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Welcome to Australia

Richard Schloss
Paddy OLoughlin
Untung Prihardiyanto
Feriwan Sinatra

HITACHI
EH3500AC

Truck History
Past 23 years
1985 Volvo acquires Clark-Michigan, owner of Euclid
1994 HCM buys 20% interest in Euclid
1996 HCM buys into 40% interest, R260 is introduced
1998 Development of R280AC prototype, HCM acquires 80% interest
1999 Introduced the R280AC
2000 EH1700 is launched, through this year all model names change to
EH models, ending the long run of the R and CH designation that
accompanied the Payload in U.S. tons, Volvo interest reduces to 0% at the
end of this year
2003 EH5000 is introduced, established the Global Mining Center (GMC)
2004 Euclid-Hitachi Heavy Equipment becomes Hitachi Construction
Truck Manufacturing Ltd.
2006 EH750-3 and EH1100-3 are introduced
2007 EH1700-3, EH3500 & EH5000 AC II (IGBT) are introduced
2008 EH4000-3 AC & EH4500 AC (IGBT) to be released for testing

Hitachi Rigid Dump Truck Range


Mechanical Drive,
EH1700 (100 mt)

DC Electric Drive Trucks,


EH3000 (150 mt)

AC Electric Drive,

EH3500 (190 mt)


EH4500 (280 mt)
EH5000 (315 mt)

Dump Truck Series

Mechanical Drive
Electric Drive, DC
Electric Drive, AC

(GMW 230 m-t over)

Maximum Gross Machine Weight ( m-ton)


250

300

350

EH3000

789C

450

EH3500 EH4000 EH4500

785C

HD1500-5

400

630E 730E

MT3300AC
MT3700B

MT3600B
T252

500

550

600

EH5000

793C

797B

830E

930E-3

TMT260AC

T262

TI 272

MT5500

T282

Features:

Cummins QSK50 Tier 2 compliant engine


1,491 kW SAE J1995, Gross Engine Output
Highest retarding performance in its class
Advanced AC drive system allows low maintenance
time and cost
Superb driving performance and high
efficient cycle time
185 tonne Max. Payload
37.00R57 or 42/90R57 Tyres
325,000 kg GMW
Std. Body Capacity
110.4 m3 SAE 2:1
Trolley option available
7,871 kN @ 1500 RPM
(Max. Torque)

1100
4350

2040

8680

12830

5500
6660
7910
7040
6650

59

6600
5720

5630

1450

3790 5620
4090
13500

806

1890

4320
6720

Major Changes on EH3500

Major Changes on EH3500:


1. Development, Manufacturing
Transferred to Japan from USA & Canada
High reliability Japanese parts and components
Integrated development, manufacturing technology and
know-how of hydraulic excavators
2. Engine
Cummins TIER II 2000hp
3. Tyres
37.00R57, 42/90R57
4. AC drive system
Hitachi AC system from GE DC system
5. Frame design / Structure upgrades

Specification Comparison

D im e n s ioPne rfo rm a n c eW e ig h t B o d y T ire D riv e S y s . E n g in e

Item

Maker
Hitachi
Unit EH3500AC EH3500

Komatsu
730E

CAT
789C

Manufacture

--

Drive System
Model

---

CAT
Cummins Cummins Cummins
K2000E
K2000E
3516B
QSK50
1492
1492
1417
1492
50.3
50.3
69.0
50.3
GE
GE
Cat
Hitachi
DC
DC
Mechanical
AC
Statex-3 Statex-3
A/T
--

Size

--

37.00-R57

Manufacture

--

Model

--

Output(Gross)
Displacement

kW
L

m3

110.4
mm
7330
Max. GMW
m.ton
325.0
NMW
m.ton
135.5
Max. Payload
m.ton
189.5
Max. Speed
km/h
56
Gradability Full Loaded
%
25.2
Max. Retarding Angle(Full Loaded) %
15.3
Max. Retarding Speed 10% 3min
Full Loaded
km/h
37
Max. Height
mm
6690
Max. Width
mm
7910
Max. Length
mm
13500
Capacity SAE 2:1Heaped
Width

