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PROC 2077 Chemical Engineering Fundamentals

Multiphase Systems Containing a Single Condensable Component

Reference (Prescribed Text):

Dr Rajneet Rosey Kaur

Felder and Rousseau, Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes, 3 rd Ed, 2005, John Wiley

Methods of estimating vapour pressures

  • 1. Clausius-Clapeyron equation

  • 2. Cox Chart

  • 3. Antoine Equation

Important

Important
[Note: This version of the Antoine Equation is to be used in this course]
[Note: This version of the Antoine Equation is to be used in this course]
[Note: This alternative version of the Antoine Equation is for your information only]

[Note: This alternative version of the Antoine Equation is for your information only]

In Class Examples

Example 1: Use of Antoine Equation

A laboratory experiment requires ethanol vapour to be supplied at 0.9 atm pressure.

(a) Show that the vapour pressure exerted by liquid ethanol at room temperature of 22C is not sufficient for the experiment.

(b) The laboratory assistant has suggested that you immerse a cylinder containing liquid ethanol in a heated water bath. To what temperature should the heater be set to provide the required vapour pressure?

Antoine Equation:

log

10

p

*

A

B

T C

,

Ethanol (C 2 H 6 O):

F&R, Table B.4, p640:

p in mmHg T in C

,

*

A= 8.11220, B = 1592.864, C= 226.184

  • (a) log

  • 10 (

*)

P

8.11220

1592.864

 

22 226.184

 

*

P

49.45 mmHg

1 atm

 

0.0651 atm

760 mmHg

     
 

Since this is less than 0.9 atm, which was required, it’s not sufficient for the experiment.

  • (b) P

*

0.9

atm

760 mmHg

684 mmHg

 

1 atm

 

8.11220

1592.864

 

log

  • 10 (684)

   

T 226.184

T 75.7 C

(a) log 10 ( *) P  8.11220  1592.864  22  226.184  *

Example 2: Vapour Pressure Estimation using various techniques

P 1

T 1

Example 2: Vapour Pressure Estimation using various techniques P 1 T 1 Ethyl acetate has a

Ethyl acetate has a vapour pressure of 118.3 mm Hg at 29.5 ° C and a normal boiling point of 77.0 ° C at 760 mmHg. Estimate the vapour pressure at 45 °C using:

Example 2: Vapour Pressure Estimation using various techniques P 1 T 1 Ethyl acetate has a

T 2

Example 2: Vapour Pressure Estimation using various techniques P 1 T 1 Ethyl acetate has a

P 2

  • a) The Antoine equation and constants from Table B.4;

  • b) The Clausius-Clapeyron equation and the two given data points:

  • c) Linear interpolation between the two given points.

d) Taking the first estimate to be correct, calculate the percentage error associated with the second and third estimates.

a) The Antoine equation and constants from Table B.4; For Ethyl Acetate:

The Antoine constants are:

A = 7.09808 B = 1238.710 C = 217.0

log

10

p

*

7.09808

  • 1238.71 2.370

45

217

2.370  p*  10  234.5 mm Hg
2.370
p*
10
234.5 mm Hg

b) The Clausius-Clapeyron equation and the two given data points:

T

1

29.5

C p

,

*

1

118.3

mmHg

T

2

77.0

C p

,

*

2

760

mmHg

ln p *  

ˆ

H 1

v

R T

B

 

ˆ

H

v

R

ln(

*

p p

2

/

*

1

)

1

T

2

1

T

1

ln( 760 /118.3)

1

(77.0

273.15)K

1

(29.5

273.15)K

  4149.9K

B

ln(

p

*

1

)

ˆ

/

H R

v

T

1

ln(118.3)

4149.9 K

(29.5

273.15) K

18.49

4149.9 *  ln p (45 C)    18.49 (45  273.15) * 
4149.9
*
ln p (45 C)  
 18.49
(45
273.15)
*
p
232.52 mmHg

c) Linear interpolation between the two given points.

(x 1 , y 1 ) (29.5 °C, 118.3 mmHg)

c) Linear interpolation between the two given points. (x , y ) (29.5 °C, 118.3 mmHg)

(x 2 , y 2 )

c) Linear interpolation between the two given points. (x , y ) (29.5 °C, 118.3 mmHg)
c) Linear interpolation between the two given points. (x , y ) (29.5 °C, 118.3 mmHg)
c) Linear interpolation between the two given points. (x , y ) (29.5 °C, 118.3 mmHg)

(77.0 °C, 760 mmHg)

Linear Interpolation:

y

y

1

y

2

   

y

1

x

2

x

1

 

 

x

x

1

y

118.3 mmHg

760 mmHg

118.3 mmHg

 

77 C

29.5 C

45

C

29.5 C

* y  p  327.70 mmHg 45 C 
*
y
p
327.70 mmHg
45 C

d) Taking the first estimate to be correct, calculate the percentage error associated with the second and third estimates.

