resistance
o

Usually requires larger CT


cables to reduce errors higher
cost

Cannot easily be applied to reconfigurable


buses and offers no advanced functionality

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

Percent Differential

87
51

I DIF I1 I 2 ... I n
I RES I1 I 2 ... I n

Percent characteristic
used to cope with CT
saturation and other
errors
Restraining signal can
be formed in a number
of ways
No dedicated CTs
needed
Used for protection of
re-configurable buses
possible

I RES max I1 , I 2 , ..., I n

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

Low Impedance Percent


Differential
Individual currents sampled by protection and summated
digitally
o CT ratio matching done internally (no auxiliary CTs)
o Dedicated CTs not necessary

Additional algorithms improve security of percent differential


characteristic during CT saturation
Dynamic bus replica allows application to reconfigurable buses
o Done digitally with logic to add/remove current inputs from

differential computation
o Switching of CT secondary circuits not required

Low secondary burdens


Additional functionality available
o Digital oscillography and monitoring of each circuit connected to

bus zone
o Time-stamped event recording
o Breaker failure protection

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

Digital Differential Algorithm


Goals

Improve the main differential algorithm operation


o Better filtering
o Faster response
o Better restraint techniques
o Switching transient blocking
Provide dynamic bus replica for reconfigurable bus bars
Dependably detect CT saturation in a fast and reliable
manner, especially for external faults
Implement additional security to the main differential
algorithm to prevent incorrect operation
o External faults with CT saturation
o CT secondary circuit trouble (e.g. short circuits)

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

Low Impedance Differential


(Distributed)
Data Acquisition Units
52

52
DAU

52
DAU

DAU

CU
copper
fiber

(DAUs) installed in bays


Central Processing Unit
(CPU) processes all data
from DAUs
Communications between
DAUs and CPU over fiber
using proprietary protocol
Sampling synchronisation
between DAUs is required
Perceived less reliable
(more hardware needed)
Difficult to apply in retrofit
applications

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

Low Impedance Differential


(Centralized)
52

52

52

CU

All currents applied to a


single central processor
No communications,
external sampling
synchronisation necessary
Perceived more reliable
(less hardware needed)
Well suited to both new
and retrofit applications.

copper

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

CT Saturation

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

CT Saturation Concepts
CT saturation depends on a number of factors
o Physical CT characteristics (size, rating, winding
resistance, saturation voltage)
o Connected CT secondary burden (wires + relays)
o Primary current magnitude, DC offset (system X/R)
o Residual flux in CT core
Actual CT secondary currents may not behave in the same
manner as the ratio (scaled primary) current during faults
End result is spurious differential current appearing in the
summation of the secondary currents which may cause
differential elements to operate if additional security is
not applied

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

CT Saturation
No DC Offset
Waveform remains
fairly symmetrical
Ratio Current

CT Current

With DC Offset

Ratio Current

CT Current

Waveform starts off


being asymmetrical,
then symmetrical in
steady state
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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

External Fault & Ideal CTs

t1
t0

Fault starts at t0
Steady-state fault conditions occur at t 1

Ideal CTs have no saturation or mismatch


errors thus produce no differential current

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

External Fault & Actual CTs

t1

t0

Fault starts at t0
Steady-state fault conditions occur at t 1

Actual CTs do introduce errors, producing some


differential current (without CT saturation)

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

External Fault with CT


Saturation
t2

t1

t0

Fault starts at t0, CT begins to saturate at t1


CT fully saturated at t2

CT saturation causes increasing differential


current that may enter the differential
element operate region.

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

Some Methods of Securing Bus


Differential
Block the bus differential for a period of time (intentional delay)
o Increases security as bus zone will not trip when CT saturation is

present
o Prevents high-speed clearance for internal faults with CT saturation
or evolving faults

Change settings of the percent differential characteristic


(usually Slope 2)
o Improves security of differential element by increasing the amount

of spurious differential current needed to incorrectly trip


o Difficult to explicitly develop settings (Is 60% slope enough? Should
it be 75%?)

