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Picking a Suitable Truck

Dr. B. C. Paul 2000

Revised 2009


The Rear Dump Truck

Truck Configurations

Rear Dump
Solid bed elevates and dumps
material over the back

Solid bed can take abusive

handling and loading

Can be lined
Traditional liners steel
Carbon composites now
Lighter bed liners avoid loss of


Most manufactures offer different

bed for different material weights
Coal and iron ore for example

Trucks are sized by weight and

volume - most limiting controls
productive service
Like to get both to limit at same

Maneuverability Issues

Back dumping forces drivers to back

into spaces blind
Most rear dumps are two axle with
double tires on rear - fair
Some very large have had double rear
axle - hard to turn
Articulated versions are smaller but
highly maneuverable - often have
flotation tires for soft underfoot

The Tree Axle Rear


Rear Dump Power

Have relatively high HP to

payload ratios
makes very gradable
gas mileage marginal makes best for
short in pit hauls

Generally geared low so 42 mph

typical peak speed
Weight centers on drive tires for
traction (can have 4 wheel drive)

Powering Haul Trucks

Diesel Engine (common in US)

gas guzzlers frequently around 1 mpg

Trolly Electric
Rare in U.S. because it limits mobility to
areas with developed lines

Trolly Assist
Keeps down engine size
boost power on steepest grade
Loosing ground because full electric drive
systems loosing to mechanical

Three Axle Bottom


More of a tractor trailer

arrangement - open top and bottom
opens to unload
More popular with lighter material like
coal because of bed bottom abuse

More of vehicle is hauler

less power to payload
larger bed relative to size

The Three Axle Bottom


Properties of Bottom
Geared higher for more speed
Gives poor gradability

SMCRA limits most ramps to 10%


Speed and payload to power favors

longer hauls - coal to processing
Have lower loading height - works
better with FELs

Impact of Bottom Dump

Cant stand impacts
Allows truck to use regular truck

Dump time may be 25% of rear dump

Material must be free flowing and

not prone to freeze
Three axles tend to maneuver

Getting the Best of Both

Two Axle Bottom Dump
Improved Maneuverability
Looks like a three axle body only
solid and on two axles
Has Intermediate Power to
Payload ratio
Bottom dump still means light
free flowing non freezing material

Two Axle Bottom Dump

My Considerations

My Benches are relatively narrow so I

would like maneuverability favors rear
The Hauls are moderate length with some
steep grades and rolling resistance on the
sand dunes favors high power to payload,
again rear dump
Oil Shale is kind of heavy and blocky, could
beat on truck bed one piece beds of a
rear dump would be handy
Ill pick a rear dump

Turns Out That Was Also

The Choice of the Problem

You have been assigned to pick the trucks and

loaders for President Ahmadinejads Truck fleet of
International Peace and Love. The following
trucks are to be considered
Cat 769D Dual Slope
Cat 773E Flat Floor
Cat 777D Flat Floor
Cat 789D Dual Slope
Cat 793 C Dual Slope
(Specifications for all these trucks are available in
the 35th Edition of the Cat Handbook)
It is often very handy to have your truck specs
available a copy of the Cat Handbook is great

Reading Cat Specs

Truck Model
Truck Data Label
Numerical Values

Truck Weight
Total truck weight and
Payload can be 157,000 lb
(78.5 tons)
Basic Body and Chasis
Is 70,706 lbs

I could carry a load of

86,294 lbs (>43 tons)
But if I use a bedliner it
Will cut my payload
By 7280 lbs
And leave me with
79,094 lb payload (<40t)

A Truck Can Be Limited By

Weight or Volume

If I heap the truck it can

Handle 31.7 yd^3
(but that could mean a
High load at the middle
Of the truck
Struck even with the top
Is 21.6 yd^3

Truck Size

Width 168
For 2 way traffic you would
Probably want a road 2.75 times

Probably want about 1.5 times width

For single direction traffic

1/4th truck

Loading Height

Loader will have to be

Able to get over 102
To get over the side of
The truck
(that does not guarantee
It can heap the truck)

Turning Corners

Clearance to turn a full

Circle is 667

Traction Games
How much of the weight
Is on the drive wheels
Can control traction
When the truck is empty
50.3% of its weight is
On the rear drive wheels
When full 66.7% is on
The rear drive wheels
Of course you can put
4 wheel drive on but that
Is pricey to buy and
Pricey to maintain

More Considerations
I would like a big truck so I can
minimize the number of trucks I
have to run
Problem is that big trucks have
a big turning radius and I have a
narrow bench

Need to consider how I will load

for maneuvering

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