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# HYDRAULIC MACHINERY

## NAMA AHLI KUMPULAN :

Df150065
Df150045
Df150032
4. Mah Mudin Bin Amin
Df150036
Df150012
NAMA PENSYARAH :
Dr Mohd Ariff Bin Ahmad Nazri

## FALKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM DAN ALAM SEKITAR

BFC21103
HIDRAULIK
SEMESTER 2 2015/2016

Turbines

## Turbine is a hydraulic machine that utilises the energy of fluids to

move other types of machineries.
A common use of turbine is in the hydroelectric power generation plant.

Classification Of Turbine
Based on the hydraulic action at the inlet, turbines can be classified
as:
a) Impulse turbine (Pelton wheel or turbine) - derives its energy from
a jet of water exiting out of a nozzle and shooting at the blades of
turbine.
b) Reaction turbine (Francis turbine or Kaplan turbine) - derives its
power from the equal and opposite reactive power of fluid passing
The basic and main difference between impulse and reaction turbine is
that there is pressure change in the fluid as it passes through runner of
reaction turbine.

Impulse Turbine
There is no pressure change in the
runner.
First all pressure energy of water
convert into the kinetic energy
through a nozzle and generate a
high speed jet of water.
The water jet strikes the blade of
turbine and rotates it.

Reaction Turbine
In the reaction turbine there is
pressure change of water when
it passes through the rotor of
turbine.
It uses kinetic energy as well as
pressure energy to rotate the
turbine. Due to this it is known
as reaction turbine.

Impulse Turbine

Reaction Turbine

## 1. In impulse turbine only kinetic energy is used

to rotate the turbine.

## 1. In reaction turbine both kinetic and pressure

energy is used to rotate the turbine.

## 2. In this turbine water flow through the nozzle

and strike the blades of turbine.

## 2. In this turbine water is guided by the guide

blades to flow over the turbine.

## 3. All pressure energy of water converted into

kinetic energy before striking the vanes.

## 3. In reaction turbine, there is no change in

pressure energy of water before striking.

## 4. The pressure of the water remains unchanged

and is equal to atmospheric pressure during
process.

through vanes.

## 5. Water may admitted over a part of

5. Water may admitted over a part of
circumference or over the whole circumference of circumference or over the whole circumference of
the wheel of turbine.
the wheel of turbine.
6. In impulse turbine casing has no hydraulic
function to perform because the jet is at
atmospheric pressure. This casing serves only to
prevent splashing of water.

## 6. Casing is absolutely necessary because the

pressure at inlet of the turbine is much higher
than the pressure at outlet. It is sealed from
atmospheric pressure.

## 7. This turbine is most suitable for large

head and lower flow rate. Pelton wheel is
the example of this turbine.

## 7. This turbine is best suited for higher flow

Classification Of Turbines
Based on the direction of flow through the runner, turbines can be
classified as:
a. Tangential flow turbine (Pelton wheel)
b. Radial flow turbine (Francis turbine, Thomsen and Girard turbines)
c. Axial flow turbine (Kaplan turbine)
d. Mixed flow turbine (modern Francis turbine)

## Tangential Flow Turbine

Water turbines of this type:
receive high-pressure water from single or multiple jets that either
point at a tangent to the runner
In each case the water must meet the bucket inlet with as little shock
as possible
discharge tangentially so that the water falls to the bottom of the
casing
Example : Pelton Wheel

turbines in which the water flows in radial direction.
inward radial flow turbine : water flows from outwards to inwards
through the runner.
outward radial flow turbine : water flows from inwards to outwards
Example : Francis Turbine

## Mixed Flow Turbine

Water flows radially into the runner
Leaves out the runner axially
The combination of axially flow and radially flow in the turbine is
known as mixed flow turbine
Example : Francis Turbine

## Axial Flow Turbine

If the water flows parallel to the axis of the of turbine
Rotation of runner will be transferred to the generator to produce
electricity
Types of axial flow turbines:
1. Propeller turbine : vanes are not adjustable
2. Kaplan turbine : vanes are adjustable

Flow Rate)

## Kaplan Turbine ( Low Head,

High Flow rate)

- ( Pelton wheel, H > 250m)
- ( Francis Turbine, 60m H 250m)
- ( Kaplan Turbine, H < 60m )

Specific Speed,
Low specific speed turbine

- ( Pelton wheels, of 10 to 35 )
Medium specific speed turbine
- ( Francis Turbine, of 60 to 400 )
High specific speed turbine
- ( Kaplan turbine, of 300 to 1000 )

operation

## Mode of action conversion of mechanical energy

energy
Pump can be classified
a) Rotadynamic pumps : centrifugal pump and propeller
b) Positive displacement pumps

hydraulic

Known as impeller

## Fluids pumped into casing

near the shaft of the
impeller

Vanes attached to
spinning impeller:
a)increases the velocity
b) Moves the fluid out
through an outlet

Centrifugal Pump
Produce radial flow and mixed flow
according to the fluid path
Converts rational energy
A portion of the energy goes into
kinetic energy
Fluid gains both velocity and pressure
while passing through the impeller

Propeller Pump
Consist of an impeller produces axial flow
Relatively high discharge (flow rate) at a relative low head
Pump up to 3 times more water
Handling sewage from commercial, municipal and industrial

## Positive Displacement Pump

pumps operate by forcing a fixed volume of fluid from the inlet
pressure section of the pump into the discharge zone of the pump
Positive-displacement pumps frequently are used in hydraulic systems
at pressures ranging up to 5000 psi
provide a fixed displacement per revolution and, within mechanical
limitations, infinite pressure to move fluids
Two types of positive displacement pump
a) Reciprocating pump
b) Rotary pump

Reciprocating Pump
volume of liquid is drawn into the cylinder through the suction valve
on the intake stroke and is discharged under positive pressure through
the outlet valves on the discharge stroke.
The discharge from a reciprocating pump is pulsating and changes
only when the speed of the pump is changed.
This is because the intake is always a constant volume.
Often an air chamber is connected on the discharge side of the pump
to provide a more even flow by evening out the pressure surges.
Reciprocating pumps are often used for sludge and slurry.

Rotary Pump
A rotary pump traps fluid in its closed casing and discharges a smooth
flow. They can handle almost any liquid that does not contain hard
and abrasive solids, including viscous liquids
They are also simple in design and efficient in handling flow conditions
that are usually considered to low for economic application of
centrifuges

## Power And Efficiency Of

Pump
Mechanical energy through the shaft and impeller is converted to fluid
energy
Different between the total head of energy between the intake and
discharge
Denoted as net head, H developed by pump
Intake end (flow inlet) known as suction end
Discharge (flow outlet) known as delivery end