Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 306

P2

EXPECTATIONS
1. Dont talk when the teacher is
talking
2. Respect others in the classroom
3. Ask questions if you are unsure
4. Complete all homework on time

Forces
Calculate the
forces acting on
an object
ALL Calculate the
resultant force
acting on an object
MOST Describe
the effect of a
resultant force on
stationary and
moving objects
SOME Use the
equation F=m x a
to calculate the
forces on an object

Starter
Find the
definition of a
resultant force
using the
textbook

KEYWORDS: resultant, Newton,


Acceleration, mass, stationary

LO: calculate the forces acting on an object

Forces
A force can be simply
described as either a
Watch the following
push or a pull. Forces
video and think
are measured in
about the forces that
are occurringNewtons (N)
between the car and
the wall
1 Newton is the force
http://
required to
www.youtube.com/w
accelerate a 1kg
atch?v=6dI5ewOmHP
mass by 1m/s.
Q

LO: calculate the forces acting on an object

Forces between objects


When two objects push or pull on each other,
they exert equal and opposite forces on one
another e.g. you are all pushing down on
the floor, but the floor is also pushing up
on you.if it didnt youd fall straight
through the floor!

LO: calculate the forces acting on an object

Resultant force

If you have multiple forces acting on an


object, you can replace them with one single
force that has the effect of all the other
forces combined together. This single force is
called the resultant force

LO: calculate the forces acting on an object

Calculating the resultant


A rocket produces a thrust of
2000N. It has a weight of
1000N. What is the resultant
force acting on the rocket?

LO: calculate the forces acting on an object

Calculating the resultant


A rocket producing a resultant
force of 1000N hits a wall, causing
it to come to a stop. What force
does the wall exert on the rocket
and the rocket exert on the wall.
Explain the reasoning for your
answer.

LO: calculate the forces acting on an object

Calculating the resultant


A car of weight 5000N produces a
driving force of 2000N. It
experiences friction force from the
ground of 500N and air resistance
of 300N. What are the horizontal
and vertical resultant forces acting
on the car?

LO: calculate the forces acting on an object

Rules for calculating the resultant


1. Forces that act in the same direction
can be added together
2. Forces that act opposite to each
other must be taken away
3. Forces that act vertically and
horizontally CAN NOT be added and
taken away from each other and
MUST be considered separately.

LO: calculate the forces acting on an object

Task
Complete the (very simple!) worksheet
on calculating resultants and stick it into
your books!

KNOWLEDGE CHECK
C
B
A

State what happens when an


object exerts a force on
another object
Describe what is meant by a
resultant force

A car weighs 5000N and has


a driving force of 2000N. It
experiences a resisting force
of 2000N. What is the
horizontal and vertical
resultant force acting on the

Start Timer
10
10
Minutes
8

2
0

LO: calculate the forces acting on an object

Effects of forces 1
What is the resultant
force on this book?

What would happen if


the force was not zero?
The resultant force on a stationary
(not moving) object is zero!
If a resultant force is applied to an
object, it will accelerate in the
direction of the force

LO: calculate the forces acting on an object

Effects of forces 2

An arrow is fired from a


bow. What are the force
acting on the arrow as it
flies towards its target?
If an object is moving with constant
speed, the resultant force on it is zero
If a resultant force is applied to a
moving object, it will accelerate in
the direction of the force

LO: calculate the forces acting on an object

Task
Stationary
object
Zero
resultant
force
Non-zero
resultant
force

Moving
object

LO: calculate the forces acting on an object

Calculating forces

F=mxa
F = force (N)
m = mass (kg)
a = acceleration
(m/s2)

F
mxa

LO: calculate the forces acting on an object

Example 1
A car of mass 400kg is accelerating at 5m/s2. What is
the driving force produced by the engine?

LO: calculate the forces acting on an object

Example 2
A novice skier is being pulled along a horizontal
section of a nursery slope. Given that her acceleration
of 1.3m/s2 is provided by a force of 70N, calculate her
mass.

LO: calculate the forces acting on an object

Example 3
A man pushes a car with a force of 200N along a
straight horizontal road. He manages to accelerate the
car by 0.1m/s. Find the mass of the car.

LO: calculate the forces acting on an object

Task
Complete the questions on calculating
forces on the worksheet, showing your
working out for each one. Stick the
worksheet into your book when you are
done.

KNOWLEDGE CHECK
C
B
A

What is the unit of


measurement for
acceleration?
Describe the forces acting on
an arrow that has been fired
from a bow and is moving at
constant speed.

A car has a mass of 500kg.


Calculate the force required
to accelerate the car by
2m/s.

Start Timer
10
10
Minutes
8

2
0

Graphs of motion

Starter
Brain teaser!

Understand how
to draw and
interpret graphs
of motion
ALL Draw
distance and
velocity-time
graphs
MOST Describe
the motion of an
object using
distance and
velocity-time

KEYWORDS: distance-time graph, distan


Velocity-time graph, acceleration, veloci

LO: understand how to draw and interpret graphs of motion

Graphs of motion
Graphs of motion are
a visual
representation of the
motion of a body
They can either show
the change in
displacement or
change in velocity
of an object

LO: understand how to draw and interpret graphs of motion

Can you draw


Mr C cycles into work. The
journey takes him 15
minutes (900s) and is a
total distance of 3km
(3000m). We will try to
represent his journey using
a graph

LO: understand how to draw and interpret graphs of motion

Can you draw


1. Mr C cycles to the first traffic
light, a distance of 500m away.
It takes him 180 seconds to do
this.
2. He waits at the traffic lights for
120 seconds while the light is
red
3. When the light turns green, he
cycles for 2000m without
stopping. This takes him 5
minutes to do.
4. After 2000m, Mr C has to stop
at another traffic light. He waits
for 180 seconds.

LO: understand how to draw and interpret graphs of motion

Practical Creating graphs of motion


Aim: To create your own graphs of motion
Equipment:
Ruler
Stopwatch
Maggot
Method:
1. Place your maggot on the ruler
2. Allow it to crawl along
3. Measure the distance it travels every 30s
4. Record the data in an appropriate table
5. Draw a displacement-time graph for the
motion. Make sure the distance is in metres!!!

LO: understand how to draw and interpret graphs of motion

Mini-plenary
1. Usain Bolt ran the 100m race in London 2012
in approximately 9.6 seconds. He ran the first
20m in approximately 2.7 seconds after
accelerating and running the final 80m in 6.9
seconds. It took him 20 metres to come to a
stop, which he covered in 5 seconds. Draw a
distance-time graph to show this journey.
2. Explain what a horizontal line on a distancetime graph represents
Extension:
What do you think the steepness of a line on
a distance-time graph represents?

LO: understand how to draw and interpret graphs of motion

Using distance-time graphs

How steep the line is (the gradient) on a


distance-time graph tells you the speed that
an object is moving
The steeper the line, the faster
something is moving

LO: understand how to draw and interpret graphs of motion

Calculating the gradient


Gradient
=
Gradient
=

Change in
y
Change in
x
y
x

Lets have a go at working out the


speed that Mr C was travelling at
during his journey to school!

LO: understand how to draw and interpret graphs of motion

One last definition


Two cars are travelling on a
road in opposite directions.
One is travelling east at 20m/s
and the other is travelling west
at 20m/s. Their speeds are
exactly the same.
However, their velocitys
are different. What do you
think their velocitys are?
Velocity is the speed of an object in a given
direction. Two objects can have the same
speed, but very different velocities

LO: understand how to draw and interpret graphs of motion

Task
1. Complete the summary sheet on distance-time
graphs and stick it into your book
2. Complete the exam questions on distance-time
graphs

LO: understand how to draw and interpret graphs of motion

Homework
Create a graph of motion of your journey
into school! It doesnt have to be
accurate, an estimate will do!

LO: understand how to draw and interpret graphs of motion

What do you know?

I
understood
everything!

I
understood
most of
todays
work

I need more
help to
understand
todays work

Graphs of motion II

Starter
Brain teaser!

