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Episode 7 : iCON

Basic Training
SAJJAD KHUDHUR ABBAS

Chemical Engineering , Al-Muthanna University, Iraq


Oil & Gas Safety and Health Professional
OSHACADEMY
Trainer of Trainers (TOT) - Canadian Center of Huma
Development
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2012 PETROLIAM NASIONAL BERHAD (PETRONAS)

SKG 16 - iCON Basic Training Itinerary


Day

Training Modules

22 October 2013

Slides presentation
1. Compressor Train
2. Demethanizer Column
3. Fractionation Train
4. Propane Loop
5. Steam Reformer

23 October 2013

1. Oil Characterization
2. Refinery Separation
3. Amine System

24 October 2013

1.
2.
3.
4.

Utility Optimizer Module 1


Utility Optimizer Module 2
Column Optimization
Property Regression

2013 PETROLIAM
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Outline

Introduction to Process Simulation


iCON Software
Thermodynamic Property Package
Modeling Approach
Hands On Training

2013 PETROLIAM
2012 NASIONAL
PETROLIAM BERHAD
NASIONAL BERHAD (PETRONAS)
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Introduction to Process Simulation

Introduction
Process simulation is the representation/replication of the real world
process behavior through mathematical models.
Process Simulator is a software that predicts the condition, composition
and properties of a particular point (stream) from an initial condition through
mass and energy balances and thermodynamic principles.
iCON is based squarely on fundamental thermodynamic principles
(equation based).
These principles are used in two main features of the process simulator:
The thermodynamic calculation engine
The simulation solver for unit operation and flowsheet.

Introduction

The thermodynamic engine provides:


Rigorous thermodynamic equilibrium and physical property estimation
for industrially important systems

The simulation solver continually monitors:


The degrees of freedom of the flow sheet,
Immediately invokes the necessary calculations when the degrees of
freedom are complete,
Solved the system of equations describing the flow sheet.

Steady State Vs Dynamics


Steady State

Dynamic

Always balance

Not always balance

Time
dependence

No

Yes

Accumulation
i.e. level
simulation

No

Yes

Not required

Required

No impact

Impacts flow

Mass & Energy


Balance

Equipment
dimension
Pressure profile
Typical
applications

Process Design
Equipment Rating &
Monitoring
Utility Balance

Process Control
Optimization
Plant Startup & Shutdown
Operator Training Simulator

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Process Simulation & Optimization Cycle

2012 PETROLIAM NASIONAL BERHAD (PETRONAS)

PETRONAS Official Process Simulation Software

What is iCON?
iCON is an innovative
steady-state & dynamic
simulation software
modeling tool for oil, gas,
petrochemical, utilities and
power generation
industries.
iCON is capable of solving a
wide range of engineering
problems and is industry
driven. It has been proven in
reliability in oil gas
production, oil refinery,
petrochemicals, utility &
power generation
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2012 PETROLIAM NASIONAL BERHAD (PETRONAS)

Thermodynamic Property Package

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Property Package
A property package is a collections of equations that define (given set of
physical conditions) :
1. State of matter i.e vapor/mix/liquid phase
2. Physical properties.
Derived by fitting experimental data.

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Why proper property selection is crucial?

To calculate the component properties at certain T&P (e.g. density, heat


capacity etc.)

To determine the phase of the component at certain T&P (e.g. V/L/V+L)

To determine the in what proportion the component would exist in each


phase (equilibrium)

The accuracy of the calculated/simulated results will greatly depend on the


accuracy of the thermodynamic package prediction.

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2013 PETROLIAM

Types of Property Package


Equation of State
Model
Good for non polar
liquid and gas
phase since can
calculate critical
point.
Covers a wide
temperature &
pressure range
Advance PengRobinson,
Soave-RedlichKwong
Hydrocarbon
application

Activity Coefficient
Model

Special Packages

Good to represent
non-ideal liquid due
to presence of polar
components, but
cannot predict
critical point

Customized to
represent specific
process which may
include kinetics
data in addition to
equilibrium data

Limited T & P range

Limited T & P range

Non Random Two


Liquids (NRTL),
UNIFAC, UNIQUAC,
Wilson

Urea, Amine,
Steam97

Chemicals with
high polarity i.e.
water, alcohol

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Property Package Selection Guideline

PETRONAS Technical Standards : Property Package Selection


(PTS 20.00.10.37 ) is available in AXIS

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Example
Objective:
To give an indication of NH3 purity, an online calculation can be implemented as part of
ELMS, to enable operators to take necessary action to drain any contaminants i.e.
compressor oil from NH3.
Actual saturation Pressure
& Temperature

Actual saturation Pressure


& Temperature

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Example
Pure Ammonia Temp VS Pressure
1700

Lee
Kesler
Plocker
Thermo

1650

1600

NGL-PR

Pressure (kPaA)
Thermo
1550

1500

Actual
DCS
data

1450

1400
33

34

35

36

37

Temp (deg C)

38

39

40

APR
APR-NG
Refinery SRK
APR-LK
NGL-PR
API SOUR
CHAO SEADER
GRAYSON
STREED
MAXWELL
BONELL
LKP
UNIQUAC
wilson
TK-WILSON
NRTL
VAN LAAR
MARGULES
MARGULES 4
UNIFAC
IDEALgas
PHYSICAL
SOLVENT
REFINERY APR
EXTRACTION
GASIFICATION

The figure above shows multiple plots of pure NH3 using 21 different
thermodynamic packages and a plot of actual DCS data.
Lee-Kesler-Plcker (LKP) is found to be the best suited thermo-package.

