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Force, Torque, Shaft Power &

Vibration Measurement

Introduction
A force is any influence that causes an object to

undergo a certain change, either concerning its


movement, direction, or geometrical construction.
A force can accelerate objects by pulling or pushing
them. The relationship between force, mass, and
acceleration was defined by Isaac Newton in his
second law of motion, which states that an object's
force is the product of its mass and acceleration.
Force = Mass x Acceleration

Methods of Force Measurement


A measure of the unknown force may be accomplished by

the methods incorporating the following:

Balancing the force against a known gravitational force on a standard


mass Scales & Balances.
Translating the force to a fluid pressure and then measuring the
resulting pressure. Hydraulic & Pneumatic Load Cells.
Applying the force to some elastic member and then measuring the
resulting deflection. Proving ring.
Applying the force to known mass and then measuring the resulting
acceleration.
Balancing the force against a magnetic force developed by interaction
of a magnet and a current carrying coil.

Elastic Force Meters


These force measuring units measure the force by applying it to

an elastic element and then measuring the elastic deformation.


With in elastic range of the materials, the deflection of the
element is exactly or nearly proportional to the force.
Basic meters use elastic materials such as springs and rubber
bands to measure forces. A good example of a force meter is a
bathroom scale that measures the amount of force exerted upon
it showing this force in the form of units of weight.
Forces can be measured using a force meter. Force meters
contain a spring connected to a metal hook. The spring stretches
when a force is applied to the hook. The bigger the force applied,
the longer the spring stretches and the bigger the reading.

Proving Ring
The proving ring is a device used to measure force. It

consists of an elastic ring of known diameter with a


measuring device located in the center of the ring.
Proving rings come in a variety of sizes. They are made of a
steel alloy. Manufacturing consists of rough machining
from annealed forgings, heat treatment, and precision
grinding to final size and finish.
Proving rings can be designed to measure either
compression or tension forces. Some are designed to
measure both. The basic operation of the proving ring in
tension is the same as in compression.

A proving ring is a circular ring of rectangular cross section as

shown in the Fig. which may be subjected to tensile or


compressive forces across its diameter.
The deflection is small and hence the usefulness of the proving
ring as a calibration device depends on the accuracy with which
this small deflection is measured.
This is done by using a precision micrometer shown in the
figure. In order to obtain precise measurements one edge of the
micrometer is mounted on a vibrating reed device which is
plucked to obtain a vibratory motion.
The micrometer contact is then moved forward until a
noticeable damping of the vibration is observed.
Proving rings are normally used for force measurement within
the range of 1.5 KN to 1.5 MN. The maximum deflection is
typically of the order of 1% of the outside diameter of the ring.

Load Cells
Load cells are elastic devices that can be used for

measurement of force through indirect methods i.e.


use of secondary transducers.
Load cells utilize an elastic member as the primary
transducer and strain gauge as secondary transducer.
When the combination of strain gauge elastic
member is used for weighing it is called laod cell.
The various types of load cells that exist include
Hydraulic load cells, Pneumatic load cells and
Strain gauge load cells.

Hydraulic Load cells


Hydraulic load cells are force-balance devices, measuring

weight as a change in pressure of the internal filling fluid.


In hydraulic load cell, a load or force acting on a loading head
is transferred to a piston that in turn compresses a filling fluid
confined within an elastomeric diaphragm chamber.
As the force increases, the pressure of the hydraulic fluid
increases. This pressure can be locally indicated or transmitted
for remote indication or control.
This sensor has no electric components and immune to
transient voltages so it is ideal for use in hazardous areas.
The advantages of Hydraulic load cells are it is expensive and
very complex.

Pneumatic Load Cell


Pneumatic load cells operate on

the force-balance principle.


These devices use multiple
dampener chambers to provide
higher accuracy than can a
hydraulic device.
Pneumatic load cells are often
used to measure relatively small
weights in industries where
cleanliness and safety are of
prime concern.

Strain gauge Load Cell


Basic Principle of Strain gauge load cell
When steel cylinder is subjected to a force, it tends to change in
dimension. On this cylinder, if the strain gauges are bonded, the strain
gauge also is stretched or compressed, causing a change in its length
and diameter.
This change in dimension of the strain gauge causes its resistance to
change. This change in resistance or output voltage of the strain gauge
becomes a measure of applied force.
The main parts of the strain gauge load cell are as follows. They are a
cylinder made up of steel on which four identical strain gauge are
mounted and out of four strain gauges, two of them (R1 and R4) are
mounted along the direction of the applied load(vertical gauges). The
other two strain gauges (R2 and R3 Horizontal gauges) are mounted
circumferentially at right angles to gauges R1 and R4.