Understand how
to draw and
interpret graphs
of motion
ALL Draw
distance and
velocity-time
graphs
MOST Describe
the motion of an
object using
distance and
velocity-time

KEYWORDS: distance-time graph, distan


Velocity-time graph, acceleration, veloci

LO: understand how to draw and interpret graphs of motion

Graphs of motion II
Last lesson, we
learnt how to draw
distance-time
graphs
This lesson, we will
learn how to draw
velocity-time
graphs

LO: understand how to draw and interpret graphs of motion

Can you draw


Mr C has brought himself a
slick new ride! He has also
moved house and is now
living in the leafy suburbs.
His journey takes him 1200
seconds, his top speed is
50m/s and his lowest is
-30m/s. Lets plot his
journey into school on a
velocity-time graph

LO: understand how to draw and interpret graphs of motion

Can you draw


1. Mr C leaves his house. He is happily
driving along on country roads at a
steady speed of 30m/s for two
minutes
2. Doh! Hes forgotten his lunch. He
turns round and drives back at
30m/s for two minutes. He is at
home for 60s.
3. Back on the road, Mr C drives at
30m/s for 300s
4. Now on the motorway, Mr C is able
to drive at 50m/s, which he does for
5mins
5. Coming off the motorway, he stops
at a traffic light for 120s
6. Realising he is going to be late, he

LO: understand how to draw and interpret graphs of motion

Task
Answer the following questions in your books:
1. What does a horizontal line on a velocity-time
graph represent?
2. How do you know if an object has stopped by
looking at the velocity-time graph?
3. How can you tell if an object is accelerating
using a velocity time graph?
4. Draw the velocity-time graph for the following
journey:
0-10s = 50m/s
10-25s = 0m/s
25-50s = 60m/s
50-80s = acceleration to 80m/s

LO: understand how to draw and interpret graphs of motion

Acceleration

Acceleration is the change in speed of a


body over a given amount of time

LO: understand how to draw and interpret graphs of motion

Acceleration
Acceleration can be calculated using the
following equation:
Change in
Acceleration
velocity
Time
=
taken
Final velocity initial
Acceleration velocity
Time taken
=
va=
ut

a = acceleration (m/s2)
v = final velocity (m/s)
u = initial velocity (m/s)
t = time (s)

LO: understand how to draw and interpret graphs of motion

Example 1
A car accelerates from a velocity of 10m/s to a velocity
of 25m/s in 15 seconds. What is the acceleration of the
car?

LO: understand how to draw and interpret graphs of motion

Example 2
A runner starts at rest and accelerates to a top speed
of 10m/s. If he does this in 2 seconds, what is his
acceleration?

LO: understand how to draw and interpret graphs of motion

Example 3
A train accelerates at 2m/s for 30 seconds. If its initial
velocity was 10m/s, calculate what the final velocity
will be after 30 seconds.

LO: understand how to draw and interpret graphs of motion

Task
1. What is the acceleration of a car that starts at rest
and reaches a top speed of 50m/s in 25 seconds?
2. A plane starts at rest. It takes 8 seconds to take off
and accelerates at a constant rate of 10m/s. What
is the final take-off velocity of the aircraft?
3. A runner starting at rest reaches a speed of 11m/s
in 2.2 seconds during the drive phase of his 100m
sprint. What is his acceleration during this phase?
Assuming that his speed remains constant for the
rest of the race, sketch the velocity-time graph for
his journey
4. A car accelerates at 5m/s for 12 seconds,
reaching a final velocity of 80m/s. What was the
cars initial velocity before it started accelerating?

LO: understand how to draw and interpret graphs of motion

How are they linked?


Gradient
=
Gradient
=

Change in
y
Change in
x
y
x

The gradient of a velocity time graph


represent the acceleration of an
object!
Go back and calculate the acceleration

LO: understand how to draw and interpret graphs of motion

How are they linked?

The area under a velocity-time graph


is the total distance that the object
has travelled
Go back and calculate the total

LO: understand how to draw and interpret graphs of motion

Task
Answer the exam questions on velocitytime graphs. Stick the questions into your
books when you are done.

KNOWLEDGE CHECK
C

What is the difference


between speed and velocity?

Start Timer
10
10
Minutes
8

B
A

Describe how you would


calculate speed from a
velocity-time graph

Describe how you would


calculate total distance
travelled from a velocitytime graph

2
0

Forces and Braking


Understand the
factors that
affect the
stopping distance
of a car

Starter
Make a spider
diagram of the
factors that would
affect the maximum
speed of a car

ALL state the


definitions of
stopping, braking
and thinking
distance
MOST Describe
factors that will
affect the stoppingKEYWORDS: force, braking, profile, stopp
distance, thinking distance, braking dista
distance of a car

LO: understand the factors that affect the stopping distance of a car

FACTORS
THAT AFFECT
TOP SPEED

LO: understand the factors that affect the stopping distance of a car

Streamlining
Most of the
resistance forces
that act on a car are
due to air
resistance.
Streamlining a car
will increase the top
speed, even if the
engine is giving the

LO: understand the factors that affect the stopping distance of a car

Stopping distance

The stopping distance of a car is the


minimum distance that a car can safely
stop in
Stopping distance = thinking distance +

LO: understand the factors that affect the stopping distance of a car

Thinking distance
The thinking distance is the distance
travelled by the vehicle in the time it takes
for the driver to react
alcohol

other drugs and


some medicines

What factors will affect


The thinking distance
distractions, such
as
mobile phones

tiredness

spee
d

LO: understand the factors that affect the stopping distance of a car

Stopping distance
The stopping distance is the distance
travelled by the vehicle during the time
the braking force acts
weather

What factors will affect


condition of
The stopping distancetyres/brakes

condition of road

speed

LO: understand the factors that affect the stopping distance of a car

Typical stopping distances

What effect would factors such as drugs,


alcohol, tiredness, higher speed, adverse
weather, poor road conditions or worn out
breaks have on these stopping distances?

LO: understand the factors that affect the stopping distance of a car

Braking force

Which of these would need the bigger force to


stop if the stopping distance remained the
same? Why?

KNOWLEDGE CHECK
C
B
A

What is the definition of


stopping distance?
Explain why poor weather and
worn out brakes would both
lead to an increase in braking
distance

Explain, using the equation


F=mxa, why you would need
a higher breaking force to
stop a lorry compared to a
mini

Start Timer
10
10
Minutes
8

2
0

LO: understand the factors that affect the stopping distance of a car

Practical Reaction times


Aim: To investigate the effect of distractions on
reaction time
Method:
1. Work in groups of three
2. Use a stopwatch to measure your reaction
times with no distractions
3. Repeat the experiment with one person acting
as the distractor
4. Repeat the experiment a number of time to
get an average reaction time with and without
distractions

LO: understand the factors that affect the stopping distance of a car

Practical Reaction times


Write a conclusion for your
experiment based on your results
A/A* - Write an evaluation for the
experiment and how it could be
improved

LO: understand the factors that affect the stopping distance of a car

QWC Practice
A local authority is worried about the number of
road deaths occurring in the area. They have
imposed a ban on mobile phones while driving,
imposed a speed limit of 30mph and installed
speed cameras. Explain how the changes may
5-6 marks criteria:
lead to fewer people being hit by cars.
Knowledge
of accurate information appropriately
contextualised
Detailed understanding, supported by relevant
evidence and examples
Answer is coherent and in an organised, logical
sequence, containing a wide range of appropriate
or relevant specialist terms used accurately
The answer shows almost faultless spelling,
punctuation and grammar.

Terminal velocity
Understand what
is meant by
terminal velocity
ALL state the
definition of terminal
velocity
MOST Describe
the motion of an
object moving
through a fluid
SOME explain the
forces that are
acting on an object
when it is travelling
at terminal velocity

Starter
Answer the exam
question on stopping
distances

KEYWORDS: terminal velocity, force,


Resistance, streamline, weight

LO: understand what is meant by terminal velocity

What is happening?
The graph below shows the velocity-time profile for a skydiver
falling through the air. Discuss with the people on your pod what
you think is happening and why. Think about the forces that are
involved at each stage

LO: understand what is meant by terminal velocity

Moving in a fluid
Lets think about what
happens when an object
moves through a fluid by
considering a skydiver
When the skydiver FIRST
jumps out of the aircraft,
gravity causes him to
accelerate.
The acceleration is a
constant so the line on v-t
graph will have an
unchanging steepness at

LO: understand what is meant by terminal velocity

Moving in a fluid
As the speed of the skydiver
increases, the air
resistance on him
increases.
The increased air resistance
causes his acceleration to
decrease. However, his
velocity is still increasing
i.e. hes speeding up slower
than before, but hes NOT
slowing down.

LO: understand what is meant by terminal velocity

Moving in a fluid
After a certain amount of
time, the weight of the
skydiver and the air
resistance on the skydiver
will be balanced.
At this point, the skydiver
will be moving at a
constant velocity. This is
the MAXIMUM velocity it is
possible for him to move
with and is known as the
TERMINAL VELOCITY.

LO: understand what is meant by terminal velocity

Moving in a fluid
The process that we have just
considered is relevant for ANY
object that is moving in a fluid
e.g. a car driving along a road,
a plane flying at 2000ft, a
submarine underwater etc.

What factors will affect


he terminal velocity of
an object?

