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Ch.

9 Basic Router
Troubleshooting
CCNA 2 version 3.0

Note

Most of the information in the module is a review of


previous modules.
We will add some troubleshooting information to this
presentation.

Overview
Students completing this module should be able to:

Use the show ip route command to gather detailed information about the

routes installed on the router


Configure a default route or default network
Understand how a router uses both Layer 2 and Layer 3 addressing to move data
through the network
Use the ping command to perform basic network connectivity tests
Use the telnet command to verify the application layer software between
source and destination stations
Troubleshoot by sequential testing of OSI layers
Use the show interfaces command to confirm Layer 1 and Layer 2 problems
Use the show ip route and show ip protocol commands to identify
routing issues
Use the show cdp command to verify Layer 2 connectivity
Use the traceroute command to identify the path packets take between
networks
Use the show controllers serial command to ensure the proper cable is
attached
Use basic debug commands to monitor router activity

9.1 Examining the Routing Table


We have covered these and others in more depth in previous
modules and the presentation on the Structure and Lookup
Process of the Routing Table.

9.1.1 The show ip route Command


9.1.2 Determining the gateway of last resort
9.1.3 Determining route source and destination
9.1.4 Determining L2 and L3 addresses
9.1.5 Determining the route administrative distance
9.1.6 Determining the route metric
9.1.7 Determining the route next hop
9.1.8 Determining the last routing update
9.1.9 Observing multiple paths to destination

Static Routing

Dynamic Routing

Default Routes

There a couple of items of misinformation in this section


that we need to address.

Default Routes ip default-network


command

The ip default-network command:


Must be used with IGRP
Can be used with EIGRP and RIP, but not recommended (use ip
route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0)
On router that uses ip default-network command, it must either have a
specific route to that network or a 0.0.0.0/0 default route!

Default Routes - IGRP

ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 s0


router igrp 10
network 172.16.0.0
network 192.168.17.0
ip default-network 192.168.17.0

With IGRP:
Use ip default-network
Need specific or default route, so once packets arrive at
Cisco A it can forward those packets toward public
network.

Default Routes - RIP

ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 s0


router rip
network 172.16.0.0
network 192.168.17.0
default-information originate

With RIP:
Use 0.0.0.0/0 static route
Use default-information originate (IOS 12.0 and later)

Determining route source and destination

Path Switching and Packet Forwarding


192.168.1.0/24
.1
e0
192.168.1.10/24

RTA

192.168.2.0/24
.1
.2
s0
s0

RTB

Data Link Header


Data link destination address

Data link source address Other data link fields

192.168.3.0/24
.1
.2
s1
s0

RTC

192.168.4.0/24
.1
e0
192.168.4.10/24

IP (Network layer) Packet


IP Destination Address

IP Source Address Other IP fields and data

Data Link Frame = Data Link Header + IP Packet


Path Switching
Host X has a packet(s) to send to Host Y
A router generally relays a packet from one data link to another, using two basic
functions:
1. a path determination function - Routing
2. a switching function Packet Forwarding

Lets go through all of the stages these routers use to route and switch this
packet.
See if you can identify these two functions at each router.
Note: Data link addresses have been abbreviated.

192.168.1.0/24
.1
e0
192.168.1.10/24
00-10
0A-10
Data link destination address

00-10

RTA

192.168.2.0/24
.1
.2
e1
e0
00-20
0B-31

RTB

Data link source address Other data link fields

0A-10

192.168.3.0/24
.1
.2
s0
s0

RTC

IP Destination Address

192.168.4.0/24
Y
.1
e0
192.168.4.10/24
0C-22
0B-20
IP Source Address Other IP fields and data

192.168.4.10 192.168.1.10

From Host X to Router RTA


Host X begins by encapsulating the IP packet into a data link frame (in this case
Ethernet) with RTAs Ethernet 0 interfaces MAC address as the data link
destination address.
How does Host X know to forward to packet to RTA and not directly to Host Y? How
does Host X know or get RTAs Ethernet address?

Remember, it looks at the packets destination ip address does an AND


operation and compares it to its own ip address and subnet mask.
It determines if the two ip addresses are on the same subnet or not.
If the are on the same subnet, it looks for the destination ip address of
the packet in its ARP cache. sending out an ARP request if it is not
there.
If they are on different subnets, it looks for the ip address of the default
gateway in its ARP cache sending out an ARP request if it is not there.

