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Particle

Particle Swarm

Swarm Optimization

Optimization (PSO)

(PSO)

•

PSO is a robust stochastic optimization technique based on

the movement and intelligence of swarms.

•

PSO applies the concept of social interaction to problem

solving.

•

It was developed in 1995 by James Kennedy (social-

psychologist) and Russell Eberhart (electrical engineer).

•

It

uses

a number of agents (particles) that constitute a

swarm moving around in the search space looking for the

best solution.

•

Each particle is treated as a point in a N-dimensional space

which

adjusts

its

“flying”

according

to

its

own flying

experience as well

particles.

as

the

flying

experience

of

other

Particle

Particle Swarm

Swarm Optimization

Optimization (PSO)

(PSO)

• Each particle keeps track of its coordinates in the solution

space which are associated with the best solution (fitness)

that has achieved so far by that particle. This value is called

personal best , pbest.

•

Another best value that is tracked by the PSO is the best

value obtained so far by any particle in the neighborhood of

that particle. This value is called gbest.

•

The basic concept of PSO lies in accelerating each particle

toward its pbest and the gbest locations, with a random

weighted accelaration at each time step as shown in Fig.1

Particle

Particle Swarm

Swarm Optimization

Optimization (PSO)

(PSO)

y

s k+1

s

k+1

v

v

k

k

v

v

k+1

k+1

v

v

gbest

gbest

v

v

pbest

pbest

s s k

k

x

Fig.1 Concept of modification of a searching point by PSO

s k : current searching point.

s k+1 : modified

searching point.

v

k : current velocity.

v k+1 : modified

Particle

Particle Swarm

Swarm Optimization

Optimization (PSO)

(PSO)

• Each particle tries to modify its position using the following

information:

the current positions,

the current velocities,

the distance between the current position and pbest,

the distance between the current position and the gbest.

• The modification of the particle’s position can be mathematically

modeled according the following equation :

V i k+1 = wV i k +c 1 rand 1 (…) x (pbest i -s i k ) + c 2 rand 2 (…) x (gbest-s i k ) …

..

(1)

where,

v i k : velocity of agent i at iteration k,

w: weighting function,

between 0 and 1,

iteration k,

c j : weighting factor,

rand : uniformly distributed random number

s i k : current position of agent i at

pbest i : pbest of agent i,

gbest: gbest of the

Particle

Particle Swarm

Swarm Optimization

Optimization (PSO)

(PSO)

The following weighting function is usually utilized in (1)

w = wMax-[(wMax-wMin) x iter]/maxIter

(2)

where

wMax= initial weight,

wMin = final weight,

maxIter = maximum iteration number,

iter = current iteration number.

s i k+1

=

s i k +

V i k+1

(3)

Particle

Particle Swarm

Swarm Optimization

Optimization

(PSO)

(PSO)

Comments

Comments onon the

the Inertial

Inertial weight

weight factor:

factor:

AA large

large inertia

inertia weight

weight ((ww)) facilitates

facilitates aa global

global search

search while

while

aa small

small inertia

inertia weight

weight facilitates

facilitates aa local

local search.

search.

ByBy linearly

linearly decreasing

decreasing the

the inertia

inertia weight

weight from

from aa relatively

relatively

large

large value

value toto aa small

small value

value through

through the

the course

course of

of the

the

PSO

PSO run

run gives

gives the

the best

best PSO

PSO performance

performance compared

compared

with

with fixed

fixed inertia

inertia weight

weight settings.

settings.

Larger

Larger ww -----------

----------- greater

greater global

global search

search ability

ability

Smaller

Smaller ww ------------

------------ greater

greater local

local search

search ability.

ability.

Particle

Particle Swarm

Swarm Optimization

Optimization (PSO)

(PSO)

Flow chart depicting the General PSO Algorithm:

Start

Initialize particles with random position

and velocity vectors.

For each particle’s position (p)

evaluate fitness

If fitness(p) better than

fitness(pbest) then pbest= p

Set best of pBests as gBest

Update particles velocity (eq. 1) and

position (eq. 3)

Stop: giving gBest, optimal solution.

Loop until all

particles exhaust

Loop until max iter

Comparison

Comparison with

with other

other evolutionary

evolutionary

computation

computation techniques.

techniques.

Unlike in genetic algorithms, evolutionary programming and

evolutionary strategies, in PSO, there is no selection operation.

•

•

All particles in PSO are kept as members of the population through

the course of the run

•

PSO is the only algorithm that does not implement the survival of

the fittest.

•

•

No crossover operation in PSO.

eq 1(b) resembles mutation in EP.

In EP balance between the global and local search can be adjusted

through the strategy parameter while in PSO the balance is

achieved through the inertial weight factor (w) of eq. 1(a)

•

Variants

Variants of

of PSO

PSO

•

Discrete PSO ……………… can handle discrete binary

variables

•

MINLP PSO………… can handle both discrete binary and

continuous variables.