LO: understand what is meant by terminal velocity

Moving in a fluid
The factors that will
increase/decrease the
terminal velocity of an
object are:
The driving force that
the object can generate
How streamlined the
object is
The fluid that the object
is travelling through

LO: understand what is meant by terminal velocity

Task
Draw a comic strip to explain
how the velocity of a skydiver
will change as they fall through
the sky. Use the following
keywords in your comic strip:
Gravity, weight, air
resistance, accelerate,
resultant force, zero
A/A* task:
Extend your comic strip to the
point where the skydiver opens
their parachute. What effect
will this have on the force on
the skydiver and their terminal

LO: understand what is meant by terminal velocity

Calculating weight
The weight of an object is
the force that acts on an
object due to gravity. It can
be calculated using the
following equation:
W=mxg
W = weight (Newtons)
M = mass (kg)
g = gravitational field
strength (N/kg)
g has a value of 9.81 on

LO: understand what is meant by terminal velocity

Task
Use the equation to find the
weight of the following
objects on earth:
1. A car of mass 2000kg
2. A person of mass 70kg
3. A football of mass 500g
4. A tennis ball of mass
0.1kg
5. A building of mass
1000,000kg
g is 9.81N/kg on earth
The gravitational field
strength on the moon is

LO: understand what is meant by terminal velocity

Practical - Parachutes
Aim: To make the best possible parachute using a
very limited set of resources
Equipment:
Two plastic bags
Sellotape
40cm of string
Polystyrene cup
Your parachutes will be holding a 200g mass in
the cup. Whichever parachute takes the longest
to fall down the steps will be the winner!

LO: understand what is meant by terminal velocity

Plenary
Answer the exam questions on terminal velocity. Stick
them into your books when you are done.

LO: understand the link between force and extension of an object

Plenary
Write down that the questions should be that go with
these answers:
1. It tells you the speed that a molecule is travelling
with
2. You can calculate it by working out the total area
underneath the line
3. It is the maximum velocity that an object is able to
achieve
4. It is the one force that gives the same effect as all
the other forces acting on an object
5. It is the distance that an object moves when the
brake force is applied
6. It is sum of the thinking distance and the braking

Forces and Elasticity


Understand the
link between
force and
extension of an
object
ALL state the
effect of forces on
an object
MOST Describe
how the shape of an
object is changing
when a force is
applied to it
SOME Calculate

Starter
What is the question?

KEYWORDS: force, Hookes law,


extension, elastic limit, plastic

LO: understand the link between force and extension of an object

Changing shape
When a force is applied to an object, it may
accelerate. However, a second effect that the
force may cause is a change in shape of the
object

LO: understand the link between force and extension of an object

Stretching objects

hat happens when you


stretch an object?
When an object is
stretched, it stores elastic
potential energy.
Some objects are better
at storing this energy
than others. Which of the
materials on your pod is
better at storing elastic

LO: understand the link between force and extension of an object

Practical - Springs
Aim: To determine a relationship between force
applied and extension of a spring
Method:
Measure the initial length of your spring when
unstretched
Attach the spring to a clamp stand
Put a 10g weight onto the spring
Measure the extension of the spring
Repeat the experiment adding 10g each time
Measure your results on a results table
Plot your results when you are finished and draw a
line of best fit

LO: understand the link between force and extension of an object

Conclusion
Using your graph, what can you
conclude about the relationship
between force and extension?
Using your graph, calculate the
extension when the force applied is:
23g
42g
70g

LO: understand the link between force and extension of an object

Material properties
The same process
that you have just
done is done on
all materials to
find out their
characteristics

The constant gradient here


shows us that the force
and extension are
proportional

Most materials
have a range
where the force
and extension are
proportional

LO: understand the link between force and extension of an object

Material properties
Beyond a point, the
material will start to
show plastic
behaviour.

Beyond the proportional


limit, the material shows
plastic behaviour. The
extension is now much

A small increase in
force will give a
large increase in
extension. The
deformation will be
irreversible (the
material will not go
back to the original
shape when the

LO: understand the link between force and extension of an object

Real world application


Knowing how materials
change shape under force is
essential to most aspects
of university.
The flexing of aircraft wings
can dramatically change the
lift generated. It also needs
to be within limits to make
sure the wings dont break
off!

LO: understand the link between force and extension of an object

Hookes Law
Hookes law states
that:
The extension of an
object is directly
proportional to the
force that is applied
to it provided that
the limit of
proportionality is
not exceeded

LO: understand the link between force and extension of an object

Hookes Law
Hookes law can be
written as:

F=kxe
F = Force (N)
k = spring constant
(N/m)
e = extension (m)

LO: understand the link between force and extension of an object

Task
Answer the following questions in your exercise books:
1. Calculate the spring constant for the spring that
you did the experiment with
2. A spring is loaded with a force of 50N four times.
The spring shows extensions of 0.23m, 0.25m,
0.25m and 0.24m. Calculate the spring constant for
this spring
3. For the spring in the question above, calculate the
force when the extension of the spring is 100cm.
4. A second spring is loaded with 100N. It shows an
extension of 60cm. What is the difference between
the spring constants of the two springs?
5. What would be the force required to extend the
second spring by 0.45m?

KNOWLEDGE CHECK
C

What does Hookes law


state?

Calculate the force required to


extend a spring with spring
constant 32N/m by 2 metres.

Start Timer
10
10
Minutes
8

Explain what is meant by the


term proportional limit

2
0

LO: understand the link between force and extension of an object

Homework
You will have a test on next lesson on
everything that you have learnt so far for
this topic. Your homework is to revise in
preparation for this test.

Energy and Work


Understand how
energy can be
transferred
ALL state the
definitions of work
MOST Describe
the link between
work done and
energy transferred
SOME Calculate
the work done by an
object

Starter
Make a spider
diagram of all the
different forms of
energy that you
know

KEYWORDS: work done, force, energy


Energy transferred

FORMS OF
ENERGY

LO: understand how energy can be transferred

What is work?
An object is said to have done WORK
when it transfers (uses) energy

LO: understand how energy can be transferred

Calculating work
The work done by an object is equal
to the amount of energy that it
transfers

Work done = force x


distance
W
=
f
x
d

W = work done(J)
f = force (N)
d = distance(m)

LO: understand how energy can be transferred

Example 1
An object of weight 40N is raised by a height of
0.4m. Calculate the work done in raising the
object.

LO: understand how energy can be transferred

Example 2
2000J of energy is transferred by a sprinter as he runs
a distance of 100m. Calculate the force that is
exerted by the sprinter as he is running.

LO: understand how energy can be transferred

Example Questions
1. What is the definition of work done?
2. What is the unit for energy?
3. The engine of a car exerts a force of 750N. How
much energy would be transferred by the engine if
the car moved a distance of 100m?
4. An object of weight 50N is raised by a height of
200cm. What is the work done in raising the object?
5. 700J of energy is used by a person to move a
distance of 10m. What is the force exerted by the
person as they walk the distance?
6. Object A has a weight of 200N. Object B has a
weight of 350N. If 1000J of energy is used to
raise each object, which object will gain the
most height?

LO: understand how energy can be transferred

Calculating power
Power is the amount of work
done/energy transferred in a given
time

Power = work done / time


P=W/t
P = power (W)
W = work done (J)
t = time (s)

LO: understand how energy can be transferred

Example 1
An object of weight 700N is raised by a height of
2m in a time of four seconds. Calculate the work
done in raising the object and the power.

LO: understand the structure of an atom

Practical - Power
Aim: To calculate the power required for you to
run up the stairs
Method:
1.Work out your weight (your mass x 9.81)
2.Run up the stairs as fast as you can
3. Work out the energy transferred as you run up
the stairs (your weight x height of stairs)
4. Work out your power (work done / time)
The boy and girl who have the highest
power will win 40vivos each!

LO: understand how energy can be transferred

Example Questions
1. A car engine transfers 3000J in 20 seconds.
What is the power generated by the engine?
2. 400J of energy is transferred in raising an object
in 1 minute. What is the power?
3. A kettle has a power rating of 2000W. How
much work is done by the kettle in boiling water
in 40 seconds?
4. A student of weight 500N transfers 2000J
whilst running up some stairs. She
reaches the top of the stairs in 3 seconds.
How high are the stairs and what is her
power?
5. A sprinter can generate 150W whilst

KNOWLEDGE CHECK
C
B
A

What are the definitions of


work done and Power
Calculate the power of a car
that transfers 1000J in 10
seconds

A Kettle has a power rating


of 500W and a toaster of
300W. What is the difference
in the amount of energy
they transfer in 10 seconds?

Start Timer
10
10
Minutes
8

2
0

Gravitational Potential
the
EnergyUnderstand
nature of
gravitational
potential energy

ALL state the


definitions of GPE
MOST Calculate
the GPE of objects
SOME Explain how
GPE can be
transferred into
other forms of
energy
KEYWORDS:
work done, gravitational
potential energy

LO: understand the nature of gravitational potential energy

Gravitational Potential Energy

Any object that is


raised above the
ground will have
gravitational
potential energy

LO: understand the nature of gravitational potential energy

Gravitational Potential Energy


GPE =
mass x

Gravitation
x
al
height
Field
GPE
=mx
strength
gxh

GPE = gravitational
potential energy (J)
m = mass (kg)
g = gravitational field
strength (N/kg)
h = height (m)

LO: understand the nature of gravitational potential energy

Example 1
An object of mass 10kg is raised by a height of
20m. What is the gravitational potential energy of
the object?

