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CPM

CPM
C

- Critical

Path

- Method

Questions to prepare activity network

Is this a Start Activity?

Is this a Finish Activity?

What Activity Precedes this?

What Activity Follows this?

What Activity is Concurrent with this?

Definition
In CPM activities are shown as a network
of precedence relationships using activityon-arrow network construction

Single estimate of activity time

Deterministic activity times

Used In
construction management - for the activity of repetitive in nature where
the activity time estimates can be predicted with considerable certainty
due to the existence of past experience.

Path

A connected sequence of activities leading from the starting event to


the ending event

Critical path

The longest path (time); determines the project duration

Critical activities
All

of the activities that make up the


critical path

ES

d pass

EF
LS

Backward pass
LF

Forward pass

Earliest Start Time (ES)

earliest time an activity can start

Denoted by ES

ES = maximum EF of immediate
predecessors

Earliest finish time (EF)


Earliest

time an activity can finish

Denoted

by EF

earliest

start time plus activity time

EF= ES + t

Backward Pass

Latest finish time (LF)

latest time an activity can be completed without


delaying critical path time

Denoted by LF

LF = minimum LS of immediate
predecessors

Latest Start Time (LS)

Latest time an activity can start without delaying


critical path time

Denoted by LS

LS= LF - t

Total float (TF)

the difference between the maximum duration of time available


for activity completion and the duration required to carry out
that activity

Denoted by TF

TF = LF - EF

or

TF = LS - ES

Free float

amount of time by which the


completion of an activity can be
delayed without delaying the
earliest start of its succeeding
activity

Denoted by FF

FF= ES

(all succeeding)

- EF

Interfering float

This is the amount of spare time which, if used, will affect the
succeeding activities
= TF - FF

Independent Float
the

spare time available for an activity


when the activity is started at its latest
start time (LS) and completed at the normal
estimated duration without affecting the
earliest start time of the succeeding
activity

Independent

float = ES (succeeding) LS - t

CPM Analysis

Draw

the CPM network

Analyze

the paths through the network


Determine the float for each activity

Compute the activitys float


float = LS - ES = LF EF

Float is the maximum amount of time that this activity can be delay
in its completion before it becomes a critical activity, i.e., delays
completion of the project

Find the critical path is that the sequence of activities and events
where there is no slack i.e.. Zero slack

Longest

path through a network

Find the project duration is minimum project completion time

Example problem
f, 15
h, 9

g, 17

a, 6

i, 6
b, 8
d, 13
c, 5
e, 9

j, 12

Solution

ES and EF Times
f, 15
h, 9

g, 17

a, 6
0 6

i, 6

b, 8
0 8

d, 13

c, 5
0 5

e, 9

j, 12

ES and EF Times
f, 15
6 21
h, 9

g, 17

a, 6
0 6

6 23

i, 6

b, 8
0 8
c, 5
0 5

d, 13
8 21
e, 9
5 14

j, 12

ES and EF Times
f, 15
6 21
g, 17

a, 6
0 6

6 23

i, 6
23 29

h, 9
21 30

b, 8
0 8
c, 5
0 5

d, 13
8 21

j, 12
21 33

e, 9
5 14

Projects EF = 33

LS and LF Times
f, 15
6 21
a, 6
0 6
b, 8
0 8
c, 5
0 5

6 23

g, 17

d, 13
8 21
e, 9
5 14

i, 6
23 29
27 33

h, 9
21 30
24 33

j, 12
21 33
21 33

LS and LF Times

a, 6
0 6
b, 8
0 8
c, 5
0 5

f, 15
6 21
18 24
g, 17
6 23
10 27
d, 13
8 21
8 21
e, 9
5 14
12 21

i, 6
23 29
27 33

h, 9
21 30
24 33

j, 12
21 33
21 33

LS and LF Times

a, 6
0 6
4 10
b, 8
0 8
0 8
c, 5
0 5
7 12

f, 15
6 21
18 24
g, 17
6 23
10 27
d, 13
8 21
8 21
e, 9
5 14
12 21

i, 6
23 29
27 33

h, 9
21 30
24 33

j, 12
21 33
21 33

Float
f, 15
3 6 21
h, 9
18 24
21 30
3
a, 6
g, 17
24 33
6
23
i,
6
4
3 0 6
10 27
4 10
4 23 29
27 33
b, 8
d, 13
0
8
j, 12
0
0 8
0 8 21
21 33
0
8 21
c, 5
21 33
e, 9
7 0 5
7 12
5 14
7 12 21

Critical path
f, 15
h, 9

g, 17

a, 6

i, 6
b, 8
d, 13
c, 5
e, 9

j, 12

Thank you