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Personality

&
Emotions

Personality
A relatively stable set of characteristics that
influences an individuals behavior
Or
A sum total of ways in which an individual
reacts to and interacts with others

Personality Traits
The early research on the structure of

personality revolved around attempts to


identify and label enduring characteristics that
describes an individuals behavior.
Popular characteristics include shy,
aggressive, submissive, lazy ambitious, loyal
and timid

The Big 5 model


The personality theory that states that in order to

understand individuals, we must break down behavior


patterns into a series of observable traits.

Extraversion
Agreeableness
Conscientiousness
Neuroticism/Emotional Stability
Openness to Experience

The Big Five Personality Traits


diagram
1. Extraversion
2. Agreeableness

3. Conscientiousness
4. Emotional Stability
5. Openness to Experience

Gregarious, assertive, sociable.


(as opposed to reserved, timid
quiet)
Cooperative, warm, agreeable
(as opposed to cold,
disagreeable, antagonistic)
Hardworking, organized,
dependable (as opposed to
lazy, disorganized, unreliable)
Calm, self-confident, cool (as
opposed to insecure, anxious,
depressed)
Creative, curious, cultured ( rather
than practical with narrow interests)

The Jungian Approach and


MBTI
Swiss Psychiatrist Carl Jung built his work
on the notion that people are fundamentally
different, but also fundamentally alike.

MBTI

Preferences
There are four preferences in type theory, and two
possible choices for each of the four preferences. The
combination of these preferences makes up an
individuals psychological type.

1.

Extraversion/Introversion
Sensing/Intuiting
Thinking/Feeling
Judging/Perceiving

2.
3.
4.

Extraversion/Introversion
ExtraversionA preference indicating that an individual is energized with other
people.

IntroversionA preference indicating that an individual is energized by time


alone.

(E)
(E)

EXTRAVERSIONEXTRAVERSION-

(I)
(I)

INTROVERSIONINTROVERSION-

Outgoing
Outgoing
Publicly Expressive
Publicly Expressive
Interacting
Interacting
Speaks, then thinks
Speaks, then thinks
Gregarious
Gregarious

Quiet
Quiet
Reserved
Reserved
Concentrating
Concentrating
Thinks, then speaks
Thinks, then speaks
Reflective
Reflective

2-Sensing/Intuiting
SensingGathering information through the five senses.
IntuitingGathering information through sixth sense and focusing on what could
be rather than what actually exists.

SS

SENSINGSENSING-

Practical
Practical
Specific
Specific
Feet on the ground
Feet on the ground
Details
Details
Concrete
Concrete

N
N

INTUITINGINTUITING-

General
General
Abstract
Abstract
Head in the clouds
Head in the clouds
Possibilities
Possibilities
Theoretical
Theoretical

3-Thinking / Feeling
ThinkingMaking decisions in a logical, objective fashion.
FeelingMaking decisions in a personal, value oriented way.

TT

FF

THINKING
THINKING--

FEELING
FEELING--

Analytical
Analytical
Clarity
Clarity
Head
Head
Justice
Justice
Rules
Rules

Subjective
Subjective
Harmony
Harmony
Heart
Heart
Mercy
Mercy
Circumstances
Circumstances

4-Judging / Perceiving
JudgingPreferring closure and completion in making decisions.
PerceivingPreferring to explore many alternatives and flexibility.

JUDGING -J
Structured
Time Oriented
Decisive
Makes lists/
uses them
Organized

PERCEIVINGFlexible
Open ended
Exploring
Makes lists/
loses them
Spontaneous

Personality Characteristics in
Organizations
Managers should learn as much as possible

about personality in order to understand their


employees.
Hundreds of personality characteristics have
been identified.

Personality
Characteristics in Organizations?

Personality Characteristics in
Organizations
Core Self Evaluation
Machiavellianism
Narcissism
Risk taking
Type A and B personalities

Core self Evaluation

Locus of Control
An individuals generalized behavior about internal
control (self control) versus external control
(control by the situations or others)

Internal Locus of control

People who
believe they control
what happens to them.

External Locus of control

People who
believe that circumstances
or other people control
their fate.

Self Esteem
Individuals degree of liking and disliking themselves
and the degree to which they think they are worthy or
unworthy as people.

Machiavellianism

Machiavellianism

The degree to which an individual


believes that the ends justify the means
and behave in a manner which aims at
increasing their level of power within an
organization.

Narcissism

Narcissism
A person high in narcissism has a grandiose

sense of self importance, requires excessive


admiration, has a sense of entitlement and is
arrogant

3. Self-Monitoring

Self-Monitoring
The extent to which people base

their behavior on cues from other


people and situations.

Risk Taking

People differ in their willingness to take

chances. This propensity to assume or


avoid risk affects how long it takes
managers to make a decision and how
much information they require before
making choice.

The Lifestyle Approach

From the point of view of broad lifestyles,


two types of personalities have been
identified.

Are impatient with the rate of work


Move and eat rapidly
Want to measure everything
Do several things simultaneously

Never feel urgency and are patient


Are relaxed
Eat in leisurely fashion
enjoy themselves
Do not display their achievements
Play for fun
Rather than to prove themselves

Personality-Job Fit Theory


Holland (1985) has proposed a personality-job

fit theory of personality.


This theory makes a case for job-specific
personality types.
He has suggested 6 personality types and has
prepared an instrument containing 160
occupational titles.
Based on respondents preferences, their
personality profiles are prepared.

Hollands Personality Types for


Different Occupations
es
ti
ga
te

(I
)

isi

ng

(E
)

So
ci
al

En
ter
pr

(S
)

Artistic (A)

Conventional (C)

ea
lis
ti
c

(R

In
v

Description of Type

Preference

Realistic (R)
Practical, Stable, conformist,
Straight forward, honest

Like physical activities, enjoy exercising skills, like a


challenge and try hard to achieve.

Investigative (I)
Cognitive, independent, analytical
Curious, original.

Enjoy activities that require thinking, like


Researching and predicting outcomes.

Artistic (A)
Creative, imaginative, disorderly
Impractical, emotional.

Prefer less order environments and activi


Ambiguity, enjoy activities involving creat

Social (S)
Social able, cooperative, emphatic
Friendly.

Enjoy human contact, working in helpful g


Teams, values helping others develop.

Enterprising (E)
Ambiguous, assertive, dominant,
Confidence, active.

Like dealing, verbal contact and dominati


Enjoy, situation that give a sense of winning

Conventional (C)
Rigid, conformist, uncreative, practical,
Efficient, orderly, dislike ambiguity.

Prefer well-defined activities, like a highly


Environment.

Emotions
The Feelings experienced towards an
object, person or event that create a state
of readiness.

Emotional Labor

Emotional labor is an employee

expression of organizationally desired


emotions during interpersonal
transactions at work

Emotional
Intelligence
The ability to monitor our own & other
feelings & emotions to discriminate among
them and to use this information to guide
our thinking and actions .

Dimensions of Emotional Intelligence

SelfAWARENESS
Social
Skill

Dimensions of
Emotional
Intelligence
Empathy

Self
Motivation

Self
regulation