Apply directional (phase comparison) supervision


o Improves security by requiring all currents flow into the bus zone

before asserting the differential element


o Easy to implement and test
o Stable even under severe CT saturation during external faults
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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

HighImpedance
Bus
Differential

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

High Impedance Voltageoperated


Relay

59 element
set above max possible voltage
External
Fault
developed across relay during external fault causing
worst case CT saturation
For internal faults, extremely high voltages (well
above 59 element pickup) will develop across relay

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

High Impedance Voltage


Operated
Relay
Ratio matching with

ApplicationCTs
of high impedance differential relays
Multi-ratio
with CTs of different ratios but ratio matching taps is
possible, but could lead to voltage magnification.
Voltage developed across full winding of tapped CT
does not exceed CT rating, terminal blocks, etc.

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

High Impedance Voltage


Operated
Relay
Ratio matching with

Use of auxiliary
Multi-ratio
CTs CTs to obtain correct ratio matching
is also possible, but these CTs must be able to deliver
enough voltage necessary to produce relay operation
for internal faults.

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

Electromechanical High
Impedance Bus Differential
Relays

Single phase relays


High-speed
High impedance voltage sensing
High seismic IOC unit

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

P -based High-Impedance Bus


Differential Protection Relays

Operating time: 20 30ms @ I > 1.5xPKP

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

High Impedance Module for


Digital Relays

RST = 2000 - stabilizing resistor to limit the


current through the relay, and force it to
the lower impedance CT windings.
MOV Metal Oxide Varistor to limit the
voltage to
1900 Volts
86 latching contact preventing the
resistors from overheating after the fault is
detected

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

High-Impedance Module
+
Overcurrent Relay

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

High Impedance Bus Protection Summary

Fast, secure and proven


Requires dedicated CTs, preferably with the same
CT ratio and using full tap
Can be applied to small buses
Depending on bus internal and external fault
currents, high impedance bus diff may not provide
adequate settings for both sensitivity and security
Cannot be easily applied to reconfigurable buses
Require voltage limiting varistor capable of
absorbing significant energy
May require auxiliary CTs
Do not provide full benefits of microprocessorbased relay system (e.g. metering, monitoring,
oscillography, etc.)
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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

LowImpedance
Bus
Differential

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

P-based Low-Impedance Relays


No need for dedicated CTs
Internal CT ratio mismatch compensation
Advanced algorithms supplement percent differential
protection function making the relay very secure
Dynamic bus replica (bus image) principle is used in
protection of reconfigurable bus bars, eliminating the
need for switching physically secondary current
circuits
Integrated Breaker Failure (BF) function can provide
optimal tripping strategy depending on the actual
configuration of a bus bar

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

Small Bus Applications


2-8 Circuit
Applications
Up to 24 Current Inputs
4 Zones
Zone
Zone
Zone
Zone

1
2
3
4

=
=
=
=

Phase A
Phase B
Phase C
Not used

Different CT Ratio
Capability for Each
Circuit
Largest CT Primary is
Base in Relay

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

Medium to Large Bus


9-12 Circuit
Applications
Applications

Relay 1 - 24 Current Inputs


4 Zones
Zone 1 = Phase A (12 currents)
Zone 2 = Phase B (12 currents)
Zone 3 = Not used
Zone 4 = Not used

Relay 2 - 24 Current Inputs


4 Zones
Zone 1 = Not used
Zone 2 = Not used
Zone 3 = Phase C (12 currents)
Zone 4 = Not used

Different CT Ratio Capability for Each Circuit


Largest CT Primary is Base in Relay

CB
11

CB
12

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

Large Bus Applications

87B phase A
87B phase B
87B phase C

Logic relay
(switch status,
optional BF)
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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

Large Bus Applications


For buses with up to 24 circuits

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

Summing External Currents

Not Recommended for Low-Z 87B relays


CT-1

Relay becomes
combination of
restrained and
unrestrained elements
In order to parallel CTs:

CT-2

I 3 =0

I 2 =0

I 1 = Error

CT-3

CT-4

I DIFF = Error
I REST = Error

Maloperation if
Error > PICKUP

CT performance must be
closely matched
o Any errors will appear as
differential currents
Associated feeders must be
radial
o No backfeeds possible
Pickup setting must be raised
to accommodate any errors
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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

Definitions of Restraint Signals


iR i1 i2 i3 ... in

sum of

1
iR i1 i2 i3 ... in
n
iR n i1 i2 i3 ... in

iR Max i1 , i2 , i3 ,..., in

scaled sum of

geometrical average

maximum of
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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

Sum Of vs. Max Of Restraint


Methods
Sum Of Approach
More restraint on external
faults; less sensitive for internal
faults
Scaled-Sum Of approach
takes into account number of
connected circuits and may
increase sensitivity
Breakpoint settings for the
percent differential
characteristic more difficult to
set

Max Of Approach
Less restraint on external faults;
more sensitive for internal faults
Breakpoint settings for the
percent differential
characteristic easier to set
Better handles situation where
one CT may saturate completely
(99% slope settings possible)

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

Bus Differential Adaptive


Approach

differential

Region 2
(high differential
currents)

Region 1
(low differential
currents)

restraining
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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

Bus Differential Adaptive Logic


Diagram
AND

DIFL
OR

OR

DIR

AND

SAT

87B BIASED OP

DIFH

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

Phase Comparison Principle


Internal Faults: All fault (large) currents are
approximately in phase.

External Faults: One fault (large) current will be out


of phase

No Voltages are required or

Secondary Current of
Faulted Circuit
(Severe CT Saturation)
needed

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

Phase Comparison Principle


Continued
External Fault Conditions

imag

Ip

Internal Fault Conditions

ID I p

imag

OPERATE

BLOCK
I D -I

Ip

real

Ip

BLOCK

Ip

ID I p

OPERATE

I D -I

ID I p

real

Ip

ID I p

Ip
BLOCK

BLOCK
OPERATE

OPERATE

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

CT Saturation
t2

t1

t0

Fault starts at t0, CT begins to saturate at t1


CT fully saturated at t2
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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

CT Saturation Detector State


Machine
NORMAL

SAT := 0
The differential
current below the
first slope for
certain period of
time

saturation
condition
EXTERNAL
FAULT

SAT := 1
The differential
characteristic
entered
EXTERNAL
FAULT & CT
SATURATION

The differentialrestraining trajectory


out of the differential
characteristic for
certain period of time

SAT := 1

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

CT Saturation Detector
Operating Principles
The 87B SAT flag WILL NOT be set during
internal faults, regardless of whether or not
any of the CTs saturate.
The 87B SAT flag WILL be set during
external faults, regardless of whether or not
any of the CTs saturate.
By design, the 87B SAT flag WILL force the
relay to use the additional 87B DIR phase
The
Saturation
Detector
NOT Block the
comparison
for
Region WILL
2
Operation of the Differential Element it will
only Force 2-out-of-2 Operation
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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

CT Saturation Detector The oscillography records on the next two slides were
Examples
captured from a B30 relay under test on a real-time digital
power system simulator
First slide shows an external fault with deep CT saturation
(~1.5 msec of good CT performance)
o SAT saturation detector flag asserts prior to BIASED PKP
bus differential pickup
o DIR directional flag does not assert (one current flows
out of zone), so even though bus differential picks up, no
trip results
Second slide shows an internal fault with mild CT saturation
o BIASED PKP and BIASED OP both assert before DIR
asserts
o CT saturation does not block bus differential
More examples available (COMTRADE files) upon request
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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

