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Training on

9M Plasma Spray System at Air

India, JEOC, New Delhi


(25th to 26th April, 2016)

Ador Fontech Ltd.


We are the exclusive distributors of
M/s. Oerlikon Metco, USA / Switzerland /
Singapore in India.
We, in association with our principals,
M/s. Oerlikon Metco, have been active in
promoting this surface engineering
technology since last 23 years

Oerlikon Metco
A Global Leader in Surface Engineering
Solutions and Services.
Global Leaders in Thermal Spray
Technology consisting of Equipments,
Consumables, Know-how.

Introduction to Thermal Spray Technology


(Discover the Benefits of Coating and Surface Technology)

What is Thermal Spray?


Thermal spray coating involves the use of a torch to heat a material, in powder or wire form,
to a molten or near-molten state, and the use of a gas to propel the material to the target
substrate, creating a completely new surface. The coating material may be a single element,
alloy or compound with unique physical properties that are, in most cases, achievable only
through the thermal spray process.

Thermal spray coatings are a highly cost-effective and straight-forward method for adding
superior properties and performance qualities to a given engineering surface. The variety of
products and coatings that can be enhanced by thermal spray are virtually limitless. The
coatings can be metallic, ceramic or any desired combination to meet a range of physical
criteria.

Introduction to Thermal Spray Technology


(Discover the Benefits of Coating and Surface Technology)

Benefits of Thermal Spray Technology:

Resist Wear

Retard Corrosion

Control Clearances

Master Fluid Environments

Salvage Worn Components

Conquer High Temperatures

Enhance Electrical Properties

Resist Wear

What is Wear? The unwanted removal of material from a surface as a result of mechanical action.

The single most common use for thermal spray technology is to retard and control wear. Wear occurs when the perfectly smooth,
frictionless surfaces found only in textbooks are replaced by the less accommodating surfaces of the real world. Mastering the
wear process means controlling a complex set of system variables that start with the physical characteristics of mating surfaces.

Abrasive Wear:
When hard particles are present between two surfaces sliding against each other with no intended motion, abrasive wear occurs.
A HVOF carbide coating protects screw conveyor bearings from wear in the abusive environment of the ready-mix concrete
industry. Printing industry Anilox rolls are thermal sprayed with chromium oxide coatings. These thermal sprayed rolls have finer
surface finishes, improving wettability, improving corrosion resistance, and extending production life over previously chrome
platted rolls.

Sliding Wear:
The motion of two moving bodies in which surface velocities, at the point of contact, are different with regard to magnitude and
direction create sliding wear. In marine engines, the chrome plating on piston rings wears away quickly at temperatures exceeding
400C (752F). A thermal sprayed coatings of Molybdenum or Iron-Moly reduces friction and lasts longer at high operating
temperatures. In the Textile industry, carbide or ceramic coating is utilized to protect, improve performance and extend the life of
thread guides that were previously chrome platted.Sliding wear.jpg

Retard Corrosion
Corrosion Control

They once said that painting a bridge was an endless job - once you finished, it was time to start
again. Thermal coatings have changed all that. Covering bridges or other steel structures with a thermally
sprayed coating provides long-lasting, low-maintenance protection.

The damaging nature of the maritime environment is well known. Marine overhaul and repair facilities
around the world use thermal coatings to protect ships and fittings from direct chemical and galvanic
corrosion. Even tanker trucks benefit from thermal spray coatings to prevent corrosion of the tank, and
prevent hazardous contents from leaking.

Sealed coatings keep the hulls of fishing vessels protected from salt water corrosion, while a sprayed and
fused coating helps fittings last longer. The interiors of steel fresh water tanks and conduits are thermal
sprayed to provide resistance to corrosion. Entire sets of playground equipment and miles of chain-link
fencing are coated to provide long-lasting resistance to the effects of the environment.

Clearance Control

Clearance control

Gas turbine engines operate by compressing inlet air through a series of rotating blades enclosed by an outer casing. Once
the air is compressed, liquid fuel is injected, ignited, and the mixture rapidly expands, producing thrust. At this stage of
advanced turbine engine development, engine efficiency improvements largely depend on control of the clearance gap
between the compressor blades and the casing. Abradables provide a high-quality, cost effective means for maintaining
tight tolerances in the fan, compressor and stator sections of these engines. It has been determined that a 0.005-inch space
between engine compressor blades and the outer casing can increase fuel consumption by 0.5%.

Industrial gas turbines used for power generation depend on abradables to provide the perfect fit in compressor gas paths.
Tighter clearance control between the blade and the casing can be achieved because abradable coatings allow the blade to
cut into the friable coating layer rather than directly rubbing the hard casing during service. In the aviation industry, many of
the world's leading jet engine manufacturers use and specify technology for both new manufacture and repair.

The natural gas and petrochemical industries use our abradables to form highly efficient and reliable gas compressor seals.
Vehicle manufacturers employ Abradable thermal spray coatings on rotary compressor housings to increase the efficiency
of turbochargers for combustion engines.