If you do not remember, be sure to review our previous presentation, ARP The
Process and the Protocol

192.168.1.0/24
.1
e0
192.168.1.10/24
00-10
0A-10
Data link destination address

0B-31

RTA

192.168.2.0/24
.1
.2
e1
e0
00-20
0B-31

192.168.3.0/24
.1
.2
s0
s0

RTB

Data link source address Other data link fields

00-20

IP Destination Address

192.168.4.0/24
Y
.1
e0
192.168.4.10/24
0C-22
0B-20
IP Source Address Other IP fields and data

192.168.4.10 192.168.1.10

3
RTA ARP Cache
IP Address
MAC Address
192.168.2.2
0B-31

RTC

RTA Routing Table


Network
Hops Next-hop-ip Exit-interface
192.168.1.0/24 0
Dir.Conn.
e0
192.168.2.0/24 0
Dir.Conn
e1
192.168.3.0/24 1
192.168.2.2
e1
192.168.4.0/24 2
192.168.2.2
e1

RTA to RTB
1. RTA looks up the IP destination address in its routing table.
192.168.4.0/24 has next-hop-ip address of 192.168.2.2 and an exit-interface of
e1.
Since the exit interface is on an Ethernet network, RTA must resolve the nexthop-ip address with a destination MAC address.
2. RTA looks up the next-hop-ip address of 192.168.2.2 in its ARP cache.
If the entry was not in the ARP cache, the RTA would need to send an ARP
request out e1. RTB would send back an ARP reply, so RTA can update its ARP
cache with an entry for 192.168.2.2.

192.168.1.0/24
.1
e0
192.168.1.10/24
00-10
0A-10
Data link destination address

0B-31

RTA

192.168.2.0/24
.1
.2
e1
e0
00-20
0B-31

192.168.3.0/24
.1
.2
s0
s0

RTB

Data link source address Other data link fields

00-20

IP Destination Address

192.168.4.0/24
Y
.1
e0
192.168.4.10/24
0C-22
0B-20
IP Source Address Other IP fields and data

192.168.4.10 192.168.1.10

3
RTA ARP Cache
IP Address
MAC Address
192.168.2.2
0B-31

RTC

RTA Routing Table


Network
Hops Next-hop-ip Exit-interface
192.168.1.0/24 0
Dir.Conn.
e0
192.168.2.0/24 0
Dir.Conn
e1
192.168.3.0/24 1
192.168.2.2
e1
192.168.4.0/24 2
192.168.2.2
e1

RTA to RTB (continued)


3. Data link destination address and frame encapsulation
After finding the entry for the next-hop-ip address 192.168.2.2 in its ARP cache,
RTA uses the MAC address for the destination MAC address in the reencapsulated Ethernet frame.
The frame is now forwarded out Ethernet 1 (as specified in RTAs routing table.
Notice, that the IP Addresses did not change.
Also notice that the Routing table was used to find the next-hop ip address,
used for the data link address and exit interface, to forward the packet in a new
data link frame.

192.168.1.0/24
.1
e0
192.168.1.10/24
00-10
0A-10
Data link destination address

RTA

192.168.2.0/24
.1
.2
e1
e0
00-20
0B-31

RTB

192.168.3.0/24
.1
.2
s0
s0

Data link source address Other data link fields

FFFF

RTC

IP Destination Address

192.168.4.0/24
Y
.1
e0
192.168.4.10/24
0C-22
0B-20
IP Source Address Other IP fields and data

192.168.4.10 192.168.1.10

1
2
Network
192.168.1.0/24
192.168.2.0/24
192.168.3.0/24
192.168.4.0/24

RTB Routing Table


Hops Next-hop-ip Exit-interface
1
192.168.2.1
e0
0
Dir.Conn
e0
0
Dir.Conn
s0
1
192.168.3.2
s0

RTB to RTC
1. RTB looks up the IP destination address in its routing table.
192.168.4.0/24 has next-hop-ip address of 192.168.3.2 and an exit-interface of
s0 (serial 0).
Since the exit interface not on an Ethernet network, RTA does not need to
resolve the next-hop-ip address with a destination MAC address.
Remember, serial interfaces do not have MAC addresses.

192.168.1.0/24
.1
e0
192.168.1.10/24
00-10
0A-10
Data link destination address

RTA

192.168.2.0/24
.1
.2
e1
e0
00-20
0B-31

RTB

192.168.3.0/24
.1
.2
s0
s0

Data link source address Other data link fields

FFFF

RTC

IP Destination Address

192.168.4.0/24
Y
.1
e0
192.168.4.10/24
0C-22
0B-20
IP Source Address Other IP fields and data

192.168.4.10 192.168.1.10

1
2
Network
192.168.1.0/24
192.168.2.0/24
192.168.3.0/24
192.168.4.0/24

RTB Routing Table


Hops Next-hop-ip Exit-interface
1
192.168.2.1
e0
0
Dir.Conn
e0
0
Dir.Conn
s0
1
192.168.3.2
s0

RTB to RTC
2. Data link destination address and frame encapsulation.
When the interface is a point-to-point serial connection, the Routing Table
process does not even look at the next-hop IP address.
Remember, a serial link is like a pipe - only one way in and only one way
out.
RTA now encapsulates the IP packet into the proper data link frame,
using the proper serial encapsulation (HDLC, PPP, etc.).
The data link destination address is set to a broadcast, since there is only
one other end of the pipe and the frame is now forwarded out serial 0.