LO: understand the nature of gravitational potential energy

Example 2
An object gains gravitational potential energy of
300J. If the mass of the object is 3kg, what is the
height that the object has been raised?

LO: understand the nature of gravitational potential energy

Practical - GPE
Aim: To calculate the gravitational potential
energy of a bouncy ball
Method:
1. Measure the initial height of the ball
2. Calculate the initial gravitational potential
energy
3. Drop the ball and measure the height it
reaches at each successive bounce for 5
bounces
4. Calculate the gravitational potential energy of
the ball for each bounce
5. Repeat the process on a different surface

LO: understand the nature of gravitational potential energy

Practical - GPE
Plot a line graph of your results
(GPE on the y axis and bounce on x
axis).
Why does the gravitational potential
energy reduce each time the ball
bounces? Where is the energy
transferred?
What is the best surface to bounce

KNOWLEDGE CHECK
C

What is the equation to


calculate GPE?

What is the GPE of an object


that has a mass of 300g that is
raised by 1m?

An astronaut jumps up 0.5m


on the moon. Explain why
the amount on GPE he gains
is less than if he jumped the
same distance on earth

Start Timer
10
10
Minutes
8

2
0

Kinetic Energy
Understand the
nature of kinetic
energy
ALL state the
definitions of kinetic
energy
MOST Calculate
the kinetic energy of
objects
SOME Explain the
factors that will
affect the kinetic
energy of an object

KEYWORDS: work done, kinetic energ

LO: understand the nature of kinetic energy

Kinetic energy

All objects
that are
moving have
kinetic energy!

LO: understand the nature of kinetic energy

Kinetic energy
KE = x m
x v

KE = kinetic energy
(J)
m = mass (kg)
v = velocity (m/s)

LO: understand the nature of kinetic energy

Example 1
An object has a mass of 2kg and is moving with a
velocity of 5m/s. What is the kinetic energy of the
object?

LO: understand the nature of kinetic energy

Example 2
An object of mass 300g has 600J of kinetic
energy. How fast is the object moving?

LO: understand the nature of kinetic energy

Example questions
1. What is the equation that is used to calculate
the kinetic energy of an object?
2. Calculate the kinetic energy of an object of
mass 500g that is moving with a velocity of
20m/s
3. A car of mass 500kg is a moving with a
velocity of 10m/s. It accelerates to a velocity
of 15m/s. What is the KE of the object before
and after it accelerates?
4. A sprinter has kinetic energy of 1000J and a
mass of 68kg. How fast is the sprinter
running?
5. A ball of mass of 0.5kg is dropped from a

LO: understand the nature of kinetic energy

Practical Kinetic energy


Aim: To calculate the kinetic energy of objects
Method:
1. Time how long it takes for the car to move
down the slope
2. Calculate the velocity of the car using
speed = distance/time
3. Calculate the KE of the car
4. Repeat the experiment to find an average
5. Repeat the experiment on a different
surface

LO: understand the nature of kinetic energy

Practical Kinetic energy


Make a conclusion for the
experiment explaining on which
surface the car had the most
kinetic energy. Use your results
from the experiment to back up
your conclusion.

LO: understand the nature of kinetic energy

Plenary
Add to the spider diagram that you made at
the beginning of the lesson. Add everything
that you have learnt about energy, work,
power, GPE and KE.

Momentum
Starter
Bingo

KEYWORDS: momentum, mass,


Velocity, conservation of momentum

Understand what
is meant by
momentum
ALL state the
definition of
momentum
MOST perform
calculations for
momentum
SOME Explain
what is meant by
the conservation of
momentum

BINGO

ENERGY KEGPETHINKING

POWER JOULESDISTANCE

TERMINAL
BRAKING
FORCE
VELOCITY
DISTANCE
METRES DISTANCE

LO: understand what is meant by momentum

Momentum

ALL MOVING
OBJECTS
HAVE
MOMENTUM!

LO: understand what is meant by momentum

Momentum

P=mxv
P = momentum
(kgm/s)
m = mass (kg)
v = velocity (m/s)

LO: understand what is meant by momentum

Example question 1
An object of mass 300g is moving with velocity of
5m/s. What is its momentum?

LO: understand what is meant by momentum

Example question 2
An object has momentum of 50kgm/s. If the
object has a mass of 25kg, what is its velocity?

LO: understand what is meant by momentum

Example questions
1.What is the momentum of a bullet of mass 50g
travelling at 300 m/s?
2.What is the momentum of a dog (mass 12 kg)
fired out of a canon at 120 m/s?
3.Calculate the momentum of a 65 kg sprinter
when travelling at 9.5 ms-1.
4.Calculate the velocity of a car of mass 700 kg
that has the same momentum as the sprinter
in Q3
5.A body has a mass of 2.5 kg. Calculate:
Its momentum when it has a velocity of 3.0
m/s
Its velocity when it has a momentum of

LO: understand what is meant by momentum

Conservation of momentum
In a closed system, the total
momentum before an event
and the total momentum
after an event are the same.
This is called conservation
of momentum.
Events you may be asked
about in your exams are:
Collisions
Explosions

LO: understand what is meant by momentum

Example 1
A railway engine of mass 800kg travelling at 5m/s
collides with and becomes attached to a truck of mass
200kg travelling at 2m/s. Calculate the speed of the
truck and engine after the collision

LO: understand what is meant by momentum

Example 2
A 0.5kg trolley is pushed at a velocity of 1.2m/s into a
stationary trolley of mass 1.5kg. The two trolleys stick
to each other after the impact. Calculate:
The momentum of the 0.5kg trolley before the
collision
The velocity of the two trolleys straight after the
impact

LO: understand what is meant by momentum

Task
Answer the exam questions on
momentum and energy. Stick the
questions into your book when you are
done!

Braking and Car Safety


Starter
Make a spider diagram
of all the safety features
that you can think of on
a car

Explain how
safety features
on a car work
ALL State some
car safety features
MOST Describe
the energy
transfers during
braking
SOME Explain
how safety features
on a car work

LO: explain how safety features on a car work

Starter

Car
safety
feature
s

LO: explain how safety features on a car work

Brakes and crumple zones


Brakes and crumple zones are two of the main
safety features on a car

LO: explain how safety features on a car work

Brakes and crumple zones


Both features work by transferring kinetic
energy into other forms. What energy transfers
take place in each of these features?

LO: explain how safety features on a car work

Brakes and crumple zones


Task: Write a brief description of how brakes and
crumple zones work to reduce the risk of serious
harm to car passengers

Static Electricity
To understand
static electricity
ALL State some
methods of creating
static electricity
MOST Describe
the structure of an
atom
SOME Explain
what happens when
static electricity is
created

LO: understand static electricity

Structure of an atom
All matter is made up
of atoms
However, an atoms is
NOT the smallest unit
of matter like you
might have been
previously taught
Atoms of themselves
made of smaller
particles

LO: understand static electricity

What is an atom made up of?


Protons Positively
charged particles
found inside the
nucleus
Neutrons Neutral
particles found inside
the nucleus
Electrons
Negatively charged
particles that orbit the

LO: understand static electricity

Structure of an atom

HTTP://WWW.YOUTU
BE.COM/WATCH?V=C
7SSHJHPCJO

LO: understand static electricity

Practical Static Electricity


Aim: To create static electricity!
Method:
Use the equipment on your pod to create
static electricity! Is the static electricity that
you create the same with each piece of
equipment or are there some differences?

LO: understand static electricity

Static electricity by friction


When you rub one of the rods with the cloths,
you create static electricity. This happens
in one of two ways.
For the polythene rod, the dry cloth
transfers electrons TO the surface of
the rod and gives it a negative charge

LO: understand static electricity

Static electricity by friction


When you rub one of the rods with the cloths,
you create static electricity. This happens
in one of two ways.
For the perspex rod, the dry cloth
transfers electrons away from the
surface of the rod. This gives it a
positive charge

LO: understand static electricity

Static electricity rules


1.Like (The same) charges
attract
2.Unlike (The opposite)
charges repel

LO: understand static electricity

Knowledge check
Copy the true sentences and change
the false sentences to make them
true:
1. Crumple zones help to absorb the
gravitational potential energy of a car
2. Like charges attract
3. Opposite charges attract
4. A polythene rod becomes negatively
charged if rubbed by a dry cloth
5. Atoms are made of protons, neutron
and smurfs

Electrical circuits
To understand
how to create
electrical circuits
ALL State the
difference between
series and parallel
circuits
MOST Identify
key circuit
components
SOME Perform
calculations to find
the current in a

LO: Understand how to create electrical circuits

Key definitions
When considering electricity, we will usually use
three key terms:
1) Current: This is the flow of electric charges
around a circuit. The size of the current is
dependent on the rate of flow of electric
charges
2) Potential Difference (Voltage): The
potential difference between two points is the
work done per unit charge between two points
3) Resistance: This is the resistance to the flow
of electrons around a circuit

LO: Understand how to create electrical circuits

Calculating current
I = Q/t
I = Current (Amps, A)
Q = Charge
(Coulombs, c)
t = Time (s)

LO: Understand how to create electrical circuits

Example question 1
Calculate the current when 4C passes a
point in 8 seconds

LO: Understand how to create electrical circuits

Example question 2
An ammeter is records a current of 8A.
Calculate how much charge is passing
through the ammeter in 10 seconds.