Protection from Erosion

Erosion
The loss of material from a solid surface due to relative motion in contact with a fluid that contains solid
particles results in erosion. Valves and pump pistons used in the treatment of highly abrasive wastewater
sludge last longer because of thermal coating solutions. The eroded walls of power generation boiler
tubes can be repaired much faster, and have a much longer service life, thanks to nickel/alloy know-how.
The effects of erosion and suspended particulate matter damage the impellers of positive displacement
rotary pumps. Another solution provides longer service life. A cost-effective thermal spray application also
helps the Pelton wheels in hydraulic turbines last up to six times longer than their original design.

Conquer High Temperature

Technology creates thermal environments that challenge materials science. Exposure to high temperatures can cause
metals to lose strength, develop fatigue and reduce functionality through accelerated oxidation or chemical attack. Sulzer
Metco coating solutions, include oxidation-resistant bond coatings of the MCrAlY family, such as coatings of AMDRY 961,
and thermal insulating ceramic top coats, such as air plasma sprayed and EB-PVD applied thermal barrier coatings (TBD)
using YSZ materials. These materials are used to add new properties to underlying mechanical substrates.
Components work better in high-temperature environments with Sulzer Metco coating solutions. Our coating solutions
provide heat resistant characteristics and help to retard the destructive effects of chemical corrosion and oxidation. The
ability of TBCs (thermal barrier coatings) to insulate and protect substrates disproportionately in regard to their thickness,
helps extend the life of mechanical components in aircraft and industrial power turbines, and allows parts to operate and
survive in hot, hostile exhaust gas environments.
Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC)
Sulzer Metco zirconium oxide-based thermal barrier coatings are used successfully many gas turbine combusion
components to extend service life and operating efficiency and on the crown of diesel and racing automobile
engine pistons to resist high temperature.
High-temperature oxidation and sulfidation
Sulzer Metco MCrAlY (AMDRY 962) coatings on the turbine blades of jet engines are crucial to helping retard the
effects of oxidation and sulfidation in the 700 to 1200C operating temperatures of aircraft turbine engines.
Zirconium oxide coatings are utilized in the metal casting industry to protect troughs, molds and other components
with practical long-lasting protection against wetting and xidation.
Shielding boiler tubing and exhaust fans from the effects of heat and chemical corrosion is easy with SM 276 high
nickel alloy. Applied by electric wire arc, such coatings will more than double service between repairs.
High-temperature corrosion
Industrial flue gas stacks and ducts, as in the metal refining, power and steel industries, can cope with the effects
of heat and gases containing a variety of chemicals and abrasive particulate. Sulzer Metco provides an entire family
of coating systems and materials for these and many other applications. In the automobile industry, valve seats are
protected with Metco 450 NS, a Nickel 5Aluminum alloy, which provides superior oxidation, heat, and
sulfidation resistance.

Enhance Electrical Properties

Thermal sprayed coatings can beneficially alter the electrical and thermal conductivity of a component.
Thermal sprayed coatings exhibit excellent electrical characteristics. The properties of these coatings
often differ significantly from those of the materials from which the coating was formed. Plasma sprayed
copper, for example, demonstrates exceptional conductivity, so it's a perfect tool for producing highly
efficient electrical connections. A thermal sprayed coating of aluminum has 20% greater conductance
compared to wrought aluminum, making it ideal for the manufacture of heating elements. A coating of
thermally sprayed alumina exhibits superior voltage break-down strengths, making it an ideal electrical
insulator.
Conductivity
The parabolic surfaces of fiberglass up-link and down-link satellite antennas receive a thermal coating to
create a cost-effective conducting surface. Lower cost is also the reason that coatings using Sulzer Metco
products have replaced conducting paints and foils for protecting satellite antennas from RF interference.
Electrical equipment manufacturers use thermal coating as a low-cost, high-quality production tool in a
broad range of applications. Coatings are applied, for example, to make capacitor solder connections on
plastic substrates. Applying aluminum inside a glass tube achieves a combination of electrical and
dielectric properties necessary to generate ozone for water purification. A Sulzer Metco coating is used as
a conductor.
For decades, thermally coating axles with a conductive material has been the most efficient and costconscious way to provide grounding for electrical railway locomotives.
Resistance
A Sulzer Metco coating is used as an insulator in the casting and forging industry to prevent electrical
continuity from being established between sections of high-pressure water piping. The automotive industry
applies one of our thermal spray coatings to distributor rotors in order to reduce electromagnetic
interference and suppress noise.

