Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 60



The temperature is a thermal state of a body
which distinguishes a hot body from a cold body.
The temperature of a body is proportional to the
stored molecular energy i.e. the average
molecular kinetic energy of the molecules in a
The temperature may also be defined as:


measure of the mean kinetic energy of the

molecules of a substance.
The degree of hotness and coldness of a body or an
environmental measured on a definite scale.
The driving force or potential causing flow of energy
as heat.

Scale of temperature is a way to measure
temperature quantitatively.
Centigrade and Fahrenheit Scales:


both these scales the freezing point and boiling point of

water are used as fixed points. The centigrade scale

abbreviated as 0 C, assigns 00C to the ice point and 1000 C to

the steam point and the interval between these points
divided in to 100 equal parts.
The corresponding values on Fahrenheit scale are 320 F and
2120 F with the interval divided in to 180 equal parts.

Kelvin and Rankine absolute Scales:

Thermodynamically, there does exist a condition of no molecular
activity and hence no heat content in the body. The temperature at
this condition is the lowest temperature possible and is referred as
absolute zero. On the Kelvin and Rankine scales the absolute
temperature is hypothetically placed at -2730 C and -459.70 C.
Thermodynamic Scale:
The efficiency of an idle engine operating up on Carnot cycle is
given by

T1 T2 Q1 Q2


For the thermodynamic scale of temperature, Kelvin selected the

Q1/Q2 = T1/T2

That is, the ratio of energy absorbed to the energy rejected as heat by a
reversible engine is equal to the ratio of the temperatures of the source
and the sink.


The International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) is an

equipment calibration standard for making measurements on the
Kelvin and Celsius temperature scales.
The triple point of water is the most important defining
thermometric fixed point used in the calibration of thermometers to
the International Temperature Scale of 1990. The assigned value
on these Scales is 273.16 K (0.01C).
The International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) defines
both International Kelvin Temperatures, symbol T90, and
International Celsius Temperatures, symbol t90. The relation
between T90 and t90 is the same as that between T and t, i.e.:

t90/C = T90/K 273.15

The unit of the physical quantity T90 is the kelvin, symbol K, and
the unit of the physical quantity t90 is the degree Celsius, symbol


Temperature measuring instruments may be classified

either accounting to the range of temperature
measurement or according to the nature of change
produced in temperature sensing element.
Temperature measuring instruments are based on
changes in a broad range of physical properties among
which are:

Changes in Physical

1. Liquid in glass thermometers

Changes in gas pressure or vapor


1. Constant volume gas thermometer

2. Pressure Thermometers

Changes in Electric Properties


Changes in Emitted Thermal



Changes in chemical Phase

1. Fusible indicators
2. Liquid Crystals
3. Temperature reference cells


2. Bimetallic Elements

Resistance thermometers
Thermo Couples
Semiconductor Junction Sensors
i. Diodes
ii. Integrated Circuits.
Thermal and photon sensors
Total radiation pyrometers
Optical and two color pyrometers
Infrared Pyrometers

The temperature measuring instruments may also be

classified into two broad categories
Non Electrical Methods:

using change in volume of a liquid when its temperature



using change in pressure of a gas when its temperature is



using changes in vapor pressure when its temperature is


Electrical Methods:



change in resistance of material with change in temperature


comparing the colors of filament and the object whose

temperature is to be found.


ascertaining the energy received by radiation.