Operation of strain gauge Load cell


Case 1
When there is no load (force) on the steel cylinder, all the four gauges will

have the same resistance. As the terminals N and P are at the same potential,
the wheat stone bridge is balanced and hence the output voltage will be zero.
Case 2
Now the load (force) to be measured (say compression force) is applied on
the steel cylinder. Due to this, the vertical gauges R1 and R4 will under go
compression and hence there will be a decrease in resistance.
At the same time, the horizontal gauges R2 and R3 will under go tension and
there will be an increase in resistance. Thus when strained, the resistance of
the various gauges change.
Now the terminal N and P will be at different potential and the change in
output voltage due to the applied load (force) becomes a measure of the
applied load force when calibrated.

Force Calculation
Where:
A is the cross-sectional area
E is the modulus of elasticity

P
ea =
AE

v is Poissins ratio of the material


Sg is a gauge factor

Sg P
D R1 D R3
=
=Sg ea =
R1
R3
AE
vSg P
D R2 D R4
=
=Sg et =
R2
R4
AE

Vo =

vP
& et =AE
Sg P (1 + v )Vs
2 AE

VO

VS

Advantages of Load cell


Rugged and compact construction
No moving parts
Can be used for static and dynamic
loading
Highly Accurate
Wide range of measurement
Can be used for static and dynamic
loading
Disadvantages of Load cell
Mounting is difficult
Calibration is a tedious procedure.

Selection of load Cell


Below are some of the important
parameters that need to be considered
while selecting the load cell.
Size
Accuracy
Weight range
Operating temperature
Duration of measurements
Mounting
Output type
Cost
Direction of loading
Type of load cell

Torque:
Forces that cause extended objects
to rotate are associated
with torques. Mathematically, the
torque on a particle is defined as
the cross-product:

Where
r
r is the particle's position
vector relative to a pivot.

r
F

is the force acting on the


particle.

Torque Measurement Methods


Torque may be measured by the following

methods:
Gravity Balance Method
Mechanical Torsion Meter
Optical Torsion Meter
Electrical Torsion Meter
Strain gauge Torsion Meter

Optical Torsion Meter


Due to torque, an angular twist (angular displacement)

occurs on the shaft between its ends. This angle of twist is


measured by using optical means where in angular
deflection of light rays is proportional to twist and hence
the torque.
The main parts of an optical torsion meter as follows:

A shaft is used on which two casting M and N are connected at a known


distance.
A tension strip linking the two castings.
Two mirrors which are fitted and aligned on the castings.
A light beam falling on the mirrors, an optical system and a torque
calibrated scale.

Operation of optical torsion meter


When the shaft is transmitting torque, a relative movement occurs

between castings M and N, and due to this, the mirrors will change
position ( partial inclination between the two mirrors) since they
are attached to the castings.
As the mirrors are constantly made to reflect a light beam on the
torque calibrated scale, due to the changed position of the mirrors,
there will be an angular deflection of the light rays which is
measured from the calibrated scale.
This angular deflection of the light rays is proportional to the twist
on the shaft (relative movement of casting M and N) and hence the
torque of the shaft.
Applications of optical torsion meter

It is used in steam turbines and I.C engines

Electrical Torsion meter


Due to the applied torque, there is a relative

displacement between the two slotted discs.


Due to this relative displacement of the slotted discs,
a phase shift exists between the pulse generated by
the transducers.
When these pulses are connected to an electronic
unit, it will show a time lapse between the two
pulses.
This time lapse between the two pulses is
proportional to the twist of the shaft and the torque
of the shaft.

Description of Electrical Torsion Meter


The main parts of an

electrical torsion meter


are as follows:

A shaft connected
between a driving engine
and a driven load.
Two slotted discs
attached on either side of
the shaft.
Transducer (magnetic or
photo electric ) to count
pulses from the slotted
disc.