Thermal Spray Processes


Each process within the thermal spray family offers
unique features, benefits and value. These unique attributes
to develop a solution precisely tailored to your specific
requirements. Whether a solution involves a manual or
automated, turn-key system or coating services performed,
the possibilities are virtually limitless.
Combustion Wire Spray
Combustion Powder Spray
Electric Arc Wire Spray
HVOF (High Velocity Oxy-Fuel) Spray
Air Plasma Spray
Integrated & Advanced Spray Systems

Combustion Wire Spray


Theory of Operation:
The spray material in wire form is fed continually into a fuel gas-oxygen
flame where it is melted by the heat of combustion. Compressed air
surrounds the flame and atomizes the molten tip of the wire. This
accelerates the spray of molten particles towards the prepared workpiece
surface. Typical choices for fuel gases are acetylene, propane, hydrogen
or MAPP.

Combustion Powder Spray


Theory of Operation:
The Powder Flame Spray process is similar to the Wire Flame Spray process, except that is
has the advantage of using powdered materials as the coating feedstock. This method offers
a much wider range of coating material options than the Wire Flame Spray process. In
addition, the use of powder allows for a greater degree of freedom for spray gun
manipulation. The spray material in powdered form is fed continually into a fuel gas-oxygen
flame where it is typically melted by the heat of combustion. A powder feed carrier gas
transports the powder particles into the combustion flame, and the mixed gases transport
the material towards the prepared work piece surface. Typical choices for fuel gases are
acetylene or hydrogen.

Electric Arc Wire Spray

Theory of Operation:
Wire arc spray uses two metallic wires as the coating feedstock. The two wires are
electrically charged with opposing polarity and are fed into the arc gun at matched,
controlled speeds. When the wires are brought together at the contact point, the opposing
charges on the wires create enough heat to continuously melt the tips of the wires.
Compressed air is used to atomize the now molten material and accelerate it onto the
workpiece surface to form the coating. In wire arcspray, the weight of coating that can be
deposited per unit of time is a function of the electrical power (amperage) of the system and
the density and melting point of the wire. Wire arc spray coating system has a unique load
share "push-pull" wire feed motor and mechanism, assuring consistent wire delivery.

High Velocity Oxy Fuel Spray


(HVOF Spray)

Theory of Operation:

HVOF process efficiently uses high kinetic energy and controlled thermal output to produce dense, low
porosity coatings that exhibit high bond strengths, some of which exceed 83 MPa (12,000 PSI), low oxides
and extremely fine as-sprayed finishes. The coatings have low residual internal stresses and therefore
can be sprayed to a thickness not normally associated with dense, thermal sprayed coatings.
This process uses an oxygen-fuel mixture. Depending on user requirements, propylene, propane,
hydrogen or natural gas may be used as the fuel gas. The coating material, in powdered form, is fed
axially through the gun, using nitrogen as a carrier gas. The fuel gas is mixed with oxygen in a proprietary
siphon system in the front portion of the Diamond Jet gun. The thoroughly mixed gases are then ejected
from a nozzle and ignited outside the gun. The ignited gases form a circular flame configuration that
surrounds and uniformly heats the powdered spray material as it exits the gun and is propelled to the
workpiece surface.
As a result of the high kinetic energy transferred to the particles through the HVOF process, the coating
material generally does not need to be fully melted. Instead, the powder particles are in a molten state
and flatten plastically as they impact the workpiece surface. The resulting coatings have more predictable
chemistries that are homogeneous with a fine granular structure.
These coatings can survive harsh service conditions, particularly in wear and many corrosion applications,
which greatly increases service life. The smooth, as-sprayed surface, uniform chemistry and low porosity
of the coating can be finished to very smooth surface profiles.

Air Plasma Spray

Theory of Operation:
Plasma Spray is perhaps the most flexible of all of the thermal spray processes as it can develop
sufficient energy to melt any material. Since it uses powder as the coating feedstock, the number of
coating materials that can be used in the plasma spray process is almost unlimited. The plasma gun
incorporates a cathode (electrode) and an anode (nozzle) separated by a small gap forming a chamber
between the two. DC power is applied to the cathode and arcs across to the anode. At the same time,
gases are passed through the chamber. The powerful arc is sufficient to strip the gases of their electrons
and the state of matter known as plasma is formed. As the unstable plasma recombines back to the
gaseous state, thermal energy is released. Because of the inherent instability of plasma, the ions in the
plasma plume rapidly recombine to the gaseous state and cool. At the point of recombination,
temperatures can be 6,600 C to 16,600 C (12,000 F to 30,000 F), which exceeds the surface
temperatures of the sun. When the coating material is injected into the gas plume, it is melted and
propelled towards the target substrate.

Typical plasma gases are Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Argon and Helium. Various mixtures of these gases
(usually 2 of the 4) are used in combination with the applied current to the electrode to control the amount
of energy produced by a plasma system. Since the flow of each of the gases and the applied current can
be accurately regulated, repeatable and predictable coating results can be obtained. In addition, the point
and angle that the material is injected into the plume, as well as the distance of the gun to the target,
component can also be controlled. This provides a high degree of flexibility to develop appropriate spray
parameters for materials with melting temperatures across a very large range.
The distance of the plasma gun from the target components, gun and component speeds relative to each
other, and part cooling (usually with the help of air jets focused on the target substrate) keep the part at a
controlled spray temperature that is usually in the range of 38 C to 260 C (100 F to 500 F).