CT Saturation Example
External Fault
200
150

current, A

100

~1 ms

50
0
-50
-100
-150
-200
0.06

The bus dif erential


protection element
picks up due to heavy
CT saturation

The
directional flag
is not set

0.07

0.08

0.09

time, sec

0.1

0.11

0.12

The CT saturation flag


is set safely before the
pickup flag

The element
does not
maloperate

Despite heavy CT
saturation the
external fault current
is seen in the
opposite direction
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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

CT Saturation Internal Fault


Example

The bus dif erential


protection element
picks up

The saturation
flag is not set - no
directional
decision required

All the fault currents


are seen in one
direction

The element
operates in
10ms

The
directional
flag is set

61
GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

Applying Low-Impedance
Differential Relays for Busbar
Protection
Basic Topics
Configure physical CT Inputs
Configure Bus Zone and Dynamic Bus
Replica
Calculating Bus Differential Element settings
Advanced Topics
Isolator switch monitoring for
reconfigurable buses
Differential Zone CT Trouble
Integrated Breaker Failure protection
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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

Configuring CT Inputs
For each connected CT circuit enter Primary
rating and select Secondary rating.
Each 3-phase bank of CT inputs must be
assigned to a Signal Source that is used to
define the Bus Zone and Dynamic Bus Replica

Some relays define 1 p.u. as the


maximum primary current of all of the
CTs connected in the given Bus Zone
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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

Per-Unit Current Definition Example


Current
Channel

Primar
y

Secondar
y

Zone

CT1

F1

3200 A

1A

CT2

F2

2400 A

5A

CT3

F3

1200 A

1A

CT For4 Zone
CT-Zone
For
5

F4

3200 A

1A

1, 1 p.u. = 3200 AP
F51 p.u.1200
A
5A
2,
= 5000
AP

CT-

F6

5000 A

5A

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

Configuration of Bus Zone


Dynamic Bus Replica associates a status signal
with each current in the Bus Differential Zone
Status signal can be any logic operand
o Status signals can be developed in
programmable logic to provide additional
checks or security as required
o Status signal can be set to ON if current is
always in the bus zone or OFF if current is
never in the bus zone
CT connections/polarities for a particular bus
zone must be properly configured in the relay,
via either hardwire or software
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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

Configuring the Bus Differential


Zone
Bus Zone settings defines the boundaries of
the Differential Protection and CT Trouble
Monitoring.

1. Configure the physical CT Inputs


o
o
o

CT Primary and Secondary values


Both 5 A and 1 A inputs are supported by the UR hardware
Ratio compensation done automatically for CT ratio
differences up to 32:1

2. Configure AC Signal Sources


3. Configure Bus Zone with Dynamic Bus Replica
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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

Dual Percent Differential


Characteristic

High Set
(Unrestrained)

High Slope
Low Slope
High
Breakpoint

Min Pickup

Low
Breakpoint

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

Calculating Bus Differential


The following Bus Zone Differential element
Settings
parameters need to be set:
o Differential Pickup
o Restraint Low Slope
o Restraint Low Break Point
o Restraint High Breakpoint
o Restraint High Slope
o Differential High Set (if needed)

All settings entered in per unit (maximum CT primary in


the zone)
Slope settings entered in percent
Low Slope, High Slope and High Breakpoint settings
are used by the CT Saturation Detector and define the
Region 1 Area (2-out-of-2 operation with Directional)
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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

Calculating Bus Differential


Settings Minimum Pickup
Defines the minimum differential current required
for operation of the Bus Zone Differential element
Must be set above maximum leakage current not
zoned off in the bus differential zone
May also be set above maximum load conditions
for added security in case of CT trouble, but
better alternatives exist

69
GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

Calculating Bus Differential


Settings Low Slope
Defines the percent bias for the restraint currents
from IREST=0 to IREST=Low Breakpoint
Setting determines the sensitivity of the
differential element for low-current internal faults
Must be set above maximum error introduced by
the CTs in their normal linear operating mode
Range: 15% to 100% in 1%. increments