A liquid-in-glass thermometer measures temperature based on

the thermal expansion of mercury or spirit alcohol in a glass
The boiling point of mercury is 356.72 C, and its melting point is
-38.86 C.
The boiling point of methyl alcohol is 64.65 C, and its melting
point is -97.78 C.
Because mercury has low thermal capacity, high heat
conductivity, inertness in relation to a glass capillary tube
and a high boiling point, it is an ideal thermometric liquid
except for its relatively high melting point.
Accordingly, mercury thermometers are used for ordinary
meteorological observations, and spirit thermometers are used
for those involving temperatures below the melting point of

A liquid-in-glass thermometer consists of a
capillary glass tube with a bulb at one end filled
with a thermometric liquid, vacuumed and sealed.
By reading the position of the liquid level on a
scale, a temperature value can be obtained.
Designs can be classified as either the sheathed
type or the unsheathed type.
A sheathed thermometer consists of a bulb, a
slender capillary glass tube connected to it, a
milky-white scale plate attached to the capillary
tube, and an outer glass tube that encloses them.
An unsheathed thermometer consists of a thickwalled capillary glass tube with a scale marked
directly on it.

A bulb which acts as a container for the functioning

liquid where it can easily expand or contract in
A stem, a glass tube containing a tiny capillary
connected to the bulb and enlarged at the bottom into
a bulb that is partially filled with a working liquid.
A temperature scale which is basically preset or
imprinted on the stem for displaying temperature
Point of reference i.e. a calibration point which is
most commonly the ice point.
A working liquid which is generally either mercury
or alcohol.
An inert gas, mainly argon or nitrogen which is filled
inside the thermometer above mercury to trim down
its volatilization.


The total-immersion
type is the most
accurate and is
wherever possible;
the completeimmersion type is
the least common.


Working liquid

Temperature range (C)


-38 to 650


-90 to 100

Ethyl alcohol

-110 to 100


-200 to 20

Mercury was the liquid the most often used because of its good
reaction time, repeatability, linear coefficient of expansion and
large temperature range. But it is poisonous and so other working
liquids are used.
Common organic liquids are toluene, ethyl alcohol, pentane; their
expansion is high but not linear and they are limited at high
They need to be dyed, the most common colors being red, blue
and green.

Simplicity of use and relatively low cost
Easily portable
Ease of checking for physical damage
Absence of need of auxiliary power
No need of additional indicating instruments
Fragile construction, range limited to about 600 0 C
Lack of adaptability to remote reading
Time lag between change of temperature and
thermometer response due to high heat capacity of

Bulb thermometers are good for measuring
temperature accurately, but they are harder to use
when the goal is to control the temperature. The
bimetallic strip thermometer, because it is made
of metal, is good at controlling things.
The principle behind a bimetallic strip thermometer
relies on the fact that different metals expand at
different rates as they warm up.
By bonding two different metals together, you can
make a simple electric controller that can withstand
fairly high temperatures. This sort of controller is
often found in ovens.

Two metals make up the bimetallic strip (hence the

name). In this diagram, the green metal would be
chosen to expand faster than the blue metal if the device
were being used in an oven.
In a refrigerator, you would use the opposite setup, so
that as the temperature rises the blue metal expands
faster than the green metal.
This causes the strip to bend upward, making contact
so that current can flow. By adjusting the size of the gap
between the strip and the contact, you control the

These types of thermometers work best at higher

temperatures, since their accuracy and sensitivity
tends to reduce at low temperatures.
Bimetallic strip thermometers are manufactured
in various designs. One of the most popular design
i.e. flat spiral is shown in the figure below. They
can also be wound into a single helix or multiple
helix form.
Bimetallic thermometers can be customized to
work as recording thermometers too by affixing a
pen to the pointer. The pen is located in such a way
that it can make recordings on a circling chart.
Bimetallic strips often come in very long sizes.
Hence, they are usually coiled into spirals which
make them compact and small in size. This also
improves the sensitivity of bimetallic strips
towards little temperature variations.

A bimetallic coil from

a thermometer reacts
to the heat from a
lighter, by uncoiling
and then coiling back
up when the lighter is



Bimetallic strips are one of the oldest techniques

to measure temperature. They can be designed to
work at quite high temperatures i.e. upto 500F
or 260C. Major application areas of a bimetallic
strip thermometer include:
For various household appliances such as ovens
Thermostat switches
Wall thermometers
Circuit breakers for electrical heating devices

In expensive, commonly used wherever an
industrial mercury in glass thermometer can be
Simple, compact and robust construction.
Speeds of response are similar to comparable
liquid in glass thermometer.
Capability to work under greatly over ranged
conditions with out harm.