Integrated & Advanced Spray Systems

Steps Involved in Coating Task


1.
2.
3.
4.

Surface Preparation
Coating Process/bonding Mechanism
Finishing/Coating Evaluation (testing)
Factors affecting thermal Spray Coatings

Surface Preparation
The Surface Preparation is very important aspect of Thermal Spray Process. Better the Surface
Preparation, better is the Bond Strength of the coating. Surface preparation is method to keep
the surface clean and free of oxides, oil, moisture, dust and dirt. This could be achieved by:
1.
2.
3.

Abrasive Blasting / Grit Blasting.


Vapor Degreasing
Under Cutting / threading

The surface preparation also helps in increasing the surface area of the of the area to be coated.
Higher the surface area, better is the bond strength, because the coating would have more
anchoring points. Grit Blasting is the oldest, most common & universally successful method of
Roughening the substrate.
Most common surface preparation while thermal spray:
1.
Degrease the substrate before blasting
2.
Masking area which is not to be sprayed.
3.
Grit Blast to roughen the substrate. Keep blasting angle close to 90deg. to substrate. Do not
over blast, which tends to zero the previously blasted areas.
4.
Blow clean air on blasted surface to remove dust. Keep blasted area clean. Do not touch by
bare hand.
5.
Spray immediately after grit blasting.( Blasted components should be sprayed within 2 hours of
blasting to avoid oxidation of blasted surface )
6.
Preheat the substrate before spray. Keep pre heating to 150 200 deg. C.

Coating Process/bonding Mechanism

Coating Process/bonding Mechanism


Coating Process:
1.
Select Process / coating material and set all spraying parameters
2.
Mask area which are not to be sprayed.
3.
Set work speed and Gun traverse speed etc., Determine thickness of
coat required.
4.
While spraying, keep the substrate temp under control. Auxiliary cooling
will help keep substrate temp under control.
5.
Check final dimension to be sprayed.
Bonding Mechanism:
Bonding mechanism of thermal spray coatings is complex in nature.
Depending on coating material & thermal spray method used, the bonding to
the base substrate may be mechanical, metallurgical, Chemical or
combination of these. In addition, interparticle bonding takes place between
the individual sprayed particles themselves.
Bond strength of any coating depends on : Surface preparation, Particle
Impact velocity and material being sprayed.

Coating Evaluation
Finishing:
The characteristics of sprayed coating are different from their forged or cast
materials. The sprayed coating do not promote ductility strength.
For soft coatings, use machining technique as per recommendation.
For hard coatings, use grinding wheel, grinding speed etc., as per
recommendations.
Coating Evaluation:
Sprayed coating are evaluated for their bond strength, Micro hardness,
macrohardness, porosity level, adhesion to base, oxide, unmelted
particles,etc.,
Factors Affecting Thermal Spray Coatings:
Surface Preparation, Coating Process, Material Selection, Spray parameters,

What is Plasma Spray Process?

The Plasma Spray Process is basically the spraying of molten or heat softened material onto a surface to provide a coating.
Material in the form of powder is injected into a very high temperature plasma flame, where it is rapidly heated and accelerated
to a high velocity. The hot material impacts on the substrate surface and rapidly cools forming a coating. This plasma spray
process carried out correctly is called a "cold process" (relative to the substrate material being coated) as the substrate
temperature can be kept low during processing avoiding damage, metallurgical changes and distortion to the substrate
material.

The plasma spray gun comprises a copper anode and tungsten cathode, both of which are water cooled. Plasma gas (argon,
nitrogen, hydrogen, helium) flows around the cathode and through the anode which is shaped as a constricting nozzle. The
plasma is initiated by a high voltage discharge which causes localised ionisation and a conductive path for a DC arc to form
between cathode and anode. The resistance heating from the arc causes the gas to reach extreme temperatures, dissociate
and ionise to form a plasma. The plasma exits the anode nozzle as a free or neutral plasma flame (plasma which does not
carry electric current) which is quite different to the Plasma Transferred Arc coating process where the arc extends to the
surface to be coated. When the plasma is stabilised ready for spraying the electric arc extends down the nozzle, instead of
shorting out to the nearest edge of the anode nozzle. This stretching of the arc is due to a thermal pinch effect. Cold gas
around the surface of the water cooled anode nozzle being electrically non-conductive constricts the plasma arc, raising its
temperature and velocity. Powder is fed into the plasma flame most commonly via an external powder port mounted near the
anode nozzle exit. The powder is so rapidly heated and accelerated that spray distances can be in the order of 25 to 150 mm.

What is Plasma Spray Process?

The plasma spray process is most commonly used in normal atmospheric


conditions and referred as APS. Some plasma spraying is conducted in protective
environments using vacuum chambers normally back filled with a protective gas at
low pressure, this is referred as VPS or LPPS.

