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Transformer voltages

Low voltage (LV) ac:

120V, 240V, 2.4 kV, 4.16kV, 7.2kV,


13.2kV, 13.8kV, 18kV, 26.4kV, 34.5kV

High voltage (HV) ac:

69 kV, 115 kV, 138 kV, 161 kV, 230 kV

Extra-high voltage (EHV) ac:

345 kV, 500 kV, 765 kV

Ultra-high voltage (UHV) ac:

1100 kV, 1500 kV

Generation voltages

600V, 4 kV, 6.9kV, 18 kV, 22 kV, 25 kV

Transmission voltage levels

115kV, 138kV, 161kV, 230 kV , 345 kV,


500 kV, 765 kV, 1100 kV, 1500 kV

Distribution voltage levels

240V, 120V, 69kV, 34.4kV, 26.4kV, 20kV,


18kV, 13.8kV,13.2kV, 10kV,
2.4 kV, 4.16kV, 7.2kV(sub-transmission)

Generator Step-Up (GSU) Transformers


GSU xfmr
52

52

Aux. xfmr

1300 MVA
343 2x1.9% / 25 kV
60 Hz
3-phase
ODAF (oil-immersed, forced oil - forced air cooling)

Step-Down Distribution Substation Transformers

Distribution xfmr

24 MVA
138 / 13.8 kV
60 Hz
3-phase
FOA

Autotransformers
ADVANTAGES:
reduced weight and size per kVA
lower cost
lower leakage reactance
lower losses and better
efficiency
lower exciting current

DISADVANTAGE:

no electrical isolation between


primary and secondary sides

1000 MVA
346 17x3.66 kV / 225 kV
60 Hz
3-phase
OA/FA/FA (self-cooled/ forced air cooled)

Small Distribution Transformers

a) Single-phase
transformers

100kVA,
14.4kV/347V
Pole-Mount

100kVA,
14.4kV/240V/120V
Mini-Pad

500kVA,
14.4kV/600V
Platform-Mount

300kVA
up to 36kV
3-phase
substation installation

2 MVA,
13.8/600kV
Pad - Mount

b) Three-phase
transformers

45kVA,
24.94kV/480V
3-phase Pole Mount

Transformers Working Concepts


A Transformer stationary device that changes AC electric power at
one voltage level to AC electric power at another voltage level of same
frequency through the action of a Magnetic Field.

Principal of transformer operation can be explained by Faradays Law of


electro-magnetic induction.
Electromotive force (emf) is induced in a closed electric circuit,
whenever there is a change in magnetic flux linkage of that cct.
The direction of induced emf is given by Lenzs Law
The direction of induced emf is such that at every instant, it tries
to oppose the cause of induction.

Transformers Working Concepts

ip(t)

+
Vp(t)

is(t)

Vs(t)

The
time
varying
current
flowing
in the primary
winding
The
induced
voltage
Vs(t)
Current
flow in the
AC
voltage
applied
on
the core
primary
side of transformer
time
varying
flux
influx
the in
core.
The
time
varying
the
of transformer
couple
secondary
winding.
the
a current
flow
intime
the varying
primary
winding
with
secondary
winding

voltage
Vs(t)
is induced
in core
This
current
flow

flux
production
in the
the
secondary
(Faradays
Flux
directionwinding.
Opposite
to the Law)
flux produced by primary
winding. (Lenzs Law)
7

Transformers General formulae


The induced emf in the secondary winding is proportional to the
rate of change of flux linkage.

Mathematically

e
dt

EMF equation for a transformer is;


Mathematically

E 4.44 fNm

Turn Ratio or Ratio of transformer;


Mathematically

K NP VP IS
NS VS
IP
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