In resistance thermometers, the change in resistance of

various materials, which varies in a reproducible manner
with temperature, forms the basis of this important sensing
The materials in actual use fall in two classes namely,
conductors (metals) and semiconductors. In general, the
resistance of the highly conducting materials (metals)
increases with increase in temperature and the coils of such
materials are called metallic resistance thermometers.
Whereas the resistance of semiconductor materials generally
(not always) decreases with increase in temperature.
temperature characteristics are commonly known as NTC

Metals such as platinum, copper, tungsten and

nickel exhibit small increases in resistance as the
temperature rises because they have a positive
temperature coefficient of resistance.
Platinum is a very widely used sensor and its
operating range is from 4K to 1064 C.
However for the measurement of lower temperatures
up to 600C, RTD sensor is made of nickel.
Metallic resistance thermometers are constructed in
many forms, but the temperature sensitive element
is usually in the form of a coil of fine wire supported
in a stress-free manner. A typical construction is
shown in Fig., where the wire of metal is wound on
the grooved hollow insulating ceramic former and
covered with protective cement.


Linearity of resistance: temperature relationship for
convenience in measurement.
Relatively large change in resistance with
temperature in order to produce a resistance
thermometer with good sensitivity.
No change of phase or state with in a reasonable
temperature range.
Availability in reproducible condition.
High resistivity so that it can be fabricated in a
compact size.

Simplicity and accuracy of operation
Possibility of easy installation and replacement.
Flexibility with regard to choice of measuring
equipment and interchangeability of elements.
Absence of any reference junction and so more
effective at room temperature.
Possibility of much large distance between the
temperature sensitive element and the indicating
Higher working signal level, simplicity of lead
wire and termination scheme.

Performance of resistance thermometers are

affected by

change due to temperature change of

measuring resistors
More lag because the thermometer is enclosed in a
protecting sheath.
Possibility of current leakage between resistance
element and ground.
Generation of thermo electric emf at the junction of
similar metals.


The thermistor is a device that changes its electrical resistance with

temperature. In particular materials with predictable values of
change are most desirable.
The original thermistors were made of loops of resistance wire, but
the typical thermistor in use today is a sintered semiconductor
material that is capable of large changes in resistance for a small
change in temperature.
These devices exhibit a negative temperature coefficient, meaning
that as the temperature increases the resistance of the element
These have extremely good accuracy, ranging around 0.1 to 0.2C
working over a range of 0 to 100C.
These are still the most accurate transducers manufactured for
temperature measurement, however thermistors are non-liner in
response. This leads to additional work to create a linear output and
significantly adds to the error of the final reading.

Thermistors may be shaped in the form of bead,

disc, washer etc.

Fairly less cost.
Availability in small sizes
Fast thermal response
High sensitivity
Easy adaptability to electrical readout devices.
Owing to inherently high sensitivity possessed by


simple electrical circuitry can be used to

measure the temperature.
Simple circuits are also usable.



Metal Resistors


Resistance Change

Positive (increase in
resistance with
temperature rise)

Negative (decrease in
resistance with
temperature rise)


Approximately linear

1 1
R Ro exp


Practical operating

-1600 C to 6000 C

is a constant
depends on
-1000 C to 3000 C

More suitable, provide Less stable

better reproducibility comparitively.
with low hysteresis.

Thermocouples are based on the effect that the
junction between two different metals produces a
voltage which increases with temperature.
Compared with resistance thermometers they offer
the clear advantage of a higher upper temperature
limit, up to several thousand degrees Celsius.
Their long-term stability is somewhat worse (a few
degrees after one year), the measuring accuracy is
slightly poorer (on the average +0.75% of the
measurement range).
They are frequently used in ovens, furnaces, flue
gas measurements and other areas with
temperatures above about 250C.