Plasma spraying has the advantage that it can spray very high melting point
materials such as refractory metals like tungsten and ceramics like zirconia unlike
combustion processes. Plasma sprayed coatings are generally much denser,
stronger and cleaner than the other thermal spray processes with the exception of
HVOF and detonation processes. Plasma spray coatings probably account for the
widest range of thermal spray coatings and applications and makes this process
the most versatile.

What is Plasma Spray Process?

A plasma is an electrically conductive gas containing charged particles. When atoms of a gas are excited to high energy levels, the atoms loose hold of some of their
electrons and become ionised producing a plasma containing electrically charged particles - ions and electrons.

The plasma generated for plasma spraying usually incorporates one or a mixture of the following gases:
Argon
Helium
Nitrogen
Hydrogen
Plasma flames for thermal spraying can produce temperatures around 7,000 to 20,000K far above the melting temperature (and vapour temperature) of any known
material. The extreme temperature of the plasma is not the only reason for the effective heating properties. If for example helium gas is heated to around 13,000K
without a plasma forming, it would have insufficient energy for normal plasma spraying. Nitrogen on the other hand heated to 10,000K going through dissociation and
ionisation forming a plasma is an effective heating media for thermal spraying, being able to supply about six times more energy than an equal volume of helium at
13,000K. The plasma is able to supply large amounts of energy due to the energy changes associated with dissociating molecular gases to atomic gases and
ionisation which occur with little change in temperature.

N2 + E = 2N
Diatomic molecule of nitrogen + energy gives 2 free atoms of nitrogen
2N + E = 2N+ + 2e2 free atoms of nitrogen + energy gives 2 nitrogen ions and 2 electrons
The reverse process provides most of the energy for heating the spray material without a dramatic drop in temperature:

2N+ + 2e- = 2N + E
2N
= N2 + E
Nitrogen and hydrogen are diatomic gases (two atoms to every molecule). These plasmas have higher energy contents for a given temperature than the atomic
gases of argon and helium because of the energy associated with dissociation of molecules.

Argon and Helium are monatomic gases (the atoms don't combine to form molecules) These plasmas are relatively lower in energy content and higher in
temperature than the plasmas from diatomic gases.

Nitrogen is a general purpose primary gas used alone or with hydrogen secondary gas.
Nitrogen also benefits from being the cheapest plasma gas. Nitrogen tends to be inert to most spray material except materials like titanium.

Argon is probably the most favoured primary plasma gas and is usually used with a secondary plasma gas (hydrogen, helium and nitrogen) to increase its energy.
Argon is the easiest of these gases to form a plasma and tends to be less aggressive towards electrode and nozzle hardware. Most plasmas are started up using
pure argon. Argon is a noble gas and is completely inert to all spray materials.

Hydrogen is mainly used as a secondary gas, it dramatically effects heat transfer properties and acts as anti-oxidant. Small amounts of hydrogen added to the other
plasma gases dramatically alters the plasma characteristics and energy levels and is thus used as one control for setting plasma voltage and energy.

Helium is mainly used as a secondary gas with argon. Helium is a noble gas and is completely inert to all spray materials and is used when hydrogen or nitrogen
secondary gases have deleterious effects. Helium imparts good heat transfer properties and gives high sensitivity for control of plasma energy. It is commonly used
for high velocity plasma spraying of high quality carbide coatings where process conditions are critical.

Constructional & Operational Features of


9M Plasma Spray System

9MB M/H Plasma Spray Gun


9MC Control Unit
10MR-04 Power Supply Unit
4MP-D Powder Feeder Unit With Rate Meter
Heat Exchanger Unit

9MB Plasma Spray Gun


Designed for production spraying, the Type 9MB can be operated at power levels of up to 80 KW and can
also be used in either a hand-held or machine-mount configuration. In manual use, the gun handle has a
convenient on/off powder feed switch and an E-stop (emergency shut-down) switch. In the machinemounted configuration, the gun is easily mounted to an articulated robot, traverse or gantry manipulation
equipment. The higher power rating of this gun means that high powder feed rates can be used in
production environments, cutting spray time and processing costs. Modular construction allows for rapid
hardware change out. A wide variety of nozzle, electrode and powder port options are available to suit
many different coating material requirements. We also offer adjustable gun cooling air jets. Several
extension kits are available for the 9MB Gun. The Type 7MT-2 ft extender with a maximum power rating of
37 KW is capable of being used in diameters as small as 51 mm (2) diameter and is available in 60 or
180 configurations. The 180 configuration is an excellent choice for reaching the bottom of small,
terminating bores. The Type 7MST-2 ft extender, with a maximum power rating of 24.5 KW is available in
a 60 configuration and can be used for internal diameters as small as 41 mm (1.6).

