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TERRAGRIFFIN

S
INDIAN INSTITUTE
OF
TECHNOLOGY PATNA

TEAM ID: 16074


OLD TEAM ID :
15127
CAR NO : 45

ENDURANCE SCORE
:0
TOTAL SCORE :

LESSONS
LEARNT
LESSONS

RECTIFICATION
(THIS YEAR)

(FROM LAST YEAR)


Roll cage - oversized

Lots of space in the cockpit reduced


Total length and width of vehicle reduced
Unnecessary spaces in the nose and behind
firewall reduced

Vehicle too heavy

Weight of roll cage reduced from 80 Kg to 40


Kg
Knuckles, Brake Assembly were redesigned to
reduce weight

Turning radius not sufficient

Wheel Base and Track Width reduced


Turning radius improved

Weight reduced by 62 %
Front

Rear

660 grams

780 grams

Old

Proposed

LESSONS

LESSONS
LEARNT

RECTIFICATION
(THIS YEAR)

(FROM LAST YEAR)


Excess Traction
Excessive weight of spring

Stiffer and non-adjustable spring


rates

Excess Vibration

Performance

Electrical Changes

Tire size reduced


Tread width reduced
Fox Float 2s used in place of coil-over
spring shock
Fox Float 2s provides adjustable Spring
rates
Variable damping ratio
Easily adjustable using hand air pump with
a dial gauge
Anti- Vibration Thick Pads Engine
Mounting
Bushes with Metal Stiffener inside

CVT introduced
Automatic Gear change
Optimum engine performance
Easy Handling

RPM , Temperature Indicators


Real time ARDUINO based Monitoring

PARAMETER

OLD v/s
PROPOSED

OLD

PROPOSED

Kerb Weight

360 kg

191 kg

FAW / RAW

40:60

43:57

Track Width / Wheel Base

54" / 70"

46"/ 60"

Overall Width/ Length

64"/ 94"

54" / 82"

Double Wishbone
Double Wishbone

Double Wishbone
Trailing Arm

Height of C.G.

22"

23"

Ground Clearance

12.5"

12"

Transmission

Direct Coupling

CVT

Max Speed

59.37 km/hr

60 km/hr

Max Acceleration

5.21 m/s2

8.17 m/s2

Gradability %

53.16 %

69 %

Min. Turning Radius

3.042 m

2.85 m

Suspension

Coil Spring

Fox Shox Model

Tyre

24"x10"x12"

22"x8"x10"

Front :
Suspension
Rear :

ROLL CAGE &


ERGONOMICS
FRAME

MATERIAL
TUBINGS
Wall
Thickness
OD

Ergonomic Seating Position

AISI 4130
(Chromoly
)
0.065 in
1.25 in

Length

72.14 in

Height

50 in

Width

32.51 in

No. of Welds

40

Total Weight

40 kg

Reach Envelope

Body Panels Material


Material

Yield Strength

ABS
Plastic
Sheet

42.5 - 44.8
MPa

Bracket

Visibility

CAE PROCESS
FRONT
IMPACT(25000N)

MATERIAL

ROLL OVER(16000N)

AISI
4130

AISI
1018

Yield
strength

460 MPa

370 MPa

Poison ratio

0.29

0.27

Tensile
strength

560 MPa

440 MPa

%Elongation

21.5%

15%

Density

7850
kg/m3

7870
kg/m3

Composition

0.3% C

0.2% C

Weldability

Post Heat
Stress

Low
Carbon

Front/Rear/Side
Impact

Rollove
r

Crash
velocity

60Km/hr

10 ft

Impact
Time

0.20 s

0.1 s

SIDE
IMPACT(25000N)

MESH (Beam 188)


Mesh(Eleme
nts)

Max Stress

Coarse (431)

289 MPa

Medium
(1073)

323 Mpa

Force
Fine(1585)
25000 N 16000N
Applied
LOAD CASE
FORCE
STRES F.O.
S
S.

330 MPa
DEFORMATI
ON

FRONT CRASH

25000 N

148
MPa

3.11

2.6mm

SIDE CRASH

25000 N

358
MPa

1.28

7.74mm

SUSPENSION
PARAMETERS

FRONT

REAR

Suspension
Type

Double
Wishbone

Trailing Arm

Natural
Frequency

1.7 Hz

1.95 Hz

Motion Ratio

0.7

0.7

Spring
Stiffness

17.5 N/mm

27.5 N/mm

Ride Rate

8.6 N/mm

13.5 N/mm

Damping Ratio

0.45

0.45

Wheel Travel

203 mm

114 mm

Suspension
Travel

142 mm

80 mm

Sprung Mass : 259


Un-Sprung Mass : 45
kg
kg
Suspension : Fox Float 2 (Adjustable Air
Spring)

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

FRONT

Roll Center
- 54.6 mm
PARAMETERS
Roll Rate
102.6
Nm/deg.
King Pin inclination

Zero
VALUES
161
Nm/deg.
5

A -Castor
Arms angle10.75" U / 11"
5 17"
L
Scrub radius
54.6mm
Static Camber

-1

Toe-in

0.25"

FOS : 3.21

FOS : 2.85

REAR

FOS : 2.67

FOS :
2.08

Camber Change : -3.5 to Negligible


3
Camber Chan

BRAKES
PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS :
Bias Ratio (Front: Rear).
2
PROBLEMS
1.Bleeding
2.Unbalanc
ed
Circuit