LO: Understand how to create electrical circuits

Task
1. What is the current when 20C of charge pass
through an ammeter in 2minutes?
2. A battery can produce 20A of current. How
much charge does it discharge in 30s?
3. Another battery can produce a charge of 30A.
How long will this battery be running before it
has discharge the same amount of charge as
the battery in Q2?
4. A car engine requires a battery that can
produce a current of 40A to start. A mechanic
places a battery that can discharge 100C in
30s into a car. Will this battery be good
enough to start the car? Why?

LO: Understand how to create electrical circuits

Calculating voltage
V = W/Q
V = Voltage (Volts, V)
W = Work done
(Joules, J)
Q = Charge
(Coulombs, c)

LO: Understand how to create electrical circuits

Example question 1
A battery transfers 30J for every coulomb
of charge that passes through the battery.
What is the potential difference of the
battery?

LO: Understand how to create electrical circuits

Example question 2
A battery has a voltage rating of 40V. How
much energy is transferred by the battery
if 20C of charge pass through the battery?

LO: Understand how to create electrical circuits

Task
1. What is the voltage of a battery if it transfers
40J of energy for every 10C that pass through
it?
2. A builder requires a 400V battery to power
his pneumatic drill. He is told that a battery
transfers 1000J for every 3C of charge that
pass through it. Will this battery be good
enough? Why?
3. How much energy would the battery in the
question above need to transfer for every 3C
to have a voltage of 400V?
4. Battery A has a rating of 300V. Battery B has
a rating of 500V. What is the difference in the

NO MORE CALCULATIONS

WELL.FOR THIS LESSON


ANYWAY!

LO: Understand how to create electrical circuits

Circuit symbols

LO: Understand how to create electrical circuits

Series circuits
IN A SERIES CIRCUIT, EVERYTHING IS
CONNECTED END TO END. THERE IS NO
PLACE FOR THE CURRENT TO SPLIT IN
THE CIRCUIT.
Tips for constructing circuits:
1. Make sure your circuit is complete
2. Make sure that ammeters are connected
in series
3. Make sure that voltmeters are connected
in parallel

LO: Understand how to create electrical circuits

Practical Series circuits


Aim: To investigate current and voltage in a
series circuit
Method:
1. Create a series circuit with one bulb
2. Measure the current in the circuit and
voltage across the bulb
3. Add another the bulb in series and repeat
the process
4. Add a third bulb in series and repeat the
process
5. Make sure you measure the current in

LO: Understand how to create electrical circuits

Practical Series circuits


Conclusions:
1) The current through each component
in a series circuit is the same
2) The potential difference of the source
is shared out between the
components in a series circuit

LO: Understand how to create electrical circuits

Parallel circuits
IN A PARALLEL CIRCUIT, THERE ARE
BRANCHES THAT SEPERATE THE CIRCUIT
INTO SMALLER CIRCUITS. THERE IS
MORE THAN ONE PATH FOR THE
CURRENT TO TAKE.
Tips for constructing circuits:
1. Make sure your circuit is complete
2. Make sure that ammeters are connected
in series
3. Make sure that voltmeters are connected
in parallel

LO: Understand how to create electrical circuits

Practical Parallel circuits


Aim: To investigate current and voltage in a
parallel circuit
Method:
1. Create a parallel circuit with one bulb
2. Measure the current in the circuit and
voltage across the bulb
3. Add another the bulb in parallel and
repeat the process
4. Add a third bulb in parallel and repeat the
process
5. Make sure you measure the current in

LO: Understand how to create electrical circuits

Practical Parallel circuits


Conclusions:
1) The potential difference across each
component is the same in a parallel
circuit
2) The total current in the circuit is the
sum of the currents through the
individual components in the circuit

LO: Understand how to create electrical circuits

Practical Current-Voltage relationship1


Aim: To investigate the current/voltage
characteristic of a resistor
Method:
1. Create a series circuit with one resistor, a
battery pack, an ammeter and a voltmeter
2. Slowly increase the voltage of the power
pack from 2V to 10V and repeat the
process
3. Measure the current in the circuit and the
voltage across the resistor

LO: Understand how to create electrical circuits

Practical Current-Voltage relationship1

Draw a line of best fit graph for


your results with potential
difference on the x-axis and the
current on the y-axis.
A line of best fit is NOT dot-to-dot!
Make a conclusion for the current
and voltage through a resistor. Use
your results to back up your
conclusion

LO: explain how safety features on a car work

Knowledge Check
What I
enjoyed/le
arnt in
todays
lesson

Current-Voltage
relationships

To understand the
relationship between
current and voltage
ALL State the
relationship between
current and voltage in a
circuit
MOST Perform
calculations to find
resistance
SOME Explain why
certain components will
not follow Ohms law

LO: Understand the relationship-between current and voltage in a circuit

Recap
In the last lesson, we
made a graph for the
current and voltage
through a resistor. The
graph that we produced
looked like the one to
the right. What does that
tell us?

LO: Understand the relationship-between current and voltage in a circuit

Ohms Law
Ohms Law states that
the current through a
resistor is proportional to
the potential difference
provided the
temperature is
constant

LO: Understand the relationship-between current and voltage in a circuit

Ohms Law
V = IR
V = Voltage
(V)
I = Current
(A)
R=
Resistance

LO: Understand the relationship-between current and voltage in a circuit

Ohms Law 1
Calculate the potential difference across a 4
resistor when the current through it is 10A.

LO: Understand the relationship-between current and voltage in a circuit

Ohms Law 2
The potential difference across a 30 is 20V.
What is the current through the resistor?

LO: Understand the relationship-between current and voltage in a circuit

Task
Calculate:
1. The resistance of a bulb if the current is 0.5
A and the potential difference across the
bulb is 2 V.
2. The potential difference across a bulb if the
resistance of the bulb is 3 and the
current flowing is 2 A
3. The potential difference across a resistor of
5 with a current of 1.5 A.
4. The total resistance of a circuit if the
potential difference across the cell is 12V
and the current is 3 A.

LO: Understand the relationship-between current and voltage in a circuit

Practical Current-Voltage relationship2


Aim: To investigate the current/voltage
characteristic of a filament light bulb
Method:
1. Create a series circuit with one bulb, a
battery pack, an ammeter and a voltmeter
2. Slowly increase the voltage of the power
pack from 2V to 10V and repeat the
process
3. Measure the current in the circuit and the
voltage across the bulb

LO: Understand the relationship-between current and voltage in a circuit

Practical Current-Voltage relationship2

Draw a line of best fit graph for


your results with potential
difference on the x-axis and the
current on the y-axis.
A line of best fit is NOT dot-to-dot!
Make a conclusion for the current
and voltage through a bulb. Use
your results to back up your
conclusion.
Extension: Explain why this graph
is not the same as for the resistor.

LO: Understand the relationship-between current and voltage in a circuit

Non-Ohmic Components1

An LED does not


follow Ohms law
and is designed to
only allow current
to flow through in
one direction

LO: Understand the relationship-between current and voltage in a circuit

Non-Ohmic Components2
An LED does not
follow Ohms law
and will only light
up when current to
flows through in
the right direction.
If current tries to
flow in the other
direction it

LO: Understand the relationship-between current and voltage in a circuit

Non-Ohmic Components2
An LDR is a
component whose
resistance
decreases as the
light intensity that
falls on it
increases
Where would this
be useful?

LO: Understand the relationship-between current and voltage in a circuit

Non-Ohmic Components3
A thermistor is a component
whose resistance decreases when
the temperature increases. Where
would this be useful?

LO: define ionic bonding

Plenary
Write a rap/rhyme about all
you have learnt in this
lesson. Try to include as
many of the following
words in your rap as
possible!
Ohms Law
Thermistor
LED
LDR
Filament lightbulb

Electricity in the home


Starter
Make a brainstorm
about everything you
know about electricity
in the home

Describe features
of mains
electricity
ALL State what
features of mains
electricity
MOST Describe
how to wire a plug
SOME Explain
how fuses and
circuit breakers
work

KEYWORDS:
Live, neutral ,

AC, DC, Current, Voltage


earth, fuse, circuit break

LO: describe features of mains electricity

Starter

MAINS
ELECTRIC
ITY

LO: describe features of mains electricity

AC vs DC
If you turn on any
battery powered
device the electricity
will only ever flow in
one direction.
This is called
DIRECT CURRRENT
(d.c.) as the
electricity goes

LO: describe features of mains electricity

AC vs DC
However, the same
isnt true for mains
electricity. Mains
electricity uses
ALTERNATING
CURRENT (a.c.)
which repeatedly
flows in one direction
and then reverses its
flow. The frequency

LO: describe features of mains electricity

Key points
1. Mains electricity
uses a.c.
2. Mains electricity
is at 230V
3. Mains electricity
has a frequency
of 50Hz. This
means it changes
direction 50
times in one

LO: describe features of mains electricity

Cables and Plugs


Cables and wires are
designed to allow
people to use them
without risk of hurting
themselves. Most
appliances are supplied
with three-core cable.
This means the cable is
made up of three
separate wires.