9MC Control Unit


The best selling Air Plasma Spray Controller in the world!
The 9MC controller has been designed and constructed to
ensure consistent application of high-quality, repeatable
coatings. The unit utilizes a PLC controller to monitor all
critical processes and provides reliable and consistent
parameter control. A message center identifies and displays
all alarm conditions. With built-in, self-diagnostic capability,
it identifies problem areas to provide guidance for corrective
action. The 9MC can control up to 2 powder feeders. A
unique benefit of the 9MC unit is that multiple controllers
can be linked together, with one unit acting as a master
controller and other units being slaved to the master unit.
This is excellent for high production operations in which
multiple plasma guns must be operated simultaneously to
maintain production rates.

9MCD Distribution Unit


Designed to be used with the 9MC Plasma
Controller. It is a free standing unit which
houses electric power and gun cooling water
connections for the plasma gun water cooled
electric cables. Cooling water flow rate is
conveniently displayed on the front panel. The
9MCD is a free standing unit on an integrated
cart which allows the operator to locate the
unit as desired.

4MP-D Powder Feeder Unit


The Type 4MP powder feeder family
uses local fluation technology for
reliable powder delivery, accurately
feeds materials in a broad range of
particle mesh sizes and differing
particle morphology. The 4MP is
available as a single hopper unit or as
a dual hopper unit (Type 4MP Dual).
The 2 hoppers on the 4MP Dual can
be used simultaneously for high spray
rates of a single powder or separately
for convenient operation when a bond
coat and top coat are required for the
coating system.

10MR Power Supply Unit

The 10MR series of high efficiency power


supplies feature closed-loop, constant current
operation and are intended for use with the
9MCD Distribution Unit in non-CE
installations. The 10MR is fully SCR (silicon
control rectifier) controlled. It connects to 3
phase incoming line power and is equipped
with thermal overload protection. A main
control circuit breaker prevents internal
damage in case of a 3-phase line imbalance.
Maximum output current of the 10MR is 1000
Amps, and provides 100 KW of power at
100% duty cycle. Units are available for
varying input line voltages and frequencies in
use around the world (please refer to
specifications).

Heat Exchanger Unit

Using either distilled water or deionized


water, the gun cooling water circuit is closed
loop. Water returning to the heat exchanger
is successively cooled, conditioned to
remove impurities and repumped to the gun
as needed. To prevent the reaction of
oxygen and dissolved impurities reacting
with gun components to form insulating
materials on the gun electrodes and nozzle,
the heat exchangers is equipped with a
three-element chemical conditioning unit
that deoxygenates, deionizes and removes
organics from the gun cooling water.

6P-II Combustion Spray Gun


Designed for production spraying, the Type 6P-II can be
configured for either hand-held or machine-mounted operations.
A push-button on the handle of the hand-held configuration
conveniently starts and stops the powder flow. Both
configurations are lightweight and the machine-mount unit is
easily attached to articulated robot, traverse or gantry
manipulation equipment. Since the powder material is fed from
a remote positive pressure powder feeder, the 6P-II can spray
in any attitude without affecting spray rate, or powder delivery to
the 6P-II gun.

14E Combustion Wire Spray Gun


The Type 14E is lightweight, handheld and well balanced. It can also
be operated in a machinemounted configuration. The Type
14E is rugged in construction and
easily maintained. The 14E can
spray both hard and soft wires
(high/low melting points).

3GF Gas Flow Meter


Dual Rotameter unit for economical, simple
and accurate control of fuel gas and oxygen
flows. Highest flame efficiency is achieved
when gas flows are accurately balanced.

What is HVOF Spray Process?

The HVOF (High Velocity Oxygen Fuel) Thermal Spray Process is basically the same as the
combustion powder spray process (LVOF) except that this process has been developed to produce
extremely high spray velocity. There are a number of HVOF guns which use different methods to achieve
high velocity spraying. One method is basically a high pressure water cooled HVOF combustion chamber
and long nozzle. Fuel (kerosene, acetylene, propylene and hydrogen) and oxygen are fed into the
chamber, combustion produces a hot high pressure flame which is forced down a nozzle increasing its
velocity. Powder may be fed axially into the HVOF combustion chamber under high pressure or fed
through the side of laval type nozzle where the pressure is lower. Another method uses a simpler system
of a high pressure combustion nozzle and air cap. Fuel gas (propane, propylene or hydrogen) and oxygen
are supplied at high pressure, combustion occurs outside the nozzle but within an air cap supplied with
compressed air. The compressed air pinches and accelerates the flame and acts as a coolant for the
HVOF gun. Powder is fed at high pressure axially from the centre of the nozzle.

What is HVOF Spray Process?

The coatings produced by HVOF are similar to those produce by the detonation process.
HVOF coatings are very dense, strong and show low residual tensile stress or in some cases
compressive stress, which enable very much thicker coatings to be applied than previously
possible with the other processes.

The very high kinetic energy of particles striking the substrate surface do not require the
particles to be fully molten to form high quality HVOF coatings. This is certainly an advantage
for the carbide cermet type coatings and is where this process really excels.

HVOF coatings are used in applications requiring the highest density and strength not found in
most other thermal spray processes. New applications, previously not suitable for thermal
spray coatings are becoming viable.

Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC)

Superalloys used in GTs melt at temperatures between ~1200 and 1315C. The
combustion gases that flow through these engines are ~1350C or higher. How do
the engines run without melting? Large amounts of compressor air are used to cool
the engine components, thereby avoiding melting, thermal fatigue and a variety of
other potential failure modes. Providing this cooling air comes at the cost of
decreasing engine performance and fuel economy. If less cooling air is required,
fuel economy or other measures of performance can be increased. If cooling air
and the temperature of the metal parts are simultaneously reduced, fuel economy
and engine component lifetimes can be increased. This is what zirconia based
TBCs do.
The properties of zirconia most critical for TBCs are a very low thermal conductivity
(~1 W/mK) and a thermal expansion close to that of superalloys. If a thin layer of
zirconia is coated on a cooled metal substrate, a significant DT can be supported
across the layer. (If the substrate is not cooled, the DT will approach zero.) The
zirconia coatings used in current engines can sustain a DT of ~165C in airfoils,
reduce specific fuel consumption by ~1%, increase thrust-to-weight ratios by ~5%,
and significantly extend component life.
TBCs are a two-layer system composed of a zirconia layer ~0.254 mm thick, which
faces the hot combustion gases, and an ~0.127 mm bond coat (typically,
NiCoCrAlY alloy). The bond coat provides strong coating adherence and enhances
the oxidation resistance of the substrate metals.

Clearance Control Coatings


( Abradable Coatings)

Clearance control systems or gas path seal coatings are those used in selective
areas of gas turbine engines to maintain tight tolerances between rotating and
static parts. This is best accomplished when the rotating member cuts a path into
the static component. Typically, the static member is coated with an abradable
material while the rotating part is coated with a hard, abrasive material. The
rotating member functions like a grinding wheel.
The abradable component will exhibit good adhesion and erosivity; be easily
rubbed with the rub surface being smooth; and, lastly, debris should not be
detrimental to the engines overall performance.
The deposition of abradable coatings is particularly suited to thermal spraying
based upon current knowledge of parameter interactions. This awareness permits
the deposition of coatings with predetermined density levels vital for them to be
highly abradable without causing damage to the incurring member.
Coatings for engine cold sections (<1200F [649C]), low (fan) and high-pressure
compressor (HPC), are generally applied over a nickel-aluminum bond coat.
Abradable products include:

Safety While Working on Thermal


Spray System
General Personal Safety :
Eye Protection
Ear Protection
Hand and Body Protection
Protection from Radiation
Respiratory Protection

Safety While Working on Thermal Spray System

Safety Measures while working on Plasma Spray System:

1.
2.
3.
4.

Always use hand gloves while working on plasma spray system.


Use Ear Plugs as the system produces very high noise.
Always use Shoes for Leg protection.
Eye Protection is must. Protection of eye and body is necessary as the Ultra Violet radiations may cause
severe sunburn to skin and severe irretaion to eyes. For continuous operation in manual plasma, aluminised
apron is recommended.
Check all hoses carefully and be sure that all cables are tight.
Before starting the gun, check nozzle and be sure that its tight. While doing purge test, please check for any
traces of water. If water traces are found, please fix the nozzle properly till no water traces are found.
Handle the gun carefully. Serious burns can result from contact with the flame close to the Nozzle.
Do not touch the Gun (live parts i.e. Nozzle/ live un insulated DC Cables) while doing ignition test. It may
cause severe damage to human hands. Do not touch when gun is being ignited. Check ignition with help of
glass piece / mirror infront of nozzle bore.
Do not look into flame. Do not direct flame to gas cylinders / combustible materials.
Do not direct plasma gun flame to wards any person.
Do not kink or walk on hoses or cables.
Do not leave gun un attended.
Check gas pressures in cylinders before starting operations. All gas equipments such as Gas and Air Lines ,
compressors, regulators etc should be inspected regularly for leak and loose connections.
Always chain the gas cylinders. Keep Cylinders from heat and moisture.
Open the gas cylinders when required. Other wise keep it closed.
Inspect gas hoses/ powder hose regularly.

5.
6.
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9.
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16.

Safety While Working on Thermal Spray System


17. The particles in plasma spray stream strikes the work piece at high velocity, resulting in rebound of some
sprayed particles. Adequate Ventilation system to suck this particle dust is required to keep workplace
clean and dust free.
18. Finely divided powder particles which can be oxidised with air are potential fire hazardous and can be
explosive. This includes metal dust, dusts of aluminium and magnisium are particularly hazardous. To
prevent the danger of dust explosion resulting from plasma spraying, adequate ventilation must be
provided for spray booth, ducting and other confined spaces, to prevent the accumulation of fumes
and dust. Regularly inspect and clean the area and exhaust system to ensure there is no potential
dangerous accumulation of dust.
20. Good house keeping in the work place is essential.
21. Keep the gun hoses away from the spray stream. Do not hang gun on cylinders. Fire explosion may result.
22. Never use Oil / grease on any Gas regulating equipment.
23. Always back out regulator screw before opening gas cylinder.