• Hybrid PSO…………. Utilizes basic mechanism of PSO

and the natural selection mechanism, which is usually

utilized by EC methods such as GAs.

Application of PSO ALGORITHM to Optimize a

Meander-line Polarizer for LI→CP conversion

Intialization parameters used for PSO:

wMax=0.41

wMin=0.4

(Note:The inertial weight ,w is linearly decreased from wMax to wMin

according the Eq. (2), w is chosen virtually constant in this case for better

local search near the Sun’s Optimized parameters. )

c

1 =c 2 =1.49

maxIter=2000

The above parameters are used in conjuction with eqs.

(1) & (2)

Swarm size/Population size used for solution search : 25

Application of PSO ALGORITHM to Optimize a

Meander-line Polarizer for LI→CP conversion

Frequency band of interest: 3.5 to 6.5 (GHz)

(evaluated at 12 frequency points)

Desired VSWR <= 1.2

Desired AR <= 0.5 (dB)

Total number of fitness evaluations: 100025

Note: For my implementation of the PSO the number of fiteness evaluations are

calculated as follows: (2 x swarmsize x maxIter)+ swarmsize = (2 x 25 x 2000)+ 25

The following slides include the results for the broadband case.

Mean best & Best fitness over 50 runs

VSWR

Axial Ratio (dB)

Optimized dimensions for 4-layer

Meander Line Polarizer

Pitch

Pitch

Period

Period

Height

Height

Line

Line Width

Width

Spacer

Spacer

dielectric

dielectric

Layer

Layer

(inches)

(inches)

(inches)

(inches)

(inches)

(inches)

(inches)

(inches)

(inches)

(inches)

(inches)

(inches)

aa

bb

hh

ll ii

ww 11

ww 22

ll oi oi

2.2501351E-

2.2501351E-

1.5984001E-

1.5984001E-

8.4705018E-

8.4705018E-

11

0.3449360

0.3449360

0.7283382

0.7283382

0.2520565

0.2520565

0.5428128

0.5428128

0202

0202

0303

5.3999661E-

5.3999661E-

9.4296653E-

9.4296653E-

3.4676325E-

3.4676325E-

22

0.3798469

0.3798469

0.8704398

0.8704398

0.4707420

0.4707420

0.4211845

0.4211845

0303

0303

0303

5.3999661E-

5.3999661E-

9.4296653E-

9.4296653E-

3.4676325E-

3.4676325E-

33

0.3798469

0.3798469

0.8704398

0.8704398

0.4707420

0.4707420

0.5428128

0.5428128

0303

0303

0303

2.2501351E-

2.2501351E-

1.5984001E-

1.5984001E-

8.4705018E-

8.4705018E-

44

0.3449360

0.3449360

0.7283382

0.7283382

0.2520565

0.2520565

----

----

0202

0202

0303

Dielectric constants:

2.55

1.15

i

0i

4 Layers for CP

Metal

Dielectric

Spacer

Layer

Sheet

Application of PSO ALGORITHM to Optimize a

Meander-line Polarizer for LI→CP conversion

Frequency bands of interest:

Band1: 3.7 to 4.2 (GHz)

Band2: 5.9 to 6.4 (GHz)

(evaluated at 2 frequency points: 3.95 (GHz), 6.15 (GHz))

Desired VSWR <= 1.2

Desired AR <= 0.5 (dB)

Total number of fitness evaluations: 100025

The following slides include the results for the dualband case.

Mean best & Best fitness over 50 runs

VSWR

Axial Ratio (dB)

Optimized dimensions for 4-layer

Meander Line Polarizer

Pitch

Pitch

Period

Period

Height

Height

Line

Line Width

Width

Spacer

Spacer

dielectric

dielectric

Layer

Layer

(inches)

(inches)

(inches)

(inches)

(inches)

(inches)

(inches)

(inches)

(inches)

(inches)

(inches)

(inches)

aa

bb

hh

ll ii

ww 11

ww 22

ll oi oi

4.0456183E-

4.0456183E-

2.7704202E-

2.7704202E-

4.1147252E-

4.1147252E-

11

0.2528913

0.2528913

0.8081669

0.8081669

0.2480143

0.2480143

0.4533823

0.4533823

0202

0202

0303

5.0358579E-

5.0358579E-

4.4981677E-

4.4981677E-

3.9593712E-

3.9593712E-

22

0.5425724

0.5425724

0.9529658

0.9529658

0.3433722

0.3433722

0.4482195

0.4482195

0202

0202

0303

5.0358579E-

5.0358579E-

4.4981677E-

4.4981677E-

3.9593712E-

3.9593712E-

33

0.5425724

0.5425724

0.9529658

0.9529658

0.3433722

0.3433722

0.4533823

0.4533823

0202

0202

0303

4.0456183E-

4.0456183E-

2.7704202E-

2.7704202E-

4.1147252E-

4.1147252E-

44

0.2528913

0.2528913

0.8081669

0.8081669

0.2480143

0.2480143

----

----

0202

0202

0303

Dielectric constants:

2.55

1.15

i

0i

4 Layers for CP

Metal

Dielectric

Spacer

Layer

Sheet

Application of PSO ALGORITHM to Optimize a

Meander-line Polarizer for LP rotation

Intialization parameters used for PSO:

wMax=0.41

wMin=0.4

(Note:The inertial weight ,w is linearly decreased from wMax to wMin

according the Eq. (2), w is chosen virtually constant in this case for better

local search near the Sun’s Optimized parameters.)

c

1 =c 2 =1.3

maxIter=1000

The above parameters are used in conjuction with eqs.

