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Caraga State University

College of Engineering and Information


Technology

Theory of Errors and


Adjustments
Lecture 4

Broddett B. Abatayo, GE
Lecturer

HORIZONTAL CONTROL SURVEY

TRAVERSE
TRILATERATION (SIDE)
TRIANGULATION (ANGLE)

TRIANGULATION FIGURES

CHAIN OF TRIANGLES
CHAIN OF
QUADRILATERALS
CHAIN OF POLYGONS

TRIANGULATION FIGURES
Chain of Triangles

TRIANGULATION FIGURES
Chain of Quadrilaterals

TRIANGULATION FIGURES
Chain of Polygons

STRENGTH OF FIGURE

FACTOR
A

F=
Wher
e:
P = number of
stations
L = number of
lines
P =
4
L =6

F =
0.6

STRENGTH OF FIGURE

FACTOR

.
A

F=

Wher
e:
P = number of
stations
L = number of
lines
P =
L =3
3

F =
0.75

STRENGTH OF FIGURE

FACTOR
B

.
D

F=
Wher
e:
P = number of
stations
L = number of
lines

P =
L =8
5

F =
0.64

STRENGTH OF FIGURE

FACTOR

.B

F=

.
F

.D

.
C

Wher
e:
P = number of
stations
L = number of
lines
P =
6
L =
10

F =
0.67

STRENGTH OF FIGURE

FACTOR

.
D

F=

Wher
e:
P = number of
stations
L = number of
lines
P =
8
L =
14

F =
0.69

DIFFERENT ROUTES WITHIN A

QUADRILATERAL

Using ABD and ADC with AD as the


common side.

38

Known side
54
44

Commo
n

side

56

38

Known side
54
44
Co
mm

CD=1.231 AB
26

44
68
Required side

on
s

CD=1.492 AB
26

68

56

ide

44

30

30
C

Required side

Using ABD and BCD with BD as the


common side.

Using ABC and BCD with BC as the


common side.

Known side
54

44
o

44
68
Required side

38

56

CD=1.439 AB
26

68

C
D

56

CD=1.650 AB

26

44

30

side

mm
o
C

i de
ns

Known side
54
44

on
Comm

38

Using ABC and ADC with AC as the


common side.

Required side

30

DISTANCE ANGLE

Distance Angle is the angle opposite to the known and


common side of the first triangle and angle opposite to the
common and required side of the second triangle.
Known side

A
38

44

B
44

54

Co
m

on

For triangle ABC:


26 and 100

56

For triangle ADC:


112 and 38

sid
e

26

68

Required side

Using ABC and ADC with AC as


the common side.

30

DISTANCE ANGLE

Distance Angle is the angle opposite to the known and


common side of the first triangle and angle opposite to the
common and required side of the second triangle.
Known side

Common side

38

44

B
44

54

For triangle ABD:


44 and 44

56

For triangle ADC:


30 and 38

26

68

Required side

Using ABD and ADC with AD as


the common side.

30

DISTANCE ANGLE

Distance Angle is the angle opposite to the known and


common side of the first triangle and angle opposite to the
common and required side of the second triangle.
Known side

A
38

44

54

m
Co

44

on

e
sid

For triangle ABD:


44 and 92

56

For triangle BCD:


56 and 56

26

68

Required side

Using ABD and BCD with BD as


the common side.

30

DISTANCE ANGLE

Distance Angle is the angle opposite to the known and


common side of the first triangle and angle opposite to the
common and required side of the second triangle.
Known side

56

26

68

Required side

For triangle ABC:


26 and 54
For triangle BCD:
68 and 56

ide

44

44

54

s
Common

38

Using ABC and BCD with BC as


the common side.

30

Using ABD and ACD with AD as the common side.

Common side

A
38

44

54

distance angle of AB = 44
distance angle of AD = 44
=

14.26

ADC
44

Known side

ABC

distance angle of AD = 30
distance angle of DC = 38
68

Required side

30

C
=

14.26 + 30.39 =
44.65

30.39

Using ABD and ADC with AD as the common side.

R=
F

F 0.60
=
=

44.65

R = 26.78

Respective differences of sines


ABC

Using ABC and ADC with AC as


the common side.

A
38

44

Known side

44

54

Co
m

on

=
56

Required side

distance angle of AC = 112


distance angle of DC = 38
=

30

C
=

17.17

ADC

sid
e

26

68

distance angle of AB = 26
distance angle of AC = 100

17.17 + 5.69 =

5.69

Using ABC and ADC with AC as the common side.

R=
F

F 0.60
=
=

22.86

R = 13.72

DIFFERENT ROUTES WITHIN A

QUADRILATERAL

Using ABD and ADC with AD as the


common side.

38

Known side
54
44

Commo
n

side

68
Required side

56

38

Known side
54
44
Co
mm

CD=1.231 AB

CD=1.492AB

26
68

56

ide

44

R = 26.78

30

on
s

Required side

R = 13.72

30

Using ABD and BCD with BD as the


common side.

Using ABC and BCD with BC as the


common side.

Known side
54

44
o

44
68
Required side

38

56

CD=1.439 AB
26

68

C
D

56

CD=1.650 AB

26

44

R = 6.39

30

side

mm
o
C

i de
ns

Known side
54
44

on
Comm

38

26

44

Using ABC and ADC with AC as the


common side.

Required side

30

R = 18.92

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