Safety While Working on Thermal


Spray System

1.
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Safety Built in System:


The System is Fully safe and easy to operate.
Provides automatic operation, monitoring and control of spray gun. The control units are
capable of System Status Monitoring, Gas Flow control, Electrical control.
Unit contains all controls necessary to automatically start and stop the operation of a
plasma system.
The Control Units continuously meters and maintains preset gas flow values to gun and
automatically starts material feed.
The Control unit continuously monitors the supply pressure of the primary gas, secondary
gas, carrier gas and air. The unit will shut the system down automatically in the event that
any pressure go beyond safe operating limit / level. Monitors Water Flow and water temp.
Out standing feature of of system is system status, which provides operator with
convenient monitoring of system operation and alarm conditions.
In the event of an alarm condition, the monitors will display self diagnostic message,
identifying the problem responsible for malfunction.
Arc Voltage and amperage reading in taken and displayed in digital display.
Unit can control two powder feeder, either individually or simultaneously.
Automatically monitors and control parameters and sequence system operations enabling
repetable coatings with minimal part rejection.

Statistical Process Control


Statistical Process Control (SPC) is an effective method of
monitoring a process through the use of control charts. Control
charts enable the use of objective criteria for distinguishing
background variation from events of significance based on
statistical techniques. Much of its power lies in the ability to
monitor both process center and its variation about that center.
By collecting data from samples at various points within the
process, variations in the process that may affect the quality of
the end product or service can be detected and corrected, thus
reducing waste as well as the likelihood that problems will be
passed on to the customer. With its emphasis on early detection
and prevention of problems, SPC has a distinct advantage over
quality methods, such as inspection, that apply resources to
detecting and correcting problems in the end product or service.

Statistical Process Control


In addition to reducing waste, SPC can lead to a
reduction in the time required to produce the product
or service from end to end. This is partially due to a
diminished likelihood that the final product will have
to be reworked, but it may also result from using
SPC data to identify bottlenecks, wait times, and
other sources of delays within the process. Process
cycle time reductions coupled with improvements in
yield have made SPC a valuable tool from both a
cost reduction and a customer satisfaction
standpoint.

Statistical Process Control


In mass-manufacturing, the quality of the
finished article was traditionally achieved
through post-manufacturing inspection of the
product; accepting or rejecting each article (or
samples from a production lot) based on how
well it met its design specifications. In contrast,
Statistical Process Control uses statistical tools
to observe the performance of the production
process in order to predict significant deviations
that may later result in rejected product

Statistical Process Control


Two kinds of variation occur in all manufacturing processes:
both these types of process variation cause subsequent
variation in the final product. The first is known as natural or
common cause variation and may be variation in temperature,
properties of raw materials, strength of an electrical current
etc. This variation is small, the observed values generally
being quite close to the average value. The pattern of
variation will be similar to those found in nature, and the
distribution forms the bell-shaped normal distribution curve.
The second kind of variation is known as special cause
variation, and happens less frequently than the first.

Statistical Process Control


Initially, one starts with an amount of data from a
manufacturing process with a specific metric, i.e. mass,
length, surface energy...of a widget. One example may be a
manufacturing process of a nanoparticle type and two
parameters are key to the process; particle mean-diameter
and surface area. So, with the exiting data one would
calculate the sample mean and sample standard deviation.
The Upper Control Limits of the process would be set to mean
plus three standard deviations and the Lower Control Limit
would be set to mean minus three standard deviations. The
action taken depends on statistic and where each run lands
on the SPC chart in order to control but not tamper with the
process. The criticalness of the process can be defined by the
westinghouse rules used.

Statistical Process Control


Benefits:
Provides surveillance and feedback for keeping processes in
control
Signals when a problem with the process has occurred
Detects assignable causes of variation
Accomplishes process characterization
Reduces need for inspection
Monitors process quality
Provides mechanism to make process changes and track
effects of those changes
Once a process is stable (assignable causes of variation have
been eliminated), provides process capability analysis with
comparison to the product tolerance

DRAFT SHEET FOR COLLECTING DATA

Component Details:

Sl No.

Discription
1

Current in Amps

Voltage in Volts

H2 Gas Pressure

H2 Gas Flow

Ar Gas Pressure

Ar Gas Flow

Gun Cooling Air Pressure

Jet Position

Auxiliary Air Cooling Pressure

10

Gun Type : 9MB


Nozzle
Powder Port
Spray Distance

11

Powder Type

12

Powder Feed Rate in Gm/Min

Component Inspection: Accepated / Rejected

Reasons for rejection:

Coating Defects observation:

Standard

Actual

Component Details :
Description
Sl No.
1

Powder Type

Powder Spray Rate in Gm/ Min

Wt of Component before coating

Wt of Component after coating

Time taken to Complete component

Powder Consumption per component

Details

Thank You