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Chapter 12

Leadership Power and Influence

Chapter Objectives
Recognize your natural leadership frame of
reference and how you can expand your
perspective.
Use power and politics to help accomplish
important organizational goals.
Identify types and sources of power in
organizations and know how to increase power
through political activity.
Use the influence tactics of rational persuasion,
friendliness, reciprocity, developing allies, direct
appeal, and scarcity.
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4. Symbolic

Ex. 12.1 Four


Leader Frames
of Reference
3. Political
Mind-set: Sees
organization as
2. Human
jungle, power,
Resource
schemes
Mind-set: Sees
Emphasis:
organization as
Resource
family, belonging,
allocation,
clan
negotiation,
1. Structural Emphasis:
coalition building
People, support,
Mind-set: Sees
Dangers: Power
empowerment
organization as
plays for purpose
Dangers: Lack of
machine,
of self-interest
economics, plans content or
Emphasis: Goals, substance
systems,
efficiency, formal
authority
Dangers: Rigidity
and tyranny

Mind-set: Sees
organization as
theater, spiritual
meaning, dreams
Emphasis:
Vision, culture &
values, inspiration
Dangers:
Messiah
complex

Power and Influence


Power
The ability of one person or department in an
organization to influence other people to bring
about desired outcomes

Influence
The effect a persons actions have on the
attitudes, values, beliefs, or actions of others

Ex. 12.2 Five Types of Leader


Power

Legitimate
Reward
Coercive

Position Power

Expert
Referent

Personal Power

Ex. 12.3 Responses to the Use of


Power

us e

eu
riat
r op

ive

app

es s

Compliance

Personal Power

exc

se

Position Power

Resistance

Commitment

Ex. 12.4 Characteristics That Affect Dependency and Power in


Organizations
Leader has
control over:

Leader has
control over:

Resources seen
as unimportant

Importance

Resources seen as
very important

Widely available
resources

Scarcity

Scarce resources

Resources with
acceptable substitutes

Low dependency
on leader = lower
power

Non
substitutability

Resources with
no substitutes

High dependency
on leader = higher
power

Ex. 12.5 Strategic Contingencies


that Affect Leader Power in
Organizations
Interdepartmental
Dependency
Control over
Information
Increased Power
Organizational
Centrality
Coping with
Uncertainty

Politics
Activities to acquire, develop,
and use power and other
resources to obtain desired
future outcomes when there is
uncertainty or disagreement
about choices

Ex. 12.6 Seven Principles for


Asserting Leader Influence
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Use rational persuasion


Make people like you
Rely on the rule of reciprocity
Develop allies
Ask for what you want
Remember the principle of scarcity
Extend formal authority with expertise and
credibility

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Is the action
consistent
with the
organizations
goals, rather
than being
self-motivated
purely by selfinterest?

Does the
action
respect the
rights of
individuals
and groups
affected by
it?

Does the
action meet
the
standards of
fairness and
equity?

Would you
wish others
to behave in
the same
way if the
action
affected
you?

Ethical Choice

Ex. 12.7 Guidelines for Ethical


Action

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