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# Caraga State University

Technology

## Theory of Errors and

Lecture 4

Broddett B. Abatayo, GE
Lecturer

## HORIZONTAL CONTROL SURVEY

TRAVERSE
TRILATERATION (SIDE)
TRIANGULATION (ANGLE)

TRIANGULATION FIGURES

CHAIN OF TRIANGLES
CHAIN OF
CHAIN OF POLYGONS

TRIANGULATION FIGURES
Chain of Triangles

TRIANGULATION FIGURES

TRIANGULATION FIGURES
Chain of Polygons

STRENGTH OF FIGURE

FACTOR
A

F=
Wher
e:
P = number of
stations
L = number of
lines
P =
4
L =6

F =
0.6

STRENGTH OF FIGURE

FACTOR

.
A

F=

Wher
e:
P = number of
stations
L = number of
lines
P =
L =3
3

F =
0.75

STRENGTH OF FIGURE

FACTOR
B

.
D

F=
Wher
e:
P = number of
stations
L = number of
lines

P =
L =8
5

F =
0.64

STRENGTH OF FIGURE

FACTOR

.B

F=

.
F

.D

.
C

Wher
e:
P = number of
stations
L = number of
lines
P =
6
L =
10

F =
0.67

STRENGTH OF FIGURE

FACTOR

.
D

F=

Wher
e:
P = number of
stations
L = number of
lines
P =
8
L =
14

F =
0.69

common side.

38

Known side
54
44

Commo
n

side

56

38

Known side
54
44
Co
mm

CD=1.231 AB
26

44
68
Required side

on
s

CD=1.492 AB
26

68

56

ide

44

30

30
C

Required side

common side.

common side.

Known side
54

44
o

44
68
Required side

38

56

CD=1.439 AB
26

68

C
D

56

CD=1.650 AB

26

44

30

side

mm
o
C

i de
ns

Known side
54
44

on
Comm

38

common side.

Required side

30

DISTANCE ANGLE

## Distance Angle is the angle opposite to the known and

common side of the first triangle and angle opposite to the
common and required side of the second triangle.
Known side

A
38

44

B
44

54

Co
m

on

26 and 100

56

112 and 38

sid
e

26

68

Required side

the common side.

30

DISTANCE ANGLE

## Distance Angle is the angle opposite to the known and

common side of the first triangle and angle opposite to the
common and required side of the second triangle.
Known side

Common side

38

44

B
44

54

44 and 44

56

30 and 38

26

68

Required side

the common side.

30

DISTANCE ANGLE

## Distance Angle is the angle opposite to the known and

common side of the first triangle and angle opposite to the
common and required side of the second triangle.
Known side

A
38

44

54

m
Co

44

on

e
sid

44 and 92

56

56 and 56

26

68

Required side

the common side.

30

DISTANCE ANGLE

## Distance Angle is the angle opposite to the known and

common side of the first triangle and angle opposite to the
common and required side of the second triangle.
Known side

56

26

68

Required side

## For triangle ABC:

26 and 54
For triangle BCD:
68 and 56

ide

44

44

54

s
Common

38

the common side.

30

## Using ABD and ACD with AD as the common side.

Common side

A
38

44

54

distance angle of AB = 44
distance angle of AD = 44
=

14.26

44

Known side

ABC

distance angle of AD = 30
distance angle of DC = 38
68

Required side

30

C
=

14.26 + 30.39 =
44.65

30.39

R=
F

F 0.60
=
=

44.65

R = 26.78

ABC

the common side.

A
38

44

Known side

44

54

Co
m

on

=
56

Required side

## distance angle of AC = 112

distance angle of DC = 38
=

30

C
=

17.17

sid
e

26

68

distance angle of AB = 26
distance angle of AC = 100

17.17 + 5.69 =

5.69

R=
F

F 0.60
=
=

22.86

R = 13.72

common side.

38

Known side
54
44

Commo
n

side

68
Required side

56

38

Known side
54
44
Co
mm

CD=1.231 AB

CD=1.492AB

26
68

56

ide

44

R = 26.78

30

on
s

Required side

R = 13.72

30

common side.

common side.

Known side
54

44
o

44
68
Required side

38

56

CD=1.439 AB
26

68

C
D

56

CD=1.650 AB

26

44

R = 6.39

30

side

mm
o
C

i de
ns

Known side
54
44

on
Comm

38

26

44

common side.

Required side

30

R = 18.92

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