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Project Quality Management

WHAT IS QUALITY?

The term Quality has different meaning for


different persons.
Quality is a relative term so there is no
specific definition of this term.

WHAT IS QUALITY?
Product-based definition: product
attributes/capabilities
User-based definition: fitness for
intended use
Value-based definition: Quality vs. Price
Manufacturing-based definition:
conformance to specifications

WHAT IS QUALITY?
JM Juran says:
Quality is fitness for use
Philip B. Crosby says:
Quality is conformance to requirements.

WHAT IS QUALITY?
Armand V Feigenbaum says:
Quality means best for certain customer
conditions.
These conditions are (a) the actual use (b)
the selling price of the product
TQM philosophy :
Quality is meeting and exceeding customer
expectations

WHAT IS QUALITY?

QUALITY DIMENSIONS
Dimensions

Meaning

Performance

Primary Product Characteristics

Features

Secondary Characteristics

Conformance

Meeting Specification or industry Standards,


workmanship

Reliability

Consistency of performance over the time.

Durability

Useful life including repair

Service

Resolution of problems and complaints, ease of repair

Response

Human-to-human interface

Aesthetics

Sensory Characteristics

Reputation

Past performance & other intangibles

CHANGING VIEW OF QUALITY

Quality and the Triple Constraint


Project Triple constraint includes:
1. Time
2. Cost
3. Scope
A project manager should never, never, ever trade off quality during project
implementation

WHAT IS PQM?
Project Quality Management includes the processes
and activities of the performing organization that
determine
quality
policies,
objectives,
and
responsibilities so that the project will satisfy the needs
for which it was undertaken.
From a project managers perspective, there are six
quality management concepts that should exist to
support each and every project. They include:
Quality policy
Quality objectives
Quality assurance
Quality control
Quality audit
Quality program plan

TERMINOLOGIES
Quality VS Grade
Quality as a delivered performance or result is the
degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfill
requirements (ISO 9000) [10].
Grade as a design intent is a category assigned to
deliverables having the same functional use but
different technical characteristics.
Low grade may not be a problem but low Quality is a
Problem.

TERMINOLOGIES
Cost Of Quality
According to ASQ:
The "cost of quality" isn't the price of creating a
quality product or service. It's the cost of NOT
creating a quality product or service.
Every time work is redone, the cost of quality increases.
Obvious examples include:
The reworking of a manufactured item.
The retesting of an assembly.
The rebuilding of a tool.
The correction of a bank statement.

TERMINOLOGIES
Cost Of Quality

Demings Costs of Quality


Cost of
Cost of Non
Conformance Conformance
Quality training

Rework

Studies

Scrap

Surveys

Inventory Costs
Warranty Costs

TERMINOLOGIES
Prevention Over Inspection
Quality should be planned, designed, and built intonot
inspected into the projects management or the projects
deliverables.
Prevention is much cheaper than inspection, build
quality in early to minimize costs/maximize quality
The cost of preventing mistakes is generally much less
than the cost of correcting mistakes when they are
found by inspection or during usage.

TERMINOLOGIES
Gold Plating Giving the customer extras that do not add
value to the project
Marginal Analysis The point where the incremental
revenue from an improvement equals the cost to
implement it
Kaizen Continuous improvement process to reduce
costs and promote consistency
ISO 9000 International standard to ensure that
companies have quality procedures and that they follow
them

TERMINOLOGIES
Plan Quality ManagementThe process of identifying quality
requirements and/or standards for the
project and its deliverables and documenting how the project
will demonstrate compliance with quality
requirements.
Perform Quality AssuranceThe process of auditing the
quality requirements and the results from
quality control measurements to ensure that appropriate quality
standards and operational definitions
are used.
Control QualityThe process of monitoring and
recording results of executing the quality activities
to assess performance and recommend necessary changes.

RESPONSIBILITY OF QUALITY
Everyone in an organization plays an important role in quality
management.
In order for an organization to become a quality organization, all
levels must actively participate.
According to Dr. Edwards Deming, the key to successful
implementation of quality starts at the top.
The ultimate responsibility for quality in the organization
lies in the hands of upper management. It is only with
their enthusiastic and unwavering support that quality
can thrive in an organization
85% of the costs of quality are the direct responsibility of management - Deming

BENEFITS OF QUALITY
Quality benefits include:

Customer satisfaction
Reduced costs
Increased profits
Increased competitiveness.