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

Calculating Bus Differential


Settings Low Breakpoint
Defines the upper limit to restraint currents that will
be biased according to the Low Slope setting
Should be set to be above the maximum load but
not more than the maximum current where the CTs
still operate linearly (including residual flux)
Assumption is that the CTs will be operating linearly
(no significant saturation effects up to 80% residual
flux) up to the Low Breakpoint setting

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

Calculating Bus Differential


Settings High Breakpoint
Defines the minimum restraint currents that will be
biased according to the High Slope setting
Should be set to be below the minimum current
where the weakest CT will saturate with no
residual flux
Assumption is that the CTs will be operating
linearly (no significant saturation effects up to 80%
residual flux) up to the Low Breakpoint setting

72
GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

Calculating Bus Differential


Settings High Slope
Defines the percent bias for the restraint currents
IRESTHigh Breakpoint
Setting determines the stability of the differential
element for high current external faults
Traditionally, should be set high enough to
accommodate the spurious differential current
resulting from saturation of the CTs during heavy
external faults
Setting can be relaxed in favour of sensitivity and
speed as the relay detects CT saturation and applies
the directional principle to prevent maloperation
Range: 50% to 100% in 1%. increments

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

Calculating Unrestrained Bus


Differential Settings
Defines the minimum differential current for
unrestrained operation
Should be set to be above the maximum differential
current under worst case CT saturation
Range: 2.00 to 99.99 p.u. in 0.01 p.u. increments
Can be effectively disabled by setting to 99.99 p.u.

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

Dual Percent Differential


Characteristic

High Set
(Unrestrained)

High Slope
Low Slope
High
Breakpoint

Min Pickup

Low
Breakpoint

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

Reconfigurable Buses
C-3

C-5
NORTH BUS

S-1

B-1

S-5

S-3

B-5
CT-7

CT-1
CT-2

B-2

CT-3

B-3

CT-4

CT-5

B-4

B-7
CT-6
CT-8
B-6
S-2

S-6

S-4

SOUTH BUS
C-1

C-2

C-4

Protecting re-configurable buses

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Reconfigurable Buses
C-3

C-5
NORTH BUS

S-1

B-1

S-5

S-3

B-5

CT-1

CT-2

B-2

CT-3

CT-4

B-3

CT-7

B-4

CT-5
B-7
CT-6
CT-8
B-6

S-2

S-6

S-4

SOUTH BUS
C-1

C-2

C-4

Protecting re-configurable buses


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GE Consumer & Industrial
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Reconfigurable Buses
C-3

C-5
NORTH BUS

S-1

B-1

S-5

S-3

B-5

CT-1

CT-2

B-2

CT-3

CT-4

B-3

CT-7

B-4

CT-5
B-7
CT-6
CT-8
B-6

S-2

S-6

S-4

SOUTH BUS
C-1

C-2

C-4

Protecting re-configurable buses

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GE Consumer & Industrial
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Reconfigurable Buses
C-3

C-5
NORTH BUS

S-1

B-1

S-5

S-3

B-5
CT-7

CT-1
CT-2

B-2

CT-3

B-3

CT-4

CT-5

B-4

B-7
CT-6
CT-8
B-6
S-2

S-6

S-4

SOUTH BUS
C-1

C-2

C-4

Protecting re-configurable buses

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Isolators
Reliable Isolator Closed signals are needed for the
Dynamic Bus Replica
In simple applications, a single normally closed contact
may be sufficient
For maximum safety:
o Both N.O. and N.C. contacts should be used
o Isolator Alarm should be established and non-valid

combinations (open-open, closed-closed) should be sorted out


o Switching operations should be inhibited until bus image is
recognized with 100% accuracy
o Optionally block 87B operation from Isolator Alarm

Each isolator position signal decides:


o Whether or not the associated current is to be included in the

differential calculations
o Whether or not the associated breaker is to be tripped

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GE Consumer & Industrial
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Isolator Typical Open/Closed


Connections

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
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Switch Status Logic and