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Modeling Approach

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Modeling Approach Degree of Freedom


Degree of
Freedom

No. of specification required for the calculation to


complete
Inadequate specification calculation will not
progress
Overspecified inconsistency error will created

Unit Operation in
iCON

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Modeling Approach Degree of Freedom


Unit
Operation

Typical Specification

Stream

Pressure, Temperature, Flow, Composition

Separator

With feed stream, separator will converged


without having to specify anything

Cooler/Heater

With feed stream, user needs to specify either:


1. Temperature outlet, Delta P
2. Temperature outlet, Pressure outlet

Heat
Exchanger

User needs to have both fluids properties (2


streams; shell and tube)
Other specifications are similar to cooler/heater

Compressor/Pu
mp/Expander

With feed stream, user needs to specify either:


1. Pressure outlet, Efficiency
2. Pressure outlet, Temperature outlet
If with compressor curve, speed is required as
specification

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Hands-on
Training..

21

Desktop

22

New file..

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#1 Property package: Advance Peng Robinson


#2 Add components:
Water; Nitrogen; Carbon Dioxide; Methane; Ethane; Propane; isoButane; n-Butane; iso-Pentane; n-Pentane; n-Hexane;
h2o;n2;co2;c1;c2;c3;ic4;nc4;ic5;nc5;nc6;

Water

Nitrogen

Carbon
Dioxide;

Methane

Ethane

Propane

IsoButane

n-Butane

isoPentane

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n-Pentane

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#1 Property package: Advance Peng Robinson


#2 Add components:
Water; Nitrogen; Carbon Dioxide; Methane; Ethane; Propane; isoButane; n-Butane; iso-Pentane; n-Pentane; n-Hexane;
h2o;n2;co2;c1;c2;c3;ic4;nc4;ic5;nc5;nc6;

Water

Nitrogen

Carbon
Dioxide;

Methane

Ethane

Propane

IsoButane

n-Butane

isoPentane

10

n-Pentane

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#3 Flash a material stream


Unit
Temperatu
re

Deg C

30

Pressure

Kpa

1000

Mass Flow

Kg/h

125

Water

Mol %
1

Nitrogen

Mol %
0.5

Carbon
Dioxide;

Mol %

Methane

Mol %

Ethane

Mol %

Propane

Mol %

Iso-Butane

Mol %

45

n-Butane

Mol %

40

isoPentane

Mol %

n-Pentane

Mol %

n-Hexane

Mol %

0.5

2
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# 4 Flash options

P-T Flash

P-H Flash

Vapor Fraction
(VF) Flash
Calculation

Temperature , Pressure , Flow


,Composition

Enthalpy, Pressure , Flow


,Composition
Vapor Fraction, Pressure , Flow
,Composition

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# 5 Pseudo component: Min data: Normal Boiling Point or Molecular Weight +


Liquid Density

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Getting started
Starting iCON from
desktop.
Selecting thermo.
Selecting components.
Converging a stream.
Units.
Bubble / dew points.
Phase diagram.
Special properties.
Making a copy
Spec from
Clone
Copy stream
Show datasheet
Table
Writing

Controller
Temperature control
Process Calculator
Totalizer
Pseudo component
Ammonia ref choosing
thermo

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Modeling Approach Data Propagation


In port has a mass
flow of 200 kg/hr
(mole flow = 4.84
kg-mole/hr)
Since the cooler
has a single In and a
single Out material
port:
No accumulation
of matter
No chemical
reactions

Therefore, the:
Mole Flow
Mass Flow
of In and Out port must
be IDENTICAL

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Modeling Approach Data Propagation


Now click on the
(Mass Flow, In) cell
and press the
<Delete> key.
You will notice that
the since the mass
flow is not specified,
the mole flow is
automatically
forgotten.

Note that even


though the mole and
mass flows are NOT
known, the
thermodynamic state
of the In port IS known.
Click on the
node and inspect the
physical properties of
the In port.

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Modeling Approach Data Propagation


Click on the
(MassFlow, Out) cell
and specify a mass
flow of 2000 kg/h as
shown below
Hit the <Enter>
key

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Modeling Approach Data Propagation


Note that the Out
port mass flow is now
specified (blue
background),
And the mole flow is
automatically
calculated at 4.84
kgmole/h.
Also, note that the
available information is
propagated backwards
to the In port.

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Flash
Calculations

P-T Flash
P-H Flash
Vapor Fraction
(VF) Flash
Calculation

Rigorous three-phase calculations except for Wilson


(only vapor liquid)
Type of flash calculation based on degree of freedom
concept depending on specifications imposed on the
system
Independent Variables: Temperature (T), Pressure
(P)
Dependent Variables: vapor fraction, enthalpy and
entropy
Independent Variables: Pressure (P), Enthalpy (H)
Dependent Variables: vapor fraction, Temperature
and entropy
Independent Variables: Vapor Fraction (VF) and
Temperature (T) or Vapor Fraction (VF) and Pressure
(P)
Dependent Variables: Pressure (P) or Temperature
(T) and enthalpy and entropy
Examples:
Dew Points: VF = 1.0, and either P or T
Bubble Points: VF = 0.0, and either P or T

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2013 PETROLIAM
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Thanks for Watching


Please follow me / SAJJAD KHUDHUR
ABBAS

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