37.00R57
115.1
7330

110.9
7250

37.00R57
104.7
6940

324.3

324.3

317.5

131.0
193.3

138.0
186.3

140.5
177.0

55.4

55.7

54.4

24.2

24.2

25.7

11.9
36

11.9
36

14.9
30

6370

6250

6150

7700
12240

7540
12830

7674
12177

37.00-R57

AC v DC Scheduled Maintenance

DC System

AC System

Contactor Tip Replacement 2,500 hrs


7,500 hrs Choppers vs Contactors
Traction Motor Brush Replacement 2,500 hrs
N/A AC Induction Motor
Commutator Turn & Undercut
7,500 hrs
N/A AC Induction Motor
Wheel Motor Overhauls
25,000 hrs
30,000 hrs

op

u rs
o
h
g
eratin

Electric Drive Manufacturers


Before :

Now :

Limited

Hitachi Global

Net Sales : 8,191,572 M \


(68,150 M US$)

Employees : 339,572

IGBT Advantage Summary

AC Drive System
Human Interface

Drive Control (DSC)

Grid Box
Grid
Resistance

Converter
Controller

625kWx4
1500kVA 60kVA
(main) (aux.)

Diesel
Engine

Drive Motor
(AC Motor)
TM

Inverter

2000hp

620kW

800kVA

Alternator

Rectifier Chopper
1340kW

AC Drive
System

1300kW2

Control Cabinet

Gear &
Wheel

TM
Inverter
800kVA

620kW

Gear &
Wheel

AC Drive System Control Cabinet

140m

19
0m

1. High Efficiency Water Cooling


2. Pressurized Enclosed Structure
to prevent from dust
3. New 4.5KV IGBT

Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor


4,500V 900A Class

Alternator, Drive Motor Cooling System

Grid Box

CAB

Control Cabinet
(converters)
Wheel Motor Cooling Fan

Alternator Cooling Fan


Wheel Motor

Grid Box

4 parallel circuit grid box


Retarding performance is capable of operating with only 3
resistor after 1 resistor failure.
High efficiency cooling fan minimums the required total output
Quiet cooling fan

AC v DC - Grid Box Cooling Fan Motor

DC Motor Driving
G

AC Motor Driving

Chopper

1500kVA
(main)

Chopper

G
1500kVA
(main)

G
60kVA
(aux.)

No Commutator on fan motor


Audible noise reduction
Rapid fan start-up in response to the retard pedal
Post-cooling operation for the resistors

Grid
Resistor

AC Drive Control
Function

Motor
Control/
Retarder
Control

Alternator
Control
Engine
Control
Auxiliary
Function

Description

Vector Control

Current control of induction motor

Brake Blending

Blending of the electric brake (regenerated energy from the motor


consumed in the grid resistor) and service (hydraulic) brake

Auto Cruise Control

Function to limit the minimum vehicle speed

Auto Retarding Control

Function to limit the maximum vehicle speed

Limp Mode Control

Function to drive with only 1 inverter motor

Automatic Power
Reduction Control

Function to limit the output when detecting out of range temperature

Slip-Slide Control

Function to minimize the vehicle from slipping or sliding by motor torque


control

Main Alternator Control

Function to control the output voltage of the alternator corresponding to


the engine speed, vehicle speed and motor torque signal

Auxiliary-Alternator Control

Function to stabilize the output voltage regardless of the engine speed

Governor Control

Function to control the engine speed corresponding to the motor torque


signal and engine speed

Grid Dry

Function to dry the grid resister in cold or wet condition

Drive Shut Down

Function to shut down all power source when engine is still running

Blower Control

Cooling control of the wheel motor and main alternator

AC Drive Output Control Performance Curves


Set Torque
Actual Torque 129.4 142.4s)
Actual Torque 71.4 129.4s)
650kW
700kW Actual Torque 0 57.6s)
600kW

20000

600kW
650kW

18000

Motor Torque (N m)

16000

700kW

14000

Set Torque

12000
10000

Increased torque due to output control

8000

(Unused auxiliary output)

6000
4000
2000
0

10

15
20
25
30
35
Vehicle Speed (km/h)

40

45

50

AC v DC - Rimpull Data

AC: Maintaining the brake torque


at low vehicle speed

90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

60

EH3500AC
EH3500DC

EH3500AC
EH3500DC

50
(x 1,000 kg)