LO: describe features of mains electricity

Components of a plug and cable


1) Live wire (brown)
This carries the current
to the appliance.
Touching this can be
deadly!
2) Neutral wire (blue)
This completes the
circuit and is usually at
0V
3) Earth wire
(green/yellow) This
earths the appliance in
case one of the wires

LO: describe features of mains electricity

Practical Wiring a plug


Aim: To wire a plug
Method:
1. Take apart everything in the plug
2. Put everything back together using
your knowledge of plugs and wiring
3. Make sure the wires are connected to
the correct pins!

LO: describe features of mains electricity

Earthing
Components are earthed
to make sure you dont get
an electric shock if the live
wire accidentally touches
the casing. The electricity
will flow harmlessly
through the earth wire
instead of through you
when you touch the
casing.
However, appliances with
plastic cases (hairdryers

LO: describe features of mains electricity

Earthing
Plastic is an insulator, so
there is no danger if the
live wire touches the
casing. Therefore, these
appliances are supplied
with two-core cables
instead of three-core
cables i.e. they dont have
earth wires because they
dont need them

KNOWLEDGE CHECK
C
B
A

Describe what is meant by


a.c. and d.c.
Describe how a plug should be
wired, explaining what the
different coloured wires
represent

Explain why appliances with


plastic cases are not
supplied with three-core
cable

Start Timer
10
10
Minutes
8

2
0

LO: describe features of mains electricity

Fuses
A fuse is a component
that has a wire
running through it
made of a different
material/thickness
than the rest of the
circuit. It is designed
to stop current that is
too high flowing
through it.

LO: describe features of mains electricity

Fuses
Fuses have a rating based
on the amount of current
they will allow through. For
example, a 13A fuse will
allow a maximum of 13
amps of current to flow
through. If MORE than this
tries to flow through, the
wire heats up and melts,
breaking the circuit and
Advantages/
protecting
the appliance

Disadvantages?

LO: describe features of mains electricity

Circuit Breakers
Circuit breakers are fitted
in newer homes. They
measure the difference in
current in the live and
neutral wires. If the
difference is too great, an
electromagnetic switch
opens (trips) which stops
the flow of current. They
work a lot faster than fuses
Advantages/
and
can be reset easily

Disadvantages?

LO: describe features of mains electricity

Circuit Breakers

Use the textbook spread to create a poster on


fuses and circuit breakers. Your poster to include
details of how they work and advantages and
disadvantages of both

LO: describe features of mains electricity

Knowledge check
Copy the true sentences and change the
false sentences to make them true:
1. The earth wire in a three-core cable is usually
brown
2. Appliances with metal casings are supplied
with three-core cables
3. Fuses stop current flowing through a circuit
by melting when the current flowing through
them is above a certain value
4. A circuit breaker works by monitoring the
difference in current between the live and
earth wire
5. Mains electricity uses direct current at 100Hz.

LO: describe features of mains electricity

QWC Practice
Using as much detail as possible, explain
how fuses and circuit breakers work to
protect people and appliances. Which, in
your opinion, is the better choice for
5-6 marks
criteria:
installation
into a home and why?

Knowledge of accurate information appropriately


contextualised
Detailed understanding, supported by relevant
evidence and examples
Answer is coherent and in an organised, logical
sequence, containing a wide range of appropriate
or relevant specialist terms used accurately
The answer shows almost faultless spelling,
punctuation and grammar.

LO: describe features of mains electricity

Calculating power
P=VxI
P = Power
(w)
V = Voltage
(V)
I = Current
(A)

LO: describe features of mains electricity

Example 1
Calculate the power of a bulb if it is supplied
with a potential difference of 230V and the
current flowing through it is 0.4A

LO: describe features of mains electricity

Example 2
A kettle has a power rating of 1000W. If it is
supplied with a potential difference of 230V,
what is the current flowing through it?

LO: describe features of mains electricity

Example questions
1. A light bulb is connected to a 2V supply and
experiences a current of 6.4A. What is the power
rating of the bulb?
2. A kettle has a power rating of 1500w. What is the
potential difference that it must be supplied with
to have a current flowing through it of 30A?
3. A student attaches a 10V supply to a bulb with a
power rating of 100w. What is the current running
through the bulb?
4. The student now connect a 25w bulb to the same
supply. What is the difference between the
current going through this bulb compared to the
100w bulb?
5. Bulb A transfers 1000J in 10seconds. Bulb B

LO: Understand how to create electrical circuits

Calculating energy
E=VxQ
E = Energy transferred
(Joules, J)
V = Voltage (Volts, V)
Q = Charge (Coulombs, c)

LO: Understand how to create electrical circuits

Example question 1
A battery transfers 30J for every coulomb
of charge that passes through the battery.
What is the potential difference of the
battery?

LO: Understand how to create electrical circuits

Example question 2
A battery has a voltage rating of 40V. How
much energy is transferred by the battery
if 20C of charge pass through the battery?

LO: Understand how to create electrical circuits

Task
1. What is the voltage of a battery if it transfers
40J of energy for every 10C that pass through
it?
2. A builder requires a 400V battery to power
his pneumatic drill. He is told that a battery
transfers 1000J for every 3C of charge that
pass through it. Will this battery be good
enough? Why?
3. How much energy would the battery in the
question above need to transfer for every 3C
to have a voltage of 400V?
4. Battery A has a rating of 300V. Battery B has
a rating of 500V. What is the difference in the

BINGO

POWERBROWNCIRCUIT
BREAKER
GREEN BLUE
WATTS
LIVE3-CORE
JOULES
FUSE
2-CORE
NEUTRAL

Radioactivity
Starter
Draw a diagram to show
what the atom looks like,
highlighting where you
would find protons,
neutrons and electrons

Understand the
nature of
radioactive decay
ALL State the
structure of an
atom
MOST Describe
how the structure
of an atom was
found
SOME Describe
the nature and
EYWORDS: protons, neutrons, electrons,
penetration of
Rutherford, ion, alpha, beta gamma
different kinds of

LO: understand the nature of radioactive decay

What is an atom made up of?


Protons Positively
charged particles
found inside the
nucleus
Neutrons Neutral
particles found inside
the nucleus
Electrons
Negatively charged
particles that orbit the

LO: understand the nature of radioactive decay

Protons, neutrons and electrons


Particle
Proton
Neutron
Electron

Relative
charge
+1
0
-1

Relative
mass
1
1
1/2000

Where is the majority


of the mass of the atom?

LO: understand the nature of radioactive decay

Relative sizes

LO: understand the nature of radioactive decay

Atomic and Mass number


Atomic number: This is the number of protons
inside the nucleus of an atom
WARNING: Even though the number of protons
and electrons in a neutral atom are the same,
make sure you say the correct definitions if
you are asked in an exam!
Mass number: This is the number of protons +
neutrons in the nucleus of an atom

LO: understand the nature of radioactive decay

Atomic and Mass number


Atomic number: This is the number of protons
inside the nucleus of an atom
Mass number: This is the number of protons +
neutrons in the nucleus of an atom

Which is which?

LO: understand the nature of radioactive decay

Example 1
Calculate the following quantities for the element
below
(i) Atomic number
(ii) Mass number
(iii) Number of protons
(iv)Number of electrons
(v) Number of neutrons

LO: understand the nature of radioactive decay

Example 2
Calculate the following quantities for the element
below
(i) Atomic number
(ii) Mass number
(iii) Number of protons

LO: understand the nature of radioactive decay

Task
Use your periodic table to find the following
quantities for: nitrogen, oxygen, iron,
platinum, gold, lead, mercury,
potassium, calcium, phosphorus, argon,
xenon
(i) Atomic number
(ii) Mass number
(iii)Number of protons
(iv)Number of electrons
(v) Number of neutrons
If the numbers are decimals, round them

LO: understand the nature of radioactive decay

The Plum Pudding Model - 1897

LO: understand the nature of radioactive decay

Enter Rutherford
Read through the worksheet on the work of
Ernest Rutherford. Highlight the key pieces
of information and think about what the
conclusions could be for each of the
observations that he made.