Operation of Electrical Torsion Meter


The teeth produce voltage pulses in the transducers.
When torque is not applied on the shaft, the teeth of the both the

discs perfectly align with each other and hence the voltage pulses
produced in the transducers will have zero time difference.
But when torque is applied on the shaft, there is a relative
displacement of the slotted discs due to twist experienced by the
shaft and hence the teeth of both the discs will not align with
each other and hence the voltage pulses produced in the
transducer will have a time difference (that is , time lapse).
This time lapse between the pulses of the two discs is
proportional to the twist of the shaft and hence the torque of the
shaft.
A measure of this time lapse becomes of torque when calibrated.

Strain Gauge Torsion Meter


Construction:

Four bonded wire strain gauges are mounted on a45 0 helix with the
axis of rotation; and are placed in pairs diametrically opposite.
When the gauges are accurately placed and have matched
characteristics, the system is temperature compensated and insensitive
to bending and thrust or pull effects.
Any change in the gauge circuit then results only from torsional
deflection.

Working:

When the shaft is under torsion, gauges 1 and 4 will elongate as a result of
the tensile component of a pure shear stress on one diagonal axis, while 2
and 3 will contract due to compressive component on the diagonal axis.
These tensile and compressive principal strains can be measured and hence
shaft torque calculated.

Advantages & Limitations


Fully temperature compensated.
Gives the maximum sensitivity for a given torque.
Provides automatic compensation for bending and

axial loads.
The main limitation associated is the connection of
the bridge to its power source and display
arrangement.
Good results from the strain gauge method are
available only when the shaft experiences sufficient
strain to produce a measurable output signal.

Shaft Power Measurement (Dynamometers)


A dynamometer is an instrument for measuring

the power exerted by a source or the amount of


power consumed by a load.
The dynamometers are classified as follows:

Absorption Dynamometer: It works on the principle that


the power measured is converted in to heat by friction or other
means. The power absorbed is lost as heat and dissipated to
surroundings.

Mechanical Brakes: prony brakes; Rope Brakes.


Hydraulic or fluid friction brakes
Eddy current Dynamometer.

Transmission

Dynamometer: They work on the


principle that the power being transmitted either to or from
dynamometer is not absorbed or dissipated. After
measuring the energy is conveyed to surroundings in a
useful mechanical or electrical form.
Torsion and belt dynamometer.
Epicyclic train dynamometer.
Strain gauge dynamometer.
Driving Dynamometers: these instruments power and
also supply energy to operate the tested devices.
Electrical Cradled Dynamometer

Prony Brake Dynamometer


Two wooden blocks are mounted diametrically opposite on a flywheel

attached to the rotating shaft whose power is to be measured.


One block carries a lever arm, and an arrangement is provided to
tighten the rope which is connected to the arm. The rope is tightened so
as to increase the frictional resistance between the blocks and the
flywheel.
The torque exerted by the prony brake is.
T = F.L
where force F is measured by conventional force measuring
instruments,likebalancesorload cells etc. The power dissipated in the
brake is calculated by the following equation.

where force FisinNewton's,Listhelengthofleverarminmeters,N


istheangularspeedinrevolution per minute, and Pinwatts.

When the brake is to be operated the long end of lever is loaded with

weights and nuts are tightened until the engine shaft runs at constant
speed and the lever is in horizontal position.
Under this condition the moment due to weight W must balance the
moment of frictional resistance between the blocks and pulley.
When the driving torque is not uniform the dynamometer is subjected to
severe oscillations.

Work done in one revolution


= Torque Angle turned in radians
= T 2 N-m
Work done per minute = T 2
N N-m
We know that brake power of the
engine,

The prony brake is inexpensive, but it is difficult to adjust and

maintain a specific load.


Limitation : The prony brake is inherently unstable. Its capacity is
limited by the following factors.
i) Due to wear of the wooden blocks, the coefficient of friction varies
between the blocks and the flywheel. This requires continuous
tightening of clamp. Therefore, the system becomes unsuitable for
measurement of large powers especially when used for long periods.
ii) The use of prony brake results in excessive temperature rise which
results in decrease in coefficient of friction leading to brake failure.
In order to limit the temperature rise, cooling is required. This is
done by running water into the hollow channel of the flywheel.
iii) When the machine torque is not constant, the measuring
arrangement is subjected to oscillations. There may be changes in
coefficient of friction and hence the reading of force F may be
difficult to take.

Rope brake dynamometer


It is another form of absorption type dynamometer which is most

commonly used for measuring the brake power of the engine.