(x 1,000 kg)

AC: Increase of rim pull

40
30
20
10
0

10

20
30
40
Speed (km/h)

Rim Pull Torque

50

60

10

20
30
40
Speed (km/h)

50

60

Electric Retarding Torque

AC Drive - Rimpull Chart

AC Drive - Rimpull (Retard Chart)

Frame Design Changes


Frame design concept similar as EH4500-2 and EH5000
Elimination of various
stress concentration
areas:

Plate Connection Area

Integrated Beam

Grid Box Side Beam


Bolt Connection
High Stress
Concentration

Sheet Screw
and Bolt Hall

Stress Distributed design, streamlined stress flow


No plate Connection, Sheet Screw & Bolt hall

EH3500DC

EH3500AC

Frame Stress Analysis

Frame

Trailing Arms & Spindles


FRAME STRESS ANALYSIS

EH3500AC Body Design

New Wheel Motor Reduction Gear


Reduced Gear oil heating
Reduction in Spline Wear
Eliminate center-shaft seal leakage

Vehicle Electronic Control System


CCU,DLU,IDU HCM
Hydraulic Brake
P

Vehicle Control/Condition
Display
Vehicle Condition/Failure Display

Parking Brake

Hydraulic System Control

Drive Limit Signal

Drive Limit
Signal

DSC Hitachi
Ltd.
Shift Lever
Position

Accelerator Pedal Signal

Electric Brake
Emergency
Stop

Vehicle Speed
Motor Temperature
Motor Warning, etc

Drive Motor
Control

Motor Speed Control

Alternator Control

Motor Torque
Signal
Vehicle Speed

Auto Cruise Control


Auto Retarding Control

Multi-Function Display
Same as Large Size
Excavator LCD Display
M

Drive Motor

MotorTemperature

Failure process
Engine Speed Setting

Engine Speed Setting

ECM Cummin Engine Control


s
Engine Speed Control

Engine Alternator
E
G

AC Drive System Monitor Screen

Failure Report Screen

Independent Trailing Arm


Coupled with NEOCON ride struts
Operator
comfort

Superior speed
in turn
Fewer
lubrication
points
Easier
Maintenance

Excellent
stability
First-rate ride

Increase in tyre and


component life

NEOCON STRUTS
NEOCON ride struts
absorb more energy than
rubber or nitrogen / oil.

ACCU-TRAC independent trailing arm


front suspension with NEOCON ride struts
set the industry standard in off-highway
suspension

EH3500AC Front Suspension

True Ackerman Steering

True Ackerman steering decreases


tire wear less steering error.
Less error throughout the entire
turning range.
Intersection of front tire inner and
outer steer angle with center line
of rear axle.

EH3500AC Hoist Control

Hydraulic System Improvements


EH3500DC
Hydraulic
system

Hoist Circuit
HUSCO Hoist
Valve
Steering Circuit
Brake
Circuit

Engine

Hydraulic System Improvements


EH3500AC
Hydraulic
system

Hoist Circuit
KAYABA
Hoist Valve
Steering Circuit
Brake
Circuit

Directional Valve used on


Excavator front attachment

Engine
EX400-5
KPM
K5V200DTH
Variable
Displacement
Pump

Common with Large


Size Excavator
Return Filter

Single Hydraulic tank

Similar to the Large


Size excavator
Control Valve

Hydraulic Tank

DUMP BODY

EH3500AC Load Weigh System

Automatic Cruise & Retard Control

Automatic Retarding Control


Keep vehicle downhill speed
constant & lower than set speed

Automatic Cruising Control

Keep vehicle speed constant in set speed

Anti-Slip Control

Slip

Land slide

Reduce torque of which rotates faster.