LO: understand the nature of radioactive decay

Enter Rutherford
Ernest Rutherford fired alpha particles
at gold foil. Alpha particles have a
positive charge and he expected them
to go through the particle, with a small
amount of deviation from their path

LO: understand the nature of radioactive decay

Gold Foil Experiment - 1911


The results are very different!
Most alpha particles go straight
through with no deviation! Some,
however, are diverted through very
large angles! The physics community is
flummoxed by this finding!

LO: understand the nature of radioactive decay

Gold Foil Experiment - 1911


The results are very different!
Most alpha particles go straight
through with no deviation! Some,
however, are diverted through very
large angles! The physics community is
flummoxed by this finding!

LO: understand the nature of radioactive decay

Conclusions

Most of the fast, highly


charged alpha particles
went whizzing straight
through undeflected.
SUGGESTS THAT MOST
OF THE ATOM IS EMPTY

LO: understand the nature of radioactive decay

Conclusions
Some of the alpha particles
were deflected back
through large angles. A
very small number of alpha
particles were deflected
backwards!
SUGGESTS THAT THERE IS

LO: understand the nature of radioactive decay

Conclusions
A very small number of
alpha particles were
deflected backwards!
SUGGESTS THAT THE
CONCENTRATED MASS IS
MINISCULE COMPARED TO
THE SIZE OF THE REST OF

LO: understand the nature of radioactive decay

Types of Radiation
There are three different kinds of radiation. Each
one has a unique nature and penetration
Name
Alpha

Beta

Gamma

Composit Charge
ion

Penetra
tion

Extra
Info

LO: understand the nature of radioactive decay

Types of Radiation
There are three different kinds of radiation. Each
one has a unique nature and penetration
Alpha radiation:
This particle is made up
of two protons and two
neutrons (i.e. a Helium
nucleus). It has a charge
of +2 and moves slowly
because of its large
mass. It can be stopped
by a few cm of air or by a

LO: understand the nature of radioactive decay

Types of Radiation
There are three different kinds of radiation. Each
one has a unique nature and penetration
Beta radiation:
During beta radiation, a neutron
turns into a proton inside the
nucleus and gives off an electron,
which is fired from the nucleus.
The electron is small and light and
so moves very fast! Beta particles
can be stopped by a thin sheet of
aluminium

LO: understand the nature of radioactive decay

Types of Radiation
There are three different kinds of radiation. Each
one has a unique nature and penetration
Gamma radiation:

Gamma radiation usually


follows alpha or beta decay. It
is NOT a particle like the
other two. It is a high energy
EM wave that travels at the
speed of light (the fastest
that anything can travel Joel).
It can only be stopped by a
very thick piece of lead or

LO: understand the nature of radioactive decay

Homework
Use the book spread to create a leaflet about the
uses and dangers of radioactive substances.
Focus on the specific uses of alpha, beta and
gamma radiation and also their specific dangers.

LO: understand the nature of radioactive decay

5, 5, 1
Summarise todays topic in 5
sentences.
Reduce to 5 words.
Now to 1 word.

Radioactivity II
Starter
Draw a spider diagram
showing what you know
about alpha, beta and
gamma radiation

KEYWORDS: fusion, fission, isotope,


Half life, decay, chain reaction

Understand the
nature of nuclear
fusion and fission
ALL State the
definition of an
isotope
MOST Describe
the processes of
fusion and fission
SOME Explain the
design of fusion
reactors

LO: understand the nature of fusion and fission

Isotopes
The diagram below shows three
isotopes of hydrogen. What is the same
and different for each isotope of
hydrogen?

LO: understand the nature of fusion and fission

Isotopes
An isotope of an element has the
same number of protons and
neutrons as the original, but a
different number of neutrons.

LO: understand the nature of fusion and fission

Radioactivity of a substance

LO: understand the nature of fusion and fission

Radioactivity of a substance
As a radioactive
substance decays,
the number of
particles left in it
will start to reduce.
Therefore the
radioactivity of the
substance will
begin to decrease.
It will continue to
decrease, until the
radioactivity has
reached zero!

LO: understand the nature of fusion and fission

Half-life
The half-life of a
substance is the
time it takes for
HALF of the
particles in a
sample to decay
or for the
radioactivity of a
substance to
decrease by
HALF.

LO: understand the nature of fusion and fission

Half-life
What is the
half life of this
substance?

LO: understand the nature of fusion and fission

Practical Modelling decay


Aim: To model the radioactive decay of a
substance
Method:
1. Count the number of original dice in
the sample
2. Roll all the dice simultaneously
3. All the dice that come up odd are said
to have decayed
4. Repeat until you get a nice set of

LO: understand the nature of fusion and fission

Practical Modelling decay


Use the results of the graph to draw
a line of best fit graph. Assume that
each time we threw the dice, one
day had passed. Use your graph to
calculate the half life of the
substance.

LO: understand the nature of fusion and fission

Task
Answer the questions on the worksheet
on calculating half-life

Nuclear Fission and Fusion


Starter
Label the atom

Understand the
nature of nuclear
fusion and
fission
ALL Describe the
process of fission
and fusion
MOST Explain
how fission/fusion
can be used to
generate electricity
SOME Evaluate
the advantages
EYWORDS: fusion, fission, chain reaction,
and disadvantages
Generator, turbine, hydrogen
of fission/fusion

LO: understand the nature of fusion and fission

Starter
Draw the diagram of the atom below and add the
following labels: electron, neutron, proton, nucleus

LO: understand the nature of fusion and fission

Recap
Protons and
neutrons are in the
centre of the atom
called the nucleus.
The electrons orbit
around the
nucleus.

LO: understand the nature of fusion and fission

Recap
Particle
Proton

Charge
+1

Neutron

Electron

-1

In each atom, the


number of protons
will ALWAYS be the
same as the
number of
electrons. This
makes sure that

LO: understand the nature of fusion and fission

Recap

http://
www.youtube.com/watch?v=hhbqIJZ
8wCM

LO: understand the nature of fusion and fission

Recap

WHY IS THIS
IMPORTANT?

LO: understand the nature of fusion and fission

Nuclear Fission
Nuclear fission is a process
that uses atoms to generate
VAST amounts of energy.

HOW DOES IT WORK?

LO: understand the nature of fusion and fission

Nuclear Fission

Neutron

Uranium
nucleus

To begin with, we
have a simple
Uranium nucleus.
Uranium is used
because it is already
unstable.
A slow moving
neutron is fired at the
Uranium.

LO: understand the nature of fusion and fission

Nuclear Fission

Neutron
Unstable
nucleus
Uranium
nucleus

The neutron
attaches
itself to the
uranium and
makes it
even more
unstable!

LO: understand the nature of fusion and fission

Nuclear Fission
The unstable Uranium
splits into two smaller
nuclei, releasing energy
in the process

Neutron
Unstable
nucleus
Uranium
nucleus

2 smaller nuclei
(e.g. barium
and krypton)

LO: understand the nature of fusion and fission

Nuclear Fission
Along with the energy,
some more neutrons are
also released!

Neutron
Unstable
nucleus
Uranium
nucleus

2 smaller nuclei
(e.g. barium
and krypton)

More
neutro
ns

LO: understand the nature of fusion and fission

Chain reactions
These fission reactions
produce a lot of energy and
are used in nuclear
generators.
However, each fission
reaction produces more and
more neutrons.

More
neutro
ns

WHY MIGHT
THIS BE BAD?

LO: understand the nature of fusion and fission

Chain reactions
Each of the neutrons can
cause more fission reactions,
releasing more energy and
more neutrons. The reaction
can soon become an
uncontrollable chain
reaction,
and when that happens
More
neutro
ns

LO: understand the nature of fusion and fission

Task
Create a poster that has the following:
A simple diagram of an atom
An explanation of nuclear fission
A diagram to show the process of
nuclear fission
A description of what a chain
reaction is and why they are bad.
Leave space on your poster to add more
information later.

LO: understand the nature of fusion and fission

Using fission

LO: understand the nature of fusion and fission

Advantages/disadvantages of fission

LO: understand the nature of fusion and fission

Advantages/disadvantages of fission

LO: understand the nature of fusion and fission

Advantages/disadvantages of fission

LO: understand the nature of fusion and fission

Advantages/disadvantages of fission
Advantag
es

Disadvant
ages

LO: understand the nature of fusion and fission

Task
Add the following to your poster:
The diagram of the nuclear reactor
A step-by-step explanation of how
the reactor works
A table explaining what the
advantages and disadvantages of
fission are
A brief explanation on whether or
not you think fission should be
used to generate electricity

LO: understand the nature of fusion and fission

True or False?
Copy the true sentences and change the
false sentences to make them true
1) Nuclear fission uses fast-moving electrons
2) The most common fuel used in a nuclear
reactor is uranium
3) Nuclear fission involves one nucleus splitting
into smaller nuclei and releasing energy in the
process
4) An advantage of nuclear fission is that it
doesnt produce any harmful radioactive waste
5) A chain reaction occurs when too many
neutrons cause fission reactions and the
process can no longer be controlled

LO: understand the nature of fusion and fission

Debate
RECENT DISASTERS SUCH AS
THE ONE THAT HAPPENED AT
THE FUKISHIMA PLANT HAS
SHOWN THAT NUCLEAR
FISSION IS WAY TOO
DANGEROUS TO PRODUCE
ENERGY. ALL NUCLEAR
POWER PLANTS IN THE UK

http://
www.bbc.co.uk/learningzone/c
lips/nuclear-fission/6020.ht
ml
http://
www.youtube.com/watch?v
=H9AMtUeyDP0

Nuclear fusion

LO: understand the nature of fusion and fission

Nuclear fusion
Although the names sound very
similar, fission and fusion are
VERY DIFFERENT PROCESSES.

