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Chapter 6: Stability

Chapter 6
Stability

Chapter 6: Stability

introduction

C(t)=Cforced(t)+Cnatural(t)
For a bounded input, depend upon
natural response, the system can be
stable, unstable or marginally stable
A system is stable if every bounded
input yields a bounded output (BIBO)
If input is bounded but the total
response is not bounded, the system
is unstable

Chapter 6: Stability

Stability

A system is stable if the natural


response approaches zero as time
approaches infinity.
A system is marginally stable if the
natural response neither decays nor
grows, but remains constant or
oscillates.

Marginally stable
Note that the
roots are on the
imaginary axis

Chapter 6: Stability

Figure 6.1
Closed-loop
poles
and response:
a. stable
system;
b. unstable
system

Chapter 6: Stability

Chapter 6: Stability

G(s)

Figure 6.2
Common cause
of problems in
finding closedloop poles:
a. original
system;
b. equivalent
system
(R-C)G=C
(1+G)]R

C(1+G)=GR, C=[G/

G(s)/[1+G(s)]

Chapter 6: Stability

Figure 6.3
Equivalent
closed-loop
transfer
function

Table 6.1
Initial layout for Routh table

Chapter 6: Stability

Chapter 6: Stability

Table 6.2
Completed Routh table

If no sign changes, stable

10

Figure 6.4
a. Feedback
system for
Example 6.1;
b. equivalent
closed-loop
system
1000
G ( s)
( s 2)( s 3)( s 5)

1000
1 G(s) 1
( s 2)( s 3)( s 5)
1000
1000

3
2
( s 2)( s 3)( s 5) 1000 s 10 s 31s 1030

Chapter 6: Stability

11

Chapter 6: Stability

Table 6.3
Completed Routh table for Example 6.1

Two sign changes, two


unstable poles

12

Chapter 6: Stability

Table 6.4
Completed Routh table for Example 6.2
10
T ( s) 5
s 2 s 4 3s 3 6 s 2 5s 3

13

Chapter 6: Stability

Table 6.5
Determining signs in first column of a
Routh table with zero as first element in
a row

Two sign changes; two unstable poles

14

10
T (s) 5
s 2 s 4 3s 3 6 s 2 5s 3
1
s , criteria can be converted to
d
D ( s ) 3s 5 5s 4 6 s 3 3s 2 2 s 1

Table 6.6
Routh table for
Example 6.3

Chapter 6: Stability

15

Chapter 6: Stability

Table 6.7
Routh table for Example 6.4

10
T ( s) 5
s 7 s 4 6 s 3 42 s 2 8s 56
P(s)
P(s)

All
zero

P(s)=s4+6s2+8,
P(s)=4s3+12s

16

Chapter 6: Stability

The auxiliary polynomial

The equation that immediately precedes


the zero entry in the Routh array.

Control Systems
16

17

Figure 6.5
Root positions
to generate even
polynomials:
A , B, C,
or any
combination
If two + real
poles, there must
be two real
roots, otherwise
two roots are on
j-axis

Chapter 6: Stability

18

Chapter 6: Stability

20
T (s) 8 7
s s 12 s 6 22 s 5 39 s 4 59 s 3 48s 2 38s 20

Table 6.8 Routh table for Example 6.5

19

Chapter 6: Stability

Table 6.9
Summary of pole locations for Example 6.5
Total 8 roots exist because it is 8th order

P(s)=s4+3s2+3, no sign change after this


means no real pair4 roots on j-axis

20

Figure 6.6
Feedback
control system
for Example 6.6

Chapter 6: Stability

200
G ( s)
s ( s 3 6 s 2 11s 6)
T (s)

200
1 G (s) 1
s ( s 3 6 s 2 11s 6)
200
4
s 6 s 3 11s 2 6 s 200

21

Table 6.10
Routh table for Example 6.6

Chapter 6: Stability

22

Figure 6.7
Feedback control
system for
Example 6.7

Chapter 6: Stability

1
G (s)
s (2 s 4 3s 3 2 s 2 3s 2)
T (s)

1
1 G(s) 1
s (2 s 4 3s 3 2 s 2 3s 2)
1
5
2s 3s 4 2 s 3 3s 2 2 s 1

23

Chapter 6: Stability

Table 6.11 Routh table for Example 6.7

Two poles in rhs;


unstable
Three poles in lhs

24

Chapter 6: Stability

1
T (s) 5
2 s 3s 4 2 s 3 3s 2 2 s 1
Rearrange it
s 5 2 s 4 3s 3 2s 2 3s 2

Put s=1/d; s and d


shows the same
sign

The same
result; Two
poles in rhs;
Three poles in
lhs

Table 6.12 Alternative Routh table for Example 6.7

25

Chapter 6: Stability

Figure 6.8 Feedback control system for Example 6.8

128
G (s)
s ( s 7 3s 6 10s 5 24s 4 48s 3 96 s 2 128s 192)
T (s)

128
1 G (s) 1
s ( s 7 3s 6 10 s 5 24s 4 48s 3 96 s 2 128s 192)
1
8
s 3s 7 10 s 6 24s 5 48s 4 96 s 3 128s 2 192 s 128

26

Chapter 6: Stability

Table 6.13
Routh table for Example 6.8

P(s)

P(s)=s6+8s4+32s2+64; two rhs (two sign changes), so


two lhs, the remaining two on j-axis

27

Chapter 6: Stability

Table 6.14
Summary of pole locations for Example 6.8

28

Chapter 6: Stability

Figure 6.9
Jason is an
underwater, remotecontrolled vehicle that
has been used to
explore the wreckage of
the Lusitania. The
manipulator and
camera comprise
some of the vehicles
control systems.
Courtesy of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.