Bump

Note: when slip or slide both tire, vehicle speed detection might not correct

Anti-Roll back (Future Option)

Shift lever Forward


< 1m

Press service brake

Release service brake

Press accelerator

Cummins QSK50 Tier 2 Engine


Fully compliant to EPA Tier 2
MOH
emission levels
Supplying the industry with:
- cleaner, greener &
quieter engines
- proven
Quantum technology
- minimal installation change
- enhanced
performance
Industry support with
QuickServe

QSK50 Tier 2 - Installation Changes


Retains the same installation envelope as the KTA50/K2000E
70% parts number commonality
No change in air
inlet connections

No change in
exhaust outlet
connections

Same Options:
Fan Drives
Alternators
Flywheels

Virtually identical
dimensions

Oil Pans
Aux. Drives
Filters
Prelub
Centinel
Eliminator
Ether injection

No change in
jacket water
inlet / outlet
connections

No change in
mounting
locations

QSK50 Tier 2 Compliance


QSK50 certified to EPA Tier 2 MOH levels (1/1/06)
Visible smoke virtually eliminated at rated power
Engine noise reduced by 80%
Achieves lowest possible fuel & oil consumption
US EPA Mobile
Off Highway 2000
302 - 602 HP

Tier 1

603 - 751 HP

Tier 1

2001

2002
Tier 2

> 751 HP

Emission levels
(g/kW-hr)

2003

NOx
HC
CO
PM

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

Tier 3

Tier 4

Tier 2

Tier 3

Tier 4

Tier 1

Tier 2

Tier 4

9.2
1.3
11.4
0.54

NOx + HC 6.4
-CO 3.5
PM 0.20

39% reduction
-69% reduction
63% reduction

X3500 Unit #92, User Test at Callide

X3500 Unit #92, User Test at Callide

X3500 Unit #92, User Test at Callide

X3500 Unit #92, User Test at Callide

SE

Development test progress

HCA

Performances tests have been completed successfully in Feb/2007.


Operational test progress had been slower than planed schedule due to
3 final drive failures and some other small problems.
Operational test have been completed middle of Mar/2008.

Final drive failed


3 times

SE

Performance and reliability test (HCM)

HCA

All Performance tests and Reliability tests had been done subject to
HCM standard from Nov/2006 to Feb/2007.
And finally all passed. (Notes : Include proto No,1 tests in Japan)

Performance tests

Reliability tests

Others

>Basic performance

>Stress test on main structure

>Dimensional measurement

>AC drive installation test

>hydraulic circuit pressure

>Function Check

>Driving performance

>Engine installation check

>Monitoring system function

>Brake performance

>Main component installation check

>Visual check

>Steering performance

>Heat balance (Cooling test)

>Serviceability Check

>Dumping performance

>Electrical circuit test

>Safety Check

>Noise test

>Vibration measurement

>Fuel consumption

>Resonance point check

>Drive feeling evaluation

Test result example (1)

SE

HCA

Driving performance
Test Item

spec

measured

judgment

Maximum speed (km/h)

NMW

56.0

57.3

pass

Acceleration

NMW

17.8

18.2

pass

GMW

19.1

21.4

pass

NMW

29.6

30.8

pass

GMW

13.6

16.4

pass

NMW

21.4

18.5

pass

GMW

35.1

32.5

pass

0 - > 100m (sec)

Up hill speed 9%ramp


Retard

(km/h)

30km - > 0Km

(m)

notes : NMW143325kg

GMW325000

Brake Performance
Australian Standard (AS2958)
Level ground 120% load
Spec <52m

5 times

measured 40 44m ----- Pass

ISO Standard (ISO3450) @Urahoro


9% ramp

120% load

Spec <102m

5 times

measured 55 71m ----- Pass

Test result example (2)

SE

HCA

New Load Weigh System accuracy


Specification +/- 3.0%
Standard loading 6 times
Ave 0.9%
Min -0.6%
Max 1.4%
Uneven loading
Front side 0.3%
Rear side 1.7%
Right side 0.5%
Left side

-1.1%

Load Weigh System accuracy test


with HCM truck scale (11th/Nov2006)

SE

Operators comments for performance

HCA

Operator comments have been very positive except visibility and noise in
the cab. These 2 items have been improved during 1000hr service.

