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HUMAN AND SOCIAL

BIOLOGY PRESENTATION
GROUP 5
LEPTOSPIROSIS AND MALARIA

MALARIA

WHAT IS MALARIA?
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease of humans and other animals caused by

parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the genus


Plasmodium. The disease is transmitted by the biting of mosquitos, and the symptoms usually
begin ten to fifteen days after being bitten. If not appropriately treated, people may have
recurrences of the disease months later. The disease is most commonly transmitted by an
infected female Anopheles mosquito.

CAUSATIVE AGENT
Causative agents of malaria are plasmodium malariae which is a parasitic protozoa that causes
malaria in humans. It is one of several species of Plasmodium parasites that infect humans
including Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax which are responsible for most
malarial infection.

VECTOR OF MALARIA

The female Anopheles Mosquito

METHOD OF SPREAD

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF MALARIA


Symptoms of malaria typically develop within 10 days to four weeks following the infection. In
some patients, symptoms may not develop for several months. Common symptoms of malaria
include:
shaking chills that are moderate to severe
high fever
profuse sweating
headache

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF MALARIA


nausea
vomiting
diarrhea
anemia
muscle pain

CONTROL/PREVENTION OF MALARIA
Methods used to prevent Malaria
Reduce mosquito breeding grounds
Use of insect repellent to prevent mosquito bites
Taking antimalarial drugs
Spraying indoors with insecticide to prevent mosquitos

CURATIVE MEASURES
The treatment of malaria involves using the same antimalarial agents that are used to
prevent malaria. However, if you get malaria after taking a particular preventative
medicine, then a different medicine will be used to treat the malaria.
Doxylar - capsules contain the active ingredient doxycycline, which is a type of
antibiotic called a tetracycline. It is used to treat infections caused by bacteria.
Lariam - tablets contain the active ingredient mefloquine, which is a type of
medicine called an antimalarial. It is used in both the prevention and treatment of
malaria.

CURATIVE MEASURES
Primaquine - belongs to a group of drugs called the antimalarial. It is used to treat
malaria in an infected person; acts by interfering with a part of the parasite
(mitochondria) that is responsible for supplying it with energy. Without energy the
parasite dies. This stops the infection from continuing and allows the person to recover .
Quinine sulphate - is a type of medicine called an antimalarial. Its main use is in
treating established malarial infections. Quinine works by attacking the parasites once
they have entered the red blood cells. It kills the parasites and prevents them from
multiplying further.

Leptospirosis

WHAT IS LEPTOSPIROSIS?
Leptospirosis is a fairly uncommon bacterial infection caused by a strain of Leptospira. It is
most commonly transmitted from animals to humans when people with unhealed breaks in the
skin, come into contact with water or soil that has been contaminated with animal urine - the
bacterium can also enter the body through the eyes or mucous membranes. Typically, the
animals that transmit the infection to humans include rats, skunks, opossums, foxes, raccoons
and other vermin.

There are two main types of Leptospirosis:


Mild Leptospirosis - the patient experiences muscle pains, chills and possibly a headache.
90% of cases are of this type.
Severe Leptospirosis - can be life-threatening. There is a risk of organ failure and internal
hemorrhaging. This occurs when the bacterium infects the kidneys, liver and other major
organs.

CAUSATIVE AGENT
Leptospirosis is caused by the bacterium Leptospira. They inhabit the animals' kidneys and are
expelled when they urinate. and infect the soil or water supplies. Contamination can persist in soil or
water for months.
People can become infected by:
Drinking contaminated water

CAUSATIVE AGENT
Coming into contact with contaminated water or soil if they have unhealed cuts in their skin
Their eyes, nose or mouth come into contact with contaminated water or soil
Coming into contact with the blood of an infected animal (less common)

VECTORS OF LEPTOSPIROSIS
raccoons

bats

sheep

dogs

mice

rats

horses

cattle

buffaloes

pigs

METHOD OF SPREAD
Leptospirosis can be transmitted to humans through cuts and abrasions of the skin, or through
the mucous membranes of the eyes, nose and mouth with water contaminated with the urine of
infected animals. Leptospirosis can also be transmitted through the drinking of water or
ingestion of food contaminated with urine of infected animals, often rats.

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF LEPTOSPIROSIS


Leptospirosis signs and symptoms usually appear suddenly, about 7 to 14 days after the person
has become infected; in some cases they may appear earlier or later.
Signs and symptoms of mild leptospirosis
Chills
Coughing
Diarrhea
Headaches, these can come on suddenly

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF LEPTOSPIROSIS


High fever
Muscle pain, particularly lower back and calves
Nausea
Poor appetite
Red and irritated eyes

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF LEPTOSPIROSIS


The patient usually gets better within one week without any treatment. A small proportion of
them will not improve, and will go on to develop severe leptospirosis.

Signs and symptoms of severe leptospirosis - these will appear a few days after mild leptospirosis
symptoms have disappeared. Signs and symptoms depend on which vital organs have been
affected.

Signs and symptoms when the heart, liver and kidneys are affected
Fatigue

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF LEPTOSPIROSIS

Irregular heartbeat, often accelerated heartbeat

Muscle pains

Nausea

Nosebleeds

Pain in the chest

Panting

Poor appetite

The hands, feet or ankles swell

Unexplained weight loss

Yellowing of the whites of the eyes, tongue and skin (jaundice)Skin pain

CONTROL/PREVENTION OF LEPTOSPIROSIS
The risk of acquiring leptospirosis can be greatly reduced by not swimming or wading in
water that might be contaminated with animal urine, or eliminating contact with potentially
infected animals.
Those who regularly swim in freshwater should make sure that any skin cuts are covered with
a waterproof dressing
Protective clothing or footwear should be worn by those exposed to contaminated water or
soil because of their job or recreational activities.

CURATIVE MEASURE
Acute leptospirosis - the doctor may prescribe a 5 to 7 day course of some tetracycline
antibiotic.

Severe leptospirosis - the patient will need to be hospitalized and given antibiotics
intravenously. Depending on which organs are affected a ventilator to assist in breathing may
be required, as might dialysis if the kidneys are affected. Intravenous fluids may be needed to
hydrate the patient and provide essential nutrients.

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