29

Figure 6.10
Feedback control
system for Example
6.9

Chapter 6: Stability

K
G ( s)
s ( s 7)( s 11)
T ( s)

K
1 G ( s) 1
s ( s 7)( s 11)
K
3
s 18s 2 77 s K

30

Chapter 6: Stability

Table 6.15
Routh table for Example 6.9

If no sign change
at the first column;
unstable
If there is a zero
row, jw is possible

Stable
0<K<1386

31

Chapter 6: Stability

Table 6.16
Routh table for
Example 6.9 with K = 1386

P(s)=18s2+1386
P(s)=36s
As there is no
sign change
below, there are
two jw poles

Marginally stable

32

Figure 6.11
The FANUC
Robot M- 400
can be
configured for 4or 5-axis of
motion. It is
seen here
moving and
stacking boxes.

Chapter 6: Stability

Courtesy of Fanuc Robotics.

33

Table 6.17
Routh table for Example 6.10

Chapter 6: Stability

s4+3s3+30s2+200

P(s)

P(s)=s2+10

s4+3s3+30s2+200=(s2+10)
(s2+3y+20)

34

Chapter 6: Stability

Stability in State Space

System poles are equal to the eigen


values of the system matrix A
Ax=x
(I-A)x=0
x= (I-A)-10
x= [adj(I-A) /det (I-A)]0
det (I-A)=0
Use det (sI-A)=0

35

3
1
0
10
x 2
8
1 x 0 u
10 5 2
0
y 1 0 0 x

Chapter 6: Stability

3
1
s 0 0 0
( sI A) 0 s 0 2
8
1
0 0 s 10 5 2
3
1
s
s(s-8)(s+2)+30+10
2 s 8 1
+10(s-8)+5s-6(s+2)
10
5
s 2
=s3-6s2-7s-52
det( sI A) s 3 6 s 2 7 s 52

36

Chapter 6: Stability

Table 6.18
Routh table for Example 6.11

One rhs, two lhs; unstable

37

Table 6.19
Routh table for antenna control
case study

Chapter 6: Stability

38

Table 6.20
Routh table for UFSS case study

Chapter 6: Stability

39

Chapter 6: Stability

Figure P6.1

40

Chapter 6: Stability

Figure P6.2

41

Chapter 6: Stability

Figure P6.3

42

Figure P6.4

Chapter 6: Stability

43

Chapter 6: Stability

Figure P6.5

44

Chapter 6: Stability

Figure P6.6

45

Chapter 6: Stability

Figure P6.7

46

Chapter 6: Stability

Figure P6.8

47

Chapter 6: Stability

Figure P6.9

48

Figure P6.10
Closed-loop
system
with pole plot

Chapter 6: Stability

49

Figure P6.11
Aircraft pitch loop
model

Chapter 6: Stability

50

Figure P6.12
Block diagram of a
chemical process-control
system

Chapter 6: Stability

51

Chapter 6: Stability
Courtesy of Kazuhiko Kawamura, Vanderbilt University.

Figure P6.13
a. Soft Arm
used for
feeding;
b. simplified
block
diagram

52

Figure P6.14
Towed vehicle roll
control

Chapter 6: Stability

53

Chapter 6: Stability

Figure P6.15
Cutting force control
system

1997 ASME.

54

Chapter 6: Stability
Japan Air Lines/ Photo Researchers.

Figure P6.16
a. A magnetic
levitation
transportation
system;
b. simplified
block
diagram (1998
IEEE)

55

Table 6.1
Initial layout for Routh table

Chapter 6: Stability

56

Table 6.2
Completed Routh table

Chapter 6: Stability

57

Chapter 6: Stability

Table 6.3
Completed Routh table for Example 6.1

58

Chapter 6: Stability

Table 6.4
Completed Routh table for Example 6.2

59

Chapter 6: Stability

Table 6.5
Determining signs in first column of a
Routh table with zero as first element
in a row

60

Table 6.6
Routh table for Example 6.3

Chapter 6: Stability

61

Table 6.7
Routh table for Example 6.4

Chapter 6: Stability

62

Table 6.8
Routh table for Example 6.5

Chapter 6: Stability

63

Chapter 6: Stability

Table 6.9
Summary of pole locations for Example 6.5

64

Table 6.10
Routh table for Example 6.6

Chapter 6: Stability

65

Chapter 6: Stability

Table 6.11 Routh table for Example 6.7

66

Chapter 6: Stability

Table 6.12
Alternative Routh table for Example 6.7

67

Table 6.13
Routh table for Example 6.8

Chapter 6: Stability

68

Chapter 6: Stability

Table 6.14
Summary of pole locations for Example 6.8

69

Table 6.15
Routh table for
Example 6.9

Chapter 6: Stability

70

Table 6.16
Routh table for
Example 6.9 with K = 1386

Chapter 6: Stability

71

Table 6.17
Routh table for Example 6.10

Chapter 6: Stability

72

Table 6.18
Routh table for Example 6.11

Chapter 6: Stability

73

Table 6.19
Routh table for antenna control
case study

Chapter 6: Stability

74

Table 6.20
Routh table for UFSS case study

Chapter 6: Stability