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MODULE 6

Quality and its Importance

What is Quality?
There are so many definitions for quality. Quality
means
Based on judgments by an individual or
organization
Fitness for purpose
Corresponds to a rating Based on acceptable
performance
Meeting goals
Meeting requirements

Quality Mantra

Right specifications, Right Time, Right Price


Every Time, First Time

Importance of Quality:

Tough competition
Educated customer

Definition of Customer

Customer is one who uses our product or


services.

Types of Customer:
1.
2.

3.

Internal Customer Next User


Intermediate Customer Next dept/other
plant/sister concern
External Customer End user

Principles of Quality Management

In order to set up a system of quality


management, you need to be familiar with
different theoretical models of what quality is and
how it can be achieved.

Among the models frequently applied to quality are:

1. A client satisfaction principle quality is


achieved when customer needs are met, when client
expectation are exceeded. To do this you need to:
- Identify your client. This is quite complex the
person who consumes the service is often
different from the one who is paying for it, so you
have direct and indirect clients. Some people who
work in an institution do not have direct contact
with external customers but provide services for
their colleagues who are internal clients.

2. A process model of quality quality


involves analyzing all the process involved in
delivering a service. Process can be divided
into three phases planning, implementation
and outcome. In industry the objective is to
achieve zero tolerance of error and a slogan for
process management is get it right, the first
time, every time

3. Quality based on results one way of


defining quality is based on results it test
and examinations, for example. The principle
is that unless you can prove the effectiveness
of educational activity by measurable results,
you cannot claim quality.

4. Quality based on personal development


in this model quality is based on the motivation,
the attitudes and skills of the people involved. In
order for it to help maintain and improve quality,
the institution needs establish an environment
which enables staff to develop and co-operate.
This can be through staff development
programmes, action research, peer observation,
encouragement of innovation, quality circles. It
implies an open style of leadership, with room for
individual responsibility and initiative.

5. Value driven quality. Education is not


just a mechanical industrial process, but
embodies and tries to communicate values.

Dimensions of Service Quality


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Accuracy
Knowledge of employees
Courtesy
Consistency
Speed
Responsiveness

Types of Quality
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Quality of Design
Quality of Product
Quality of Process
Quality of Systems
Quality of Service

Effects of bad Quality

Tangible
1.
2.
3.
4.

Higher rejection
Higher rework
Higher number of customer complaints
Less production/ productivity

Intangible
1.
2.
3.

Credit down in the market


Department to department quarrels
Less interest in work

Losses due to bad quality

Tangible
1.
2.
3.

Increase rejection/ rework


Less production/ productivity
Higher customer complaints

Intangible
1.
2.
3.

Loss of goodwill
Conflicts between different departments
Loss of morale

Why do customers quit?

Main reason usually attitude of indifference


1. Lack of responsiveness
2. Poor attention on to detail
3. Same mistakes over and over
4. Poor training

Other reasons
1.
2.
3.
4.

Dissatisfied with product


Competitive reason e.g price
Influenced by friend / Associate
Credit policy

What is Quality Assurance?

Quality Assurance is the process that


demonstrates your product in able to satisfy
your users/customer.

What does the Aim of QA?

When good Quality assurance is implemented


there should be improvement in usability and
performance and lessening rates of defects.

What does QA give?

Quality means your project is useful


without quality you have little to offer
Quality can help to future proof projects.
But quality assurance needs documented
standards and best practices to be meaningful.
Quality & best practice can be considered in
terms of being Fit for Purpose.

What is Quality Control?

Quality Control (QC) is the implementation


of regular procedures against your definitions
of quality and more specially the refinement of
these procedures.
Formal use testing
Action on the results of your tests
Requires
planning, structures
documentation
Relates to output Quality Circle
Standards ISO 9000 & BS5750

tests,

god

ISO 9000 Series of Standards

ISO means
International Organization for Standardization
This standard was first released on March 1987
ISO 9000 gives guidelines for selection of standards.
Contractual standards are:
ISO 9001 1994: This is applicable to the
organizations who design, develop, manufacture and
supply and supply and service product.
ISO 9002 1994: This is applicable to the
organizations who manufacture, supply and services
as per specifications given by the customer

Features of ISO Standards:


a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.

These are standards of systems of production


These are generic standards
These are practical standards
These are not product standards
These ensure consistency of product quality
In this, mistakes are corrected in a systematic
way so hat of repetition are reduced.

Numerous Benefits that will be derived from working to


ISO 9001-2000 & TS 16949 Quality System

Improved communication at all levels

Decreasing trend in rejections, reworks, customer complaints

Decreasing trend in inventories

Raw materials

W.I.P

Finished goods

Lead Time reduction

Customer relation improvement.

Trust / confidence enhancement Sub-contractor relation


improvement

Long term association

Improved housekeeping

People development

Improved health of people

Some more benefits of ISO

It reduces rejection/rework
It increases morale of the company

It ensures quality and after sales service to customers


It improves team work
It saves cost by:
Avoiding repetition of work
Avoiding unnecessary records
Monitoring processes
And many other ways

Due to increased confidence of customers in you, you


get more and more markets/clients.
It improves discipline in the organization.
It increases credit in the market.

The Quality Cycle

Inspection VS Quality Control

-Customers
-Non-customers

Quality Improvement
-Dimensions of Quality
-Quantitative research

-Qualitative research
-Moments of Truth

THE
END