It consists of one, two or more ropes wound around the flywheel or
rim of a pulley fixed rigidly to the shaft of an engine. The upper end
of the ropes is attached to a spring balance while the lower end of
the ropes is kept in position by applying a dead weight as shown in
Fig.
In order to prevent the slipping of the rope over the flywheel,
wooden blocks are placed at intervals around the circumference of
the flywheel.
In the operation of the brake, the engine is made to run at a
constant speed. The frictional torque, due to the rope, must be
equal to the torque being transmitted by the engine.

Let W=Deadloadinnewtons,

S=Springbalancereadinginnewtons,
D=Diameterofthewheelinmetres,
d=diameterofropeinmetres,and
N=Speedoftheengineshaftinr.p.m.
Net load on the brake = (WS)N
We know that distance moved in one revolution = (D+d)m
Work done per revolution = (WS)(D+d)N-m
and work done per minute = (WS)(D+d)NN-m
Brake power of the engine,

Fluid friction (Hydraulic) Dynamometer


This type of dynamometer uses fluid friction rather than dry

friction for dissipating the input energy.


Water vortex dynamometer: It consists of a rotating disc
and a stationary casing. The rotating disc is keyed to the driving
shaft of the prime mover and it revolves inside the stationary
casing.
The casing is mounted on anti friction bearings and has a brake
arm and a balance system attached to it. The casing is in two
halves, one of which is placed on either side of the rotating disc.
Semi elliptical recesses in the casing match with the
corresponding grooves in the rotating disc to form chambers
through which a stream of water flow is maintained.

While the brake is operating the water follows a helical path in the
chamber, consequently the vortices and eddy currents are setup in
water and these tend to turn the dynamometer casing in the direction
of rotation of shaft. This tendency is opposed by the brake arm and
balance system due to which torque is measured.
The control of the braking action is carried out by varying either the
quantity of water or its pressure or the distance between the rotating
disc and the stationary casing.

Advantages:
In addition to braking action, the constant supply of
water is provides cooling effect.
High absorption capacity at low cost and in a small space.
By providing a dash pot damper system it is possible to
have protection from hunting effects.

Eddy Current Dynamometer


It operates on the principle that when an isolated conductor cuts across

magnetic flux, voltage is induced and local currents called eddy currents flow
in a short circular path within the conductor. These eddy current gets
dissipated in the form of heat.
It consists of a toothed steel rotor mounted on the shaft of test engine, it
rotates inside a smooth bared cast iron stator; the clearance between the
stator and motor being very small. The stator carries an exciting coil which is
energized by DC supply from an external source.
The stator is cradled on antifriction bearings and is provided with a brake arm
to which is attached a spring balance or a scale pan.
When the dynamo is operated the rotor turns and changes a constant change
in flux density an all stator points. Consequently eddy currents are induced
which oppose the rotation of rotor.
The moment of resistance is measured by the brake arm and then torque and
shaft power may be calculated.

Usual power limit= 300H.P


Usual Speed limit=

6000RPM
Advantages:
Good control at lower
speeds.
Comparatively small size for
a given capacity.
Suitable for higher speed
range.

Vibration Measurement
Vibration is a mechanical phenomenon whereby oscillations occur about

an equilibrium point. The oscillations may be periodic such as the motion of


a pendulum or random such as the movement of a tire on a gravel road.
Types of vibration
Free vibration occurs when a mechanical system is set off with an initial
input and then allowed to vibrate freely. Examples of this type of vibration
are pulling a child back on a swing The mechanical system will then vibrate
at one or more of its "natural frequency" and damp down to zero.
Forced vibration is when a time-varying disturbance (load, displacement
or velocity) is applied to a mechanical system. The disturbance can be a
periodic, steady-state input, a transient input, or a random input. The
periodic input can be a harmonic or a non-harmonic disturbance. Examples
of these types of vibration include a shaking washing machine due to an
imbalance, transportation vibration (caused by truck engine, springs, road,
etc.).

Why do we want to measure vibration?


Seismology: Vibrations caused by earthquakes and

other natural phenomena can have a profound effect


on the world.
Machinery: Vibrations caused by badly balanced
rotating equipment or friction is a waste of energy
and potentially destructive.
Sound: Large sound pressures can be damaging
and sound is often produced by machinery vibration
so can represent a simpler means of measuring
vibration of an object.