Thermocouples are thermoelectric sensors that basically

consists of two junctions of dissimilar metals, such as copper

and constantan that are welded or crimped together.

One junction is kept at a constant temperature called the

reference (Cold) junction, while the other the measuring (Hot)
When the two junctions are at different temperatures, a
voltage is developed across the junction which is used to
measure the temperature sensor as shown below.

The thermoelectric effect: when one junction has a
different temperature then the other, an
electromotive force is produced in the circuit and
current flows.
The magnitude of the force or potential depends
on the temperature difference between the two
thermoelectric: The Seebeck effect, Peltier effect,
and Thompson effect.

Seebeck effect
The Seebeck effect is the conversion of thermal energy to
electrical energy.
This effect measures the ease at which excess electrons
will circulate in an electrical circuit under the influence of
thermal difference.
The change in the voltage is proportional to the
temperature difference between the junctions when the
ends are connected to form a loop.

Thermocouples: Peltier effect

The Peltier effect is closely related to the Seebeck
effect. It represents the thermal effect due to a reversible
current through dissimilar materials or through similar
metals due to an external source of current.
A current flow in one direction might warm the junction
of the two dissimilar materials (and release heat to the
surroundings of that junction), whereas if the current was
reversed, the junction would cool (and absorb heat from
its surroundings).

Thermocouples: Peltier effect

Thermocouples: Thompson effect

The Thompson effect is the absorption or liberation of
heat by a homogeneous conductor due to a current
flowing through it.
It is primarily evident in currents introduced form
external sources and those generated by the
thermocouple itself. The ability of a given material to
generate heat with respect to both a unit temperature
gradient and a unit current, is gauged by the Thompson
The importance of the Peltier and Thompson effects is
essentially infinitesimal because the heat evolved is
negligible compared to the amount of thermal energy
available from the environment to the junctions of T1 and


The operating principal of a thermocouple is very simple and

basic. When fused together the junction of the two dissimilar
metals such as copper and constantan produces a thermoelectric effect which gives a constant potential difference of
only a few milli volts (mV) between them.
The voltage difference between the two junctions is called the
Seebeck effect as a temperature gradient is generated along
the conducting wires producing an emf. Then the output
voltage from a thermocouple is a function of the temperature
If both the junctions are at the same temperature the
potential difference across the two junctions is zero in other
words, no voltage output as V1=V2. However, when the
junctions are connected within a circuit and are both at
different temperatures a voltage output will be detected
relative to the difference in temperature between the two
junctions, V1-V2.


Thermocouple Sensor Colour Codes
Extension and Compensating Leads

Conductors (+/-)


Nickel Chromium /
Iron / Constantan

-200 to 900oC

BS 1843:1952

0 to 750oC

Nickel Chromium /
Nickel Aluminium

-200 to 1250oC

Nicrosil / Nisil

0 to 1250oC

Copper / Constantan

-200 to 350oC

/ Copper
Nickel materials used above for
The three most
to 1450oC
are 0
(Type J),
"S" and
"R" T), and Nickel-Chromium (Type K).


The choice of materials for thermocouples in

governed by the following factors:


Ability to withstand the temperature, at which they

are used.
Immunity from contamination / oxidation, etc.
which ensures maintenance of the precise thermoelectric properties with continuous use.
Linearity characteristics.
Cost should be reasonable.
The thermocouple should have long life.


Law of Homogeneous metals:


law states that a thermocouple circuit that is made with a

homogeneous wire cannot generate an emf, even if it is at
different temperatures and thicknesses throughout.


other words, a thermocouple must be made from at least two

different materials in order to generate a voltage. A change in
the area of the cross section of a wire, or a change in the
temperature in different places in the wire, will not produce a

Law of Intermediate metals:

The sum of all of the emfs in a thermocouple circuit using two or

more different metals is zero if the circuit is at the same
This law is interpreted to mean that the addition of different
metals to a circuit will not affect the voltage the circuit creates.
The added junctions are to be at the same temperature as the
junctions in the circuit. For example, a third metal such as
copper leads may be added to help take a measurement.