EH3500AC Operator Questionnaire


Acceleration feeling

Operator visibility

Retard feeling

3
Noise in the Cab

Feeling uphill
acceleration

2
1

New monitor display

Traveling force uphill

Instrument panel inside


cab

Traveling feeling and


stability

Fine control acceleration


and retard
1. Unacceptable

2. POOR

3.FAIR

4. GOOD

5. EXCELLENT

SE

Improvement (1) noise in the cab

Modification :
Add the sound attenuation
material under the operator cab.
(Done Sep/2007 at 1000hr service)

Improvement :
4.3dB in the Cab (84.3dB --> 80dB)
Test result

HCA

SE

Improvement (2) operator Visibility

HCA

Problem :
The ladder and the platform in front of the cab block visibility.
Modification :
Redesign the ladder and the platform and replace.
(Done Sep/2007 at 1000hr service)

Original

Improved

SE

Operational test (Feb/2007 Mar/2008 )

HCA

Availability during operational test has been affected by 3 final drive


failures and small other problems.
More than 65% of down time are caused by final drive oil leak.

SE

Improvement (3) Final drive bearing failure

HCA

Estimated cause of main bearing surface flaking of final drive


Force from tyre 81
(with full load +1.5G)

Force from dagger clamp 719

Force from tyre 81


(with full load +1.5G)

rim
ring

dagger clamp
break
outside

Housing

motor
inside

deforming
edge load

edge load

Cause of failure
Deforming of housing by the force from dagger clamp makes sever edge
load
on the rollers of bearing and damage.
Modification
Reinforce wheel housing to prevent deforming.
Modified final drives were already arrived to Australia.

SE

Improvement (3) Final drive failure (cont)

HCA

Effect of modification was confirmed by


FEA analysis and stress measurement with
actual final drive.
FEA analysis was done by HCM and other
Hitachi group engineering company.
Original
Example of
FEA
analysis
result
Radial
displacement

35%

Improved

SE

Improvement (4) Service Brake Oil Leak

HCA

Cause : O-ring of brake caliper was damaged.


O-ring

Brake caliper

Damaged O-ring

Action : Change the material of O-ring


Hardness : Original 70Hs Modified 81Hs
Withstand pressure : Original 4.3Mpa Modified 11.3Mpa
Confirmation test (Endurance test)
105 21MPa 200,000cycles Pass

SE

Improvement (5) Electrical Fault (Link error)

HCA

Communication error occurred after 1000hr modification because number of


data from CCU and DLU to IDU increased by changing soft ware.
IDU software was upgraded to be able to receive data and problem was fixed.

IDU Information display Unit


Can not receive
many data at once

Number
of data
increased
at 1000hr

occurring while receiving


additional data
CAN

Display Information
(Payload. Etc)

CCU Main Controller Unit

Number of
data
increased
at 1000hr

Multi Packet data/sec


Error information
(Multi packet data)

Hardwire

CCU-IDU
Communication
Error

By Hitachi Ltd

DSC Drive system Controller

(Ke-CAN)

DLU Data logger Unit


Error information
(Multi packet data)

Engine Rev.
speed

CAN
By Cummins

ECM Engine Controller Unit

(SAE-J1939)

SE

Improvement (6) Wheel Motor high temp

HCA

Cause : Main blower motor stops during truck stops. (30sec)


Action : Change the control program for main blower fan so that the fan
keeps rotating during loading and dumping. (10min)
After modification actual working data shows max motor temp is
around 110 deg/C (High temp limit 150deg/C)

Max Motor temp


approx 110 deg

Air inlet temp


approx 40 deg

3 days data after improvement

SE

Improvement (7) Final drive cooling ability

Oil coolers for final drives were changed to increase cooling ability

Size of cooler : 2 times approx


Material of cooler : Steel Aluminum
Cooling ability : More than 10 increased

Improved
Original

HCA

SE

Improvement (8) Final drive cooling line pressure low

Cause : Small metal particles stuck on check valve for bypass line.
Action : Added oil filter in system and then never happen again.

Oil filter

check valve

HCA

SE

Performance comparison (reference data)

HCA

Performance study was done during actual operation with exactly same haul
road as competitors truck (same class) .
According to the data of 10 cycles, the fuel consumption was 7% better and
the time from loading area to dumping area was 4 % shorter than
competitors truck.

Actual haul road

SE

Test and improvement Summary

HCA

Performance test and operational test was successfully completed.


The results of performance tests all meets HCMs specifications.
Operators comments for performance is very good.
Major problem that occurred during operational test was final drive bearing
failures and already completed improvement.
Some other problems were found out during operational test and most of
them are being improved during modification period (Mar - April/2008).