LO: understand the nature of fusion and fission

Nuclear Fission
In fission, one nuclei is
split into smaller nuclei
to release energy!

Neutron
Unstable
nucleus
Uranium
nucleus

2 smaller nuclei
(e.g. barium
and krypton)

More
neutro
ns

LO: understand the nature of fusion and fission

Nuclear fusion
In nuclear fusion, two nuclei are
fused together to release energy.
It is the opposite of nuclear
fission.

LO: understand the nature of fusion and fission

Where does this happen?


Contrary to
popular belief,
our sun is not
a massive
fireball. It is
actually a
massive
fusion

LO: understand the nature of fusion and fission

Where does this happen?


The sun is made
up of mainly
hydrogen. The
high temperature
on the sun allows
the hydrogen to
fuse together and
make helium,
releasing
massive

LO: understand the nature of fusion and fission

Why dont we use fusion?


Fusion seems like
a great process!
We only need
hydrogen to do it
(which we can get
from water) and
make helium,
which is not a
greenhouse gas
so why are we not

LO: understand the nature of fusion and fission

Task
Watch the video on nuclear fusion and answer
the following questions:
1) What is the temperature at the centre of the sun?
2) How much hotter is the JET reactor?
3) What process does the sun use to generate
energy?
4) What kind of conditions are required to recreate
fusion on earth?
5) Why must robotic arms be used to move things
inside the core?
6) Why is fusion safer than fission?
http://
www.bbc.co.uk/learningzone/clips/nuclear-fusion/6019

LO: understand the nature of fusion and fission

Fusion future
Although fusion
isnt economically
viable right now,
it will (probably!)
be one of the
main ways we
generate energy
in the future. Lots
and lots of
research is
currently being

BINGO

FISSION
RADIOACTIVE
URANIUM
WASTE
FUSION
NEUTRON
CHAIN
JET PROTON REACTION
HYDROGEN

GENERATOR

The life cycle of a star

Understand the
lifecycle of a star
ALL State the
main stages of a
stars development
MOST Describe
each stage and
explain the factors
that influence the
development of a
star
KEYWORDS: protostar, red giant, whiteSOME Explain
how solar systems
dwarf, black dwarf, supernova,
neutron star, Black hole
such as ours came
into existence
Starter
Write one question about
stars that you want to
know the answer to by
the end of the lesson

LO: understand the lifecycle of a star

Stars
To start with, we will be watching a few short
videos about stars. The videos will give you
important information about the lifecycle of
stars, which we will cover in greater detail later
in the lesson.
http://
www.bbc.co.uk/learningzone/clips/how-do-starsform/9789.html
http://
www.bbc.co.uk/learningzone/clips/the-death-of-s
tars/12239.html
http://
www.bbc.co.uk/learningzone/clips/why-are-black-

LO: understand the lifecycle of a star

Task
Around the room is information about
stars and their lifecycle. Go around the
room and write the sentences in the
correct order in your books to create the
star lifecycle. Add a diagram to go
with each stage.

LO: understand the lifecycle of a star

Nebula
All stars start
their lives as
part of a
nebula.
Nebulae are
large clouds of
dust and gas
(mainly

LO: understand the lifecycle of a star

Protostar
Over millions of years,
gravity will cause the
dust and gas in the
nebula to come
together. As it does
this, the temperature
increases until
hydrogen can fuse.
When this happens, a
protostar is born.

LO: understand the lifecycle of a star

Main sequence star


The main sequence
star is the next stage
after a protostar.
Hydrogen fusion is
now in full flow and
the star is much
hotter and brighter
than the protostar.

LO: understand the lifecycle of a star

Red Giant star


When a star runs out
of hydrogen, it begins
to fuse other, heavier
elements. This
releases more energy,
causing the star to
expand. It also gives
off red light, giving it
the name Red
Giant.

LO: understand the lifecycle of a star

White dwarf
When the red giant
has run out of all fuel
and can fuse nothing
more, it will lose its
outer layers. This
leaves just the core,
which is still extremely
hot. It is so hot it
glows white hot,
giving the name to
this stage the white

LO: understand the lifecycle of a star

Black dwarf
After a long enough
time, the white dwarf
will cool down enough
so that it stops
glowing white hot. It is
now called a black
dwarf.

LO: understand the lifecycle of a star

Task
The lifecycle
that you have
just covered
is for stars
about the
same mass as
our sun
Heavier stars,
however,
lead a slightly
different life

LO: understand the lifecycle of a star

Red Super Giant star


Following the main
sequence, the star
begins to fuse
together heavier
elements. However, as
it has far more fuel, it
expands to a much
larger size and gives
off much more energy.

LO: understand the lifecycle of a star

Supernova
For very heavy stars,
once they have run
out of fuel, the star
begins to collapse in
on itself. It continues
to collapse until it
reaches a critical point
when it cant collapse
any more. This causes
a MASSIVE

LO: understand the lifecycle of a star

Supernova
The shockwave is so
large that the outer
layers EXPLODE
outwards! The
explosion only lasts
seconds, but can
release as much
energy in those
seconds as the star
has released up to
that point! It can be as

LO: understand the lifecycle of a star

Neutron star
After a supernova,
only the stars core is
left behind. During the
collapsing process,
this core is turned into
just neutrons.
The resulting neutron
star is very very
dense. One spoonful
of a neutron star

LO: understand the lifecycle of a star

Black hole
In some very very rare
cases, the core of a
star left over after a
supernova will
continue to collapse. It
will keep getting
smaller and smaller
until the whole star
has collapsed into an
infinitely small point.

LO: understand the lifecycle of a star

Black hole
This singularity has
an immense
gravitational force. Its
attraction is so strong
that not even light can
escape from it. Hence
the name black
hole.

LO: understand the lifecycle of a star

Task

Using the help sheet,


create a comic strip to
show how stars much
larger than our sun
evolve after turning
into a red super giant.

KNOWLEDGE CHECK
C
B
A

State the stages of a stars


lifecycle that is about the
same size as our sun.
Describe a protostar and
explain how it is different from
a main sequence star

Describe a supernova and


explain why some stars will
go supernova and others will
not.

Start Timer
10
10
Minutes
8

2
0

LO: understand the lifecycle of a star

Pupil as Teacher

Summarise the lesson and what we have


learnt about for 20vivos and a positive!

The importance of stars


Starter
Name the stages in the
lifecycle of a star about
the same size as our sun.

KEYWORDS: fusion, supernova, iron

Understand why
stars are
important
ALL State the role
that stars play in
the formation of
elements
MOST Describe
how stars make
elements heavier
than helium
SOME Explain
how supernova
make elements
heavier than Iron

LO: understand the lifecycle of a star

Task
Watch the video and answer the following the
questions on how elements are made:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/learningzone/clips
/how-are-elements-made/12234.html

LO: understand the lifecycle of a star

How elements are formed


Stars are the perfect
place for elements to be
made! They are like
massive ovens that have
the energy needed to
make new elements

LO: understand the lifecycle of a star

Stage 1
When a star is young it
has plenty of hydrogen.
It fuses the hydrogen
together to form helium.
This releases massive
amounts of energy in
the form of light and
heat.
But what happens
when the hydrogen
runs out?

LO: understand the lifecycle of a star

Stage 2
When a star runs out of
hydrogen, it has massive
amounts of helium left.
It has no choice but to
start fusing helium,
instead of hydrogen.
Fusing helium makes
heavier elements, like
lithium and beryllium.

LO: understand the lifecycle of a star

Stage 2
Fusing helium releases
more energy than fusing
hydrogen. This makes
the star bigger and it
enters the red giant
phase.
But what does it do
when it runs out of
helium?

LO: understand the lifecycle of a star

Stage 3
When the star has run
out of helium, it will
start fusing the heavier
elements that it has
created. This will make
even heavier elements,
such as Boron and
Carbon.

LO: understand the lifecycle of a star

Stage 4
The star will keep on
going through this
process of running out of
fuel and fusing heavy
elements that it has
created. This will make
heavier and heavier
elements.
The heaviest element
that stars can make is

LO: understand the lifecycle of a star

What about elements heavier than Iron?

LO: understand the lifecycle of a star

Supernova

The temperature in stars


is not hot enough to
make elements heavier
than Iron. For these
temperatures, a
supernova is
required!