Dyanamic Bus Replica
Isolator
Open
Auxiliary
Contact
Off

Isolator
Closed
Auxiliary
Contact
On

Isolator
Position

Alarm

Block
Switching

CLOSED

No

No

Off

Off

LAST VALID

Until Isolator

On

On

CLOSED

On

Off

OPEN

After time
delay
until
acknowledge
d
No

Position is
valid
No

NOTE: Isolator monitoring function may be a built-in feature


or user-programmable in low impedance bus differential
digital relays
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GE Consumer & Industrial
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Differential Zone CT Trouble


Each Bus Differential Zone may a dedicated CT
Trouble Monitor
Definite time delay overcurrent element operating
on the zone differential current, based on the
configured Dynamic Bus Replica
Three strategies to deal with CT problems:
1. Trip the bus zone as the problem with a CT will
likely evolve into a bus fault anyway
2. Do not trip the bus, raise an alarm and try to
correct the problem manually
3. Switch to setting group with 87B minimum
pickup setting above the maximum load
current.
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GE Consumer & Industrial
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Differential Zone CT Trouble


Strategies 2 and 3 can be
accomplished by:
Using undervoltage supervision to ride through
the period from the beginning of the problem
with a CT until declaring a CT trouble condition
Using an external check zone to supervise the
87B function
Using CT Trouble to prevent the Bus Differential
tripping (2)
Using setting groups to increase the pickup
value for the 87B function (3)

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GE Consumer & Industrial
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May 3, 2016

Differential Zone CT Trouble


Strategy #2 Example
87B operates

Undervoltage condition
CT OK

CT Trouble operand is used to rise an alarm


The 87B trip is inhibited after CT Trouble element
operates
The relay may misoperate if an external fault
occurs after CT trouble but before the CT trouble
condition is declared (double-contingency)

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GE Consumer & Industrial
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Example Architecture for Large


Dual (redundant) fiber
with 3msec delivery
Busbars
time between
neighbouring IEDs. Up
to 8 relays in the ring

Phase A AC signals and


trip contacts

Phase B AC signals and


trip contacts

Phase C AC signals and


trip contacts

Digital Inputs for


isolator monitoring and
BF

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

Example Architecture Dynamic


Bus Replica and Isolator
Iso
lat
n
Position
o
i
or
t
i
s
P
Po
r
o
lat
o
Is

Iso
la

Phase A AC signals
wired here, bus replica
configured here

Phase B AC signals
wired here, bus replica
configured here
to
rP
os
it

ion

os
itio
n

Phase C AC signals
wired here, bus replica
configured here

o
iti
s
Po
r
o
at

l
o
s
I
Auxuliary switches wired here;
Isolator Monitoring function
configured here

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
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Example Architecture BF
v.
Initiationt S&
up Current Supervision
BF
te
a
i
t
Ini
F
B

BF

In
iti
a

en
r
r
u
&C

Ini
tia
te
&

Phase A AC signals
wired here, current
status monitored here

Phase B AC signals
wired here, current
status monitored here
te

&

Cu
rre
n

Cu
rre
nt

tS

Phase C AC signals
wired here, current
status monitored here

BF

up
v.

Su
pv
.

Breaker Failure
elements
configured here

iti
n
I

e
at

&

nt
e
rr
u
C

v.
p
Su

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GE Consumer & Industrial
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Example Architecture Breaker


Trip
Failure Tripping
ail
F
r
ke
a
Bre

Trip

Br
ea

Bre
ak
er
Fai
l

Op

Phase A AC signals
wired here, current
status monitored here

Phase B AC signals
wired here, current
status monitored here
ke
rF
ai

lO

Trip

Op

Trip

Phase C AC signals
wired here, current
status monitored here
Fa
r
e
ak

p
li O

e
Br
Breaker Fail Op command
generated here and send to
trip appropriate breakers

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
May 3, 2016

IEEE 37.234
Guide for Protective Relay Applications
to Power System Buses is currently
being revised by the K14 Working Group
of the IEEE Power System Relaying
Committee.

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May 3, 2016

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