Law of Intermediate temperatures:

A thermocouple made from two different metals
produces an emf, E1, when the metals are at different
temperatures, T1 and T2, respectively. Suppose one of
the metals has a temperature change to T3, but the
other remains at T2. Then the emf created when the
thermocouple is at temperatures T1 and T3 will be the
summation of the first and second, so that Enew = E1 +
This law allows a thermocouple that is calibrated with a
reference temperature to be used with another reference
temperature. It also allows extra wires with the same
thermoelectric characteristics to be added to the circuit
without affecting its total emf.



Thermocouples have better response

They have higher range of temperature measurements
The sensing element of thermocouple can be easily installed
Cheaper than resistance thermometers
Very convenient for measuring temperature at one particular
point in piece of apparatus.

Dis Advantages:

Lower Accuracy
Inorder to ensure long life they need to be amply protected.
The circuitry for thermocouple is very complex.


Pyrometer, an instrument for measuring temperature.

Although the term pyrometer is generally considered to
apply to instruments that measure high temperatures only,
some pyrometers are designed to measure low
temperatures. Two common types of pyrometers are the
optical pyrometer and the radiation pyrometer.
An optical pyrometer determines the temperature of a very
hot object by the colour of the visible light it gives off. The
colour of the light can be determined by comparing it with
the colour of an electrically heated metal wire.
In one type of pyrometer, the temperature of the wire is
varied by varying the strength of the current until the
operator of the instrument determines that the colour of
the wire matches the colour of the object. A dial, operated
by the current that heats the wire, indicates the

A radiation pyrometer determines the temperature

of an object from the radiation (infrared and, if
present, visible light) given off by the object.
The radiation is directed at a heat-sensitive element
such as a thermocouple, a device that produces an
electric current when part of it is heated.
The hotter the object, the more current is generated
by the thermocouple. The current operates a dial
that indicates temperature.


It is defined as the transfer of energy across a system

boundary by means of an electromagnetic mechanism which is
caused solely by a temperature difference. Radiation exchange
occurs most effectively in vacuum.
The emission of thermal radiation depends up on the nature,
temperature and state of emitting surface.

Black body radiation:

A body at higher temperatures emits electromagnetic
radiation. The rate at which energy is emitted depends on
surface temperature and surface conditions. The thermal
radiation from a body is composed of wavelengths forming an
energy distribution. The emissive power of a black body
according to Stephan Boltzmann constant is

Radiation from real surfaces:

Black body is an idealized concept in radiation. A black body

absorbs all incoming radiation and transmits none. Black body
is also a perfect emitter, since it emits radiation of all
wavelengths. Its total emissive power is theoretically the
highest that can be achieved at any given temperature. The
emissive power from a real surface is given by
E=AT4 Watts
Where is emissivity of material.
o Emissivity:

Emissivity is defined as the ratio of the energy radiated from a

material's surface to that radiated from a blackbody (a perfect
emitter) at the same temperature and wavelength and under the
same viewing conditions.
It is a dimensionless number between 0 (for a perfect reflector)
and 1 (for a perfect emitter). The emissivity of a surface depends
not only on the material but also on the nature of the surface.


When temperature to be measured is high and physical

contact with the heat body is impossible, radiation
pyrometer are used.
Radiation pyrometers are used under conditions where
corrosive vapors or liquid would destroy thermocouples,
resistance thermometer and Thermistor.
These pyrometers also find applications where the
temperatures are above the range of thermocouple. The
wavelength region having high intensity is between 0.1 to
about 10m.
In this region, 01 is the ultraviolet region, 0.4 to 0.7 is the
visible region and 0.7 onwards is the infrared region. With
the increase in temperature, radiation intensity is stronger
toward shorter wavelengths.
The temperature measurement by radiation pyrometer is
limited within 0.5 to 8m wave length region.