192.168.1.0/24
.1
e0
192.168.1.10/24
00-10
0A-10
Data link destination address

0B-20

RTA

192.168.2.0/24
.1
.2
e1
e0
00-20
0B-31

192.168.3.0/24
.1
.2
s0
s0

RTB

Data link source address Other data link fields

0C-22

IP Destination Address

192.168.4.0/24
Y
.1
e0
192.168.4.10/24
0C-22
0B-20
IP Source Address Other IP fields and data

192.168.4.10 192.168.1.10

3
RTC ARP Cache
IP Address
MAC Address
192.168.4.10
0B-20

RTC

Network
192.168.1.0/24
192.168.2.0/24
192.168.3.0/24
192.168.4.0/24

RTC Routing Table


Hops Next-hop-ip Exit-interface
2
192.168.3.1
s0
1
192.168.3.1
s0
0
Dir.Conn
s0
0
Dir.Conn
e0

RTC to Host Y
1. RTC looks up the IP destination address in its routing table.
192.168.4.0/24 is a directly connected network with an exit-interface of e0.
RTC realizes that this destination ip address is on the same network as one of its
interfaces and it can sent the packet directly to the destination and not another
router.
Since the exit interface is on an directly connected Ethernet network, RTC must
resolve the destination ip address with a destination MAC address.
2. RTC looks up the destination ip address of 192.168.4.10 in its ARP cache.
If the entry was not in the ARP cache, the RTC would need to send an ARP
request out e0. Host Y would send back an ARP reply, so RTC can update its
ARP cache with an entry for 192.168.4.10.

192.168.1.0/24
.1
e0
192.168.1.10/24
00-10
0A-10
Data link destination address

0B-20

RTA

192.168.2.0/24
.1
.2
e1
e0
00-20
0B-31

192.168.3.0/24
.1
.2
s0
s0

RTB

Data link source address Other data link fields

0C-22

IP Destination Address

192.168.4.0/24
Y
.1
e0
192.168.4.10/24
0C-22
0B-20
IP Source Address Other IP fields and data

192.168.4.10 192.168.1.10

3
RTC ARP Cache
IP Address
MAC Address
192.168.4.10
0B-20

RTC

Network
192.168.1.0/24
192.168.2.0/24
192.168.3.0/24
192.168.4.0/24

RTC Routing Table


Hops Next-hop-ip Exit-interface
2
192.168.3.1
s0
1
192.168.3.1
s0
0
Dir.Conn
s0
0
Dir.Conn
e0

RTC to Host Y (continued)


3. Data link destination address and frame encapsulation
After finding the entry for the destination ip address 192.168.4.10 in its ARP cache,
RTC uses the MAC address for the destination MAC address in the reencapsulated Ethernet frame.
The frame is now forwarded out Ethernet 0 (as specified in RTAs routing table.

Determining the route administrative


distance

Not the best path, but the best source of routing information.
The administrative distance of the route is the key information that the
router uses in deciding (which is the best path to a particular
destination) > what is the best source of routing information to a
particular destination.

Routing Metrics - Corrections

MTU is not and has never been used as a routing metric


with RIP, IGRP, EIGRP, OSPF, IS-IS, or BGP.

Observing multiple paths to destination

Cisco routers will choose up to six equal cost paths to the same
destination network, four by default.
Router(config-router)#maximum-paths 6
Fast Switching vs. Process Switching (see presentation: Ch. 7
Distance Vector Routing Protocols, Part 1 of 2: Distance Vector
Routing and RIP)
This assumes the same routing protocols or the use of static
routes, as you cannot compare RIP metrics with IGRP metrics.
Administrative distance will always choose one routing source over
another, static routes over dynamic, IGRP over RIP, etc.
The variance command and IGRP/EIGRP is never explained in this
curriculum.
For more information about the variance command see:
How Does Unequal Cost Path Load Balancing (Variance) Work in
IGRP and EIGRP?
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk365/tk207/technologies_tech_n
ote09186a008009437d.shtml

Network Testing

Network Testing and Troubleshooting

You most likely do troubleshooting already:


Cars, cooking, computer, etc.
Approach might vary slightly depending upon the scenario:
Lab
New implementation
Existing network
Change made
No changes made
Use all possible resources:
Support contracts
Web sites and newsgroups
Books
Friends and other people
Management

Different Models

Testing using the OSI Model

Layer 1 errors can include:


Broken cables
Disconnected cables
Cables connected to the wrong ports
Intermittent cable connection
Wrong cables used for the task at hand (must use rollovers,
crossover cables, and straight-through cables correctly)
Transceiver problems
DCE cable problems
DTE cable problems
Devices turned off

Testing using the OSI Model

Layer 2 errors can include:


Improperly configured serial interfaces
Improperly configured Ethernet interfaces
Improper encapsulation set (HDLC is default for serial interfaces)
Improper clockrate settings on serial interfaces
Network interface card (NIC) problems

Testing using the OSI Model


Layer 3 errors can include:
Routing protocol not enabled
Wrong routing protocol enabled
Incorrect IP addresses
Incorrect subnet masks

Various commands

These commands show various levels of connectivity or


lack of connectivity:
Ping
Traceroute
Telnet
Show interfaces
Show cdp neighbors
Show ip protocols
Debug
Show running-config

What do these commands tell you?

Ch. 9 Basic Router


Troubleshooting