Vibration can be indicative of


Excessive wear of bearings or shafts of rotating

equipment.
Imbalance of rotating equipment.
Excessive friction.
Machine not working at rated speeds/overworking.
Earthquake...

Seismic Instrument
In vibration analysis of a mechanical system, it is required to measure the

displacement, velocity and acceleration components of a system.


An instrument, which is used to measure these parameters, is referred as vibration
measuring instrument or seismic instrument.
The major requirement of a seismic instrument is to indicate an output, which
represents an input such as the displacement amplitude, velocity or acceleration of
a vibrating system as close as possible.
m-seismicmass
c-dampingcoefficientofseismic
unit
K-stiffnessofspringusedin
seismicunit
x-absolutedisplacementofseismicmass
y-baseexcitation(assumeSHM)
z=(x-y)displacementofseismicmass

A typical seismic instrument consists of a mass

connected through a parallel spring and damper


arrangement to housing frame.
The frame is attached to the vibration source to be
measured. Vibrational motion is measured as the
relative displacement between the mass and the
housing frame.
This displacement is measured by an appropriate
transducer, some examples include linear variable
differential transformers (LVDT), strain gauges and
Piezoelectric crystal.

Seismic instruments are used to measure the displacement,

velocity and acceleration components of a vibratory system.


Basic theory of Seismic instruments is based on forced
vibration considering the vibratory system under base
excitation. A single Seismic instrument can be sued as
vibrometer, velometrer and accelerometer using suitable
calibration.
Displacement measuring instrument (Vibrometer)

It is an instrument used to measure the displacement of a vibrating


system.

Acceleration measuring instrument

(Accelerometer)

It is an instrument used to measure the acceleration of a vibrating


system.

From the standpoint of instrument construction


we need to select the masses and springs
according to the types and frequencies we wish
to measure
For amplitude measurement we require a low
natural frequency. This is achieved with a soft
spring and a large mass.
For acceleration measurements we require a
high natural frequency. Which is a achieved
with a stiff spring and a small mass

Accelerometer
An accelerometer is a device that measures the

vibration, or acceleration of motion of a structure.


The force caused by vibration or a change in
motion (acceleration) causes the mass to "squeeze"
the piezoelectric material which produces an
electrical charge that is proportional to the force
exerted upon it.
Since the charge is proportional to the force, and
the mass is a constant, then the charge is also
proportional to the acceleration.

Piezo Electric Accelerometer


The piezoelectric effect produces an opposed accumulation of charged

particles on the crystal. This charge is proportional to applied force or


stress. A force applied to a quartz crystal lattice structure alters
alignment of positive and negative ions, which results in an
accumulation of these charged ions on opposed surfaces.
In an accelerometer, the stress on the crystals occurs as a result of the
seismic mass imposing a force on the crystal. Over its specified
frequency range, this structure approximately obeys Newton's law of
motion, F=ma.
Therefore, the total amount of accumulated charge is proportional to
the applied force, and the applied force is proportional to acceleration.
Electrodes collect and wires transmit the charge to a signal conditioner
that may be remote or built into the accelerometer.

Seismic Displacement Sensing Accelerometer


When a spring mass damper system is subjected to

acceleration, the mass is displaced, and this displacement of the


mass is proportional to the acceleration. Hence a measure of
displacement of the mass becomes a measure of acceleration.
Operation

The accelerometer is fitted on to the structure whose acceleration is to be


measured.
Due the acceleration, the seismic mass experience a displacement and this
displacement of the mass is proportional to the acceleration.
As the mass is connected to an electric displacement transducer, the output
of the transducer depends on the extent to which the mass is displaced.
Hence the output of the transducer is calibrated to give a direct indication
of the acceleration characteristics of the structure.

Reed type Vibrometer


The variable-length reed vibrometer shown in Figure is

used to measure the main frequency component of the


vibration.
In practice the length lisadjusteduntilthemaximumreed
vibration occurs, when its resonant frequency is the same
as the frequency of the vibrating mechanism or structure.
The length liscalibrateddirectlyinHz.Asmallmassmay
beaddedtothecantileverifthevibrometer is to be used for
very-low frequency investigation, but the scale readings
would then need to be corrected for the additional mass.
The range of measurement is quoted as 5 Hz to 10kHz.

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