232.52

234.52

234.52

  • 100

 0.85% error
 0.85% error

327.7

234.5

  • 234.5

    • 100

39.7% error
39.7% error

PROC 2077 Chemical Engineering Fundamentals

Multicomponent Gas-Liquid Sytems

Reference (Prescribed Text):

Dr Rajneet Rosey Kaur

Felder and Rousseau, Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes, 3 rd Ed, 2005, John Wiley

Vapour-Liquid Equilibrium (VLE)

  • a) Bubble point temperature: temperature at which the first vapour bubble forms at constant pressure

  • b) Dew point temperature: temperature at which the first liquid droplet forms at constant pressure

  • c) Bubble point pressure: pressure at which the first vapour forms when a liquid is decompressed at constant temperature

  • d) Dew point pressure: pressure at which the first liquid droplet forms at constant temperature

Txy and Pxy diagrams for a binary mixture

Txy and Pxy diagrams for a binary mixture

Txy and Pxy diagrams for Benzene-Toluene system

Txy and Pxy diagrams for Benzene-Toluene system Figure 6.4-1 (p. 262)

Figure 6.4-1 (p. 262)

Bubble Point Calculation using Txy Diagram

Example 6.4-4 (p262)

Using the Txy diagram, estimate the bubble point temperature and the equilibrium vapour composition associated with a 40 mole% benzene-60 mole % toluene liquid mixture at 1 atm. If the mixture is steadily vaporized until the remaining liquid contains 25% benzene, what is the final temperature?

Bubble Point Calculation using Txy Diagram Example 6.4-4 (p262) Using the Txy diagram, estimate the bubble

Initial conditions:

When x B = 0.40:

T bp = 95°C

y B = 0.62

Final conditions:

When x B = 0.25:

T bp = 100°C

y B = 0.47

Dew Point Calculations using Txy Diagram

Example 6.4-5 (p262)

Using the Txy diagram, estimate the dew point temperature and the equilibrium liquid composition associated with a vapour mixture of benzene and toluene containing 40 mole% benzene at 1 atm. If condensation proceeds until the remaining vapour contains 60% benzene, what is the final temperature?

Dew Point Calculations using Txy Diagram Example 6.4-5 (p262) Using the Txy diagram, estimate the dew

Initial conditions:

When y B = 0.40:

T dp = 102°C

x B = 0.2

Final conditions:

When y B = 0.60:

T dp = 95°C

x B = 0.38

1. Should read example 6.4-3 (p260) on Bubble and Dew point calculations and compare the method with example 6.4-4 (p262).

2. More details of Bubble and Dew point calculations will be covered in 2nd year.

3. Section

6.5

(Solutions

of

Solids

in

covered in PROC 2077 course.

Liquids)

is

not

6.6: Equilibrium between 2 Liquid Phases

6.6: Equilibrium between 2 Liquid Phases

6.6: Equilibrium between 2 Liquid Phases

6.6: Equilibrium between 2 Liquid Phases Single-phase region Two-phase region

Single-phase region

Two-phase region

Water-Acetone-Methyl Isobutyl Ketone (composition in wt%) at 25°C.

Wt % of MIBK Wt % of Water Wt % of Acetone
Wt % of MIBK
Wt % of Water
Wt % of Acetone

Figure 6.6-1 (p.

Water-Acetone-Methyl Isobutyl Ketone (composition in wt%) at 25°C. Wt % of MIBK Wt % of Water

What are the composition of Acetone, Water and MIBK at points K, M and N?

What are the composition of Acetone, Water and MIBK at points K, M and N? Point
What are the composition of Acetone, Water and MIBK at points K, M and N? Point

Point K:

Acetone = 65 wt% MIBK = 20 wt% Water = 15 wt% Total = 100 wt%

Point M:

Acetone = 15 wt%

MIBK = 30 wt% Water = 55 wt% Total = 100 wt%

Point L:

Acetone = 12 wt% MIBK = 3 wt% Water = 85 wt% Total = 100 wt%

Point N:

Acetone = 20 wt% MIBK = 76 wt% Water = 4 wt% Total = 100 wt%

In Class Example

A mixture of 20 wt% water, 33% acetone, and the remainder methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) is brought to equilibrium at 25°C. If the total mass of the system is 1.2 kg, use the data in Figure 6.6-1 to estimate the composition and mass of each phase of the mixture.

Point C Point A 70 wt% water 20 wt% water 25 wt% Acetone 33 wt% Acetone
Point C
Point A
70
wt% water
20
wt% water
25
wt% Acetone
33
wt% Acetone
5 wt% MIBK
47
wt% MIBK
Point B
7 wt% water
35
wt% Acetone
58
wt% MIBK

Figure 6.6-1