(1) & (2)

Swarm size/Population size used for solution search : 25

Application of PSO ALGORITHM to Optimize a

Meander-line Polarizer for LP rotation

Frequency band of interest: 3.5 to 6.5 (GHz)

(evaluated at 12 frequency points)

Desired VSWR <= 1.2

Phase Difference around 180°

Total number of fitness evaluations: 50025

The following slides include the results for the broadband case.

Mean best & Best fitness over 15 runs

VSWR

Axial Ratio (dB)

Phase Difference

Optimized dimensions for 8-layer

Meander Line Polarizer

Pitch

Pitch

Period

Period

Height

Height

Line

Line Width

Width

Spacer

Spacer

dielectric

dielectric

Layer

Layer

(inches)

(inches)

(inches)

(inches)

(inches)

(inches)

(inches)

(inches)

(inches)

(inches)

(inches)

(inches)

aa

bb

hh

ll ii

ww 11

ww 22

ll oi oi

2.8606838E-

2.8606838E-

3.0709708E-

3.0709708E-

2.1623570E-

2.1623570E-

1,

1, 55

0.3631878

0.3631878

1.020600

1.020600

0.2148045

0.2148045

0.4550797

0.4550797

0202

0202

0202

4.1542474E-

4.1542474E-

3.4942929E-

3.4942929E-

4.0660784E-

4.0660784E-

2,

2, 66

0.3848170

0.3848170

0.8225765

0.8225765

0.4374999

0.4374999

0.3959468

0.3959468

0202

0202

0202

4.1542474E-

4.1542474E-

3.4942929E-

3.4942929E-

4.0660784E-

4.0660784E-

3,

3, 77

0.3848170

0.3848170

0.8225765

0.8225765

0.4374999

0.4374999

0.4550797

0.4550797

0202

0202

0202

2.8606838E-

2.8606838E-

3.0709708E-

3.0709708E-

2.1623570E-

2.1623570E-

4,

4, 88

0.3631878

0.3631878

1.020600

1.020600

0.2148045

0.2148045

----

----

0202

0202

0202

1.15

Dielectric constants:

2.55

i

0i

8 Layers for LP

Metal

Dielectric

Spacer

Layer

Sheet

Application of PSO ALGORITHM to Optimize a

Meander-line Polarizer for LP rotation

Frequency bands of interest:

Band1: 3.7 to 4.2 (GHz)

Band2: 5.9 to 6.4 (GHz)

(evaluated at 2 frequency points: 3.95 (GHz), 6.15 (GHz))

Desired VSWR <= 1.2

Phase Difference around 180°

Total number of fitness evaluations: 50025

The following slides include the results for the dualband case.

Mean best & Best fitness over 15 runs

VSWR

Axial Ratio (dB)

Phase Difference

Optimized dimensions for 8-layer

Meander Line Polarizer

Pitch

Pitch

Period

Period

Height

Height

Line

Line Width

Width

Spacer

Spacer

dielectric

dielectric

Layer

Layer

(inches)

(inches)

(inches)

(inches)

(inches)

(inches)

(inches)

(inches)

(inches)

(inches)

(inches)

(inches)

aa

bb

hh

ll ii

ww 11

ww 22

ll oi oi

3.3202391E-

3.3202391E-

3.2010745E-

3.2010745E-

2.2299249E-

2.2299249E-

1,

1, 55

0.3150869

0.3150869

1.055596

1.055596

0.2747569

0.2747569

0.3544725

0.3544725

0202

0202

0202

6.0811251E-

6.0811251E-

3.1127717E-

3.1127717E-

2,

2, 66

0.4085801

0.4085801

1.164576

1.164576

0.3565608

0.3565608

0.1126298

0.1126298

0.3159389

0.3159389

0202

0202

6.0811251E-

6.0811251E-

3.1127717E-

3.1127717E-

3,

3, 77

0.4085801

0.4085801

1.164576

1.164576

0.3565608

0.3565608

0.1126298

0.1126298

0.3544725

0.3544725

0202

0202

3.3202391E-

3.3202391E-

3.2010745E-

3.2010745E-

2.2299249E-

2.2299249E-

4,

4, 88

0.3150869

0.3150869

1.055596

1.055596

0.2747569

0.2747569

----

----

0202

0202

0202

2.55

1.15

Dielectric constants:

i

0i

8 Layers for LP

Metal

Dielectric

Spacer

Layer

Sheet

END

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