The radiation pyrometer measures the heat emitted by a hot

object. The radiation pyrometers operate on the principle that
the energy radiated from a hot body is a function of its
The energy radiated by the hot body whose temperature is
measured is focused by the lens to the detector. The detector is a
thermocouple or bolometer (bolometer is a thermal device that
changes electrical resistance with temperature change). The
detector output is given to a PMMC instrument, digital display
or recorder.
The rise of temperature is a function of amount of radiation
emitted from the object.



There are two principle used for the

constrution of radiation temperature measuring

Total radiation pyrometer

In this, total radiant energy from a heated
body is measured.
Selective radiation pyrometer
In this, the radiated energy from the
heated body is measured at a given wavelength.

Very high temperature ranges (500C to 2400C)
Measurements of a body with low heat transfer rate or low
heat capacity
Measurements at difficult places or in a rotational
Short response time
Measurements of large surfaces without having to
incorporate many "measurement points.
Pyrometer readings can be ambiguous, since the measuring
is affected by the emittance and reflectance of the body, so
the effect of the surface characteristic of the body is very high
Dust, smoke or steam in the radiation path can also affect
the accuracy, as well as dirt on lenses and the measurement
Reflection of radiation from the surroundings of the target
can also affect the accuracy


Basic Principle
of optical pyrometer:

The principle of temperature measurement by

brightness comparison is used in optical pyrometer. A
color variation with the growth in temperature is
taken as an index of temperature.
This optical pyrometer compares the brightness of
image produced by temperature source with that of
reference temperature lamp. The current in the lamp
is adjusted until the brightness of the lamp is equal to
the brightness of the image produced by the
temperature source.
Since the intensity of light of any wave length
depends on the temperature of the radiating object,
the current passing through the lamp becomes a
measure of the temperature of the temperature source
when calibrated.

An eye piece at one end and an
objective lens at the
A power source
rheostat and milli
connected to a
temperature bulb.

other end.

An absorption screen is placed

in between the objective lens
and reference temperature
lamp. The absorption screen is
used to increase the range of
the temperature which can be
measured by the instrument.
The red filter between the eye
piece and the lamp allows only
a narrow band of wavelength.

When a temperature source is to be

measured , the
radiation from the source are focused onto the filament of
the reference temperature lamp using the objective lens.
Now the eye piece is adjusted so that the filament of the
reference temperature lamp is in sharp focus and the
filament is seen super imposed on the image of the
temperature source.
Now the observer starts controlling the lamp current and
the filament will appear dark as in figure (a) if the
filament is cooler than the temperature source, the
filament will appear bright as in figure (b) if the filament
is hotter than the temperature source, the filament will
not be seen as in figure (c) if the filament and temperature
source are in the same temperature.

Hence the observer should control the lamp current until the
filament and the temperature source have the same brightness
which will be noticed when the filament disappears as in figure
(c) in the superimposed image of the temperature source [ that
is the brightness of the lamp and the temperature source are
At the instance, the current flowing through the lamp which is
indicated by the milli-voltmeter connected to the lamp becomes
a measure of the temperature of the temperature source when

Applications of optical pyrometer:

Optical pyrometers are used to measure temperature of
molten metals or heated materials.
Optical pyrometers are used to measure temperature of
furnace and hot bodies.
Advantages of optical pyrometer:
Physical contact of the instrument is not required to measure
temperature of the temperature source.
Accuracy is high + or 5C.
Provided a proper sized image of the temperature source is
obtained in the instrument, the distance between the instrument
and the temperature source does not matter.
The instrument is easy to operate.
Limitations of the Optical pyrometer:
Temperature of more than 700C can only be measured since
illumination of the temperature source is a must for
Since it is manually operated, it cannot be used for the