RAKING CIRCUIT :
PART
SPECIFICATION
S

Total Braking force

3240.09
N

Maximum Deceleration

10.80
m/s2

Min. Stopping Distance

10.79 m

Perception Distance

15.79 m

Max. Dynamic Wt. on Front


Axle
CALCULATIONS :
DIMENSION BRAKE
Min. Dynamic Wt. on Rear
Max. Pedal
Axle
Force(During Panic
0.75" X 0.94"
Piston Ratio
Breaking)

2365.23
N
577.76 N
400 N

Master
Cylinder

N/A

Disc

Aviator

190mm/130mm

Wt. Transfer(40Kmph0Kmph)

40.36%

Calipers

CBZ Xtreme
-Right
Suzuki GS Left

Piston dia.
26mm (2 nos.)

Static Rolling Radius

268.22 mm

Friction Coeff. (Road)

0.65

Mean Braking
Rad.

81mm

Area

617.7 in2

Caliper pad

Braking Torque(One
Wheel)

3.75:1

301.76 Nm
(Front)
150.88 Nm
(Rear)

STEERING & WHEEL


GEOMETRY
STEERING GEOMETRY
( Rack & Pinion System ) (Centrally
Driven)
Ackerman
Steering Arm Length
Ackermann Angle
Extreme Turning Angle
Minimum Turning Radius
IBJ / OBJ From Center
Rack Length
Rack Travel -Full
Rack &
Pinion
Turns Full
C-Factor

Tie Rod
Steering
Wheel

Length
Material used
4130
OD : 0.625
Diameter
Max Turn Angle

100%
4.46"
20.67
Inside
37"
Outside 26.17"
2.85m
7.5"/19.01"
15"
98mm

Bump Steer eliminated via


simulation on ADAMS

Critical Speed : 85.31


Km/Hr

Oversteer
Behavior

3.27 rev.
29.97 mm/
rev.
11.52"
:
AISI
Wall: 0.035"
10"
588.6

WHEEL
Kings KT 102
Traction
Dimension:
22"x8"x10"

10

POWER TRAIN
Engine Specification
Engine
Number

20S232 0036

Power
(3800Rp
m)

10.5 Hp

Transmission
Specification

Power Train Layout

Torque
19.66 N-m
(2600Rp
Mounted on MS plate
m) anti vibration
using

rubber pads
Acceleratio
8.17 m/s2
n

CVT ratio

0.43:1 3:1

Output ratio

7.74 54

Tire
Dimension
(in)

22"x8"x10"

Drive axle
angle(static)

14.89

Vehicle
Mass

304 kg

Acceleration
m/s2

Acceleration
m/s2

Gear ratio

Grad69%
ability %At velocity of 7km/h

Grad-ability

Velocity km/hr

Velocity

17
11

WEIGHT
& COST
COST
& WEIGHT
Weight : OLD

Weight : PROPOSED
Unsprung*; 15%

Unsprung*; 17%
Rider; 32%

Rider; 37%

Chassis; 13%

Ergonomics; 3%
Chassis; 25%

Electrical System; 3%

Engine; 7%

Steering; 4%

Fuel Tank; 1% Transmission; 8%

Total Weight = 360


kg

Cost : OLD

Miscellaneous; 9%
Safety; 20%
Electrical System; 4%
Steering; 4%
Wheels; 13%

Chassis; 14%
Suspension; 11%

Engine; 13%
Transmission; 9%
Brakes; 3%

Total Cost =

Ergonomics; 3%

Engine; 8%
Transmission; 13%
Steering; 5% Fuel Tank; 2%

Electrical System; 3%

Total Weight = 304


kg

Cost : PROPOSED

Miscellaneous; 8%
Safety; 11%
Chassis; 11%
Electrical System; 4%
Suspension; 10%
Steering; 4%
Engine; 12%
Wheels; 10%
Brakes; 10% Transmission; 21%

Total Cost =

12

PROJECT
PLANNING
-Gantt Chart

13

VALIDATION
PLAN
DFMEA
Item
Name

Failure
Mode

Failure
Cause

Frame

Structura
l/Safety

Engine

Mechanic
al

A-arms

Mechanic
al

High
load/Shock
Dirty air &
fuel,
Spark Plug
Shock/
Impact load

Tie Rod

Wheels

Mechanic Damaged by
al
debris
Safety

Test

Operation
Effect/Hazards
Frame Bends
Explosion
Possible, Engine
stop
Suspension
compromised
Inability to steer

Safety
Effects/H
azards
Risk to
Driver

Safeguards

Actions

High Factor of
Safety

Strain Gauge

Serious
Injury

Optimized
Position

Regular Air
Filter
& Spark plug

Serious
Injury

High factor of
safety

Strain Gauge

Serious
Injury

Optimized
position

Diligent
Testing

Inappropriat
Risk to Plan Correct air
Precautionary
Design Validation
e
Tire burst/deflate
driver
pressure
check
Parameter/constraint
Implementation
air pressure

Welding Test

Strength of welded materials must be


enough to withstand the rough terrain
conditions.

Universal Testing Machine

Tilt test

Fuel must not spill at 45 tilt of the vehicle.

Giving the vehicle a tilt of 45 by


means of a sloping surface

Straight line
stability

Should move in a straight line when


steering is at neutral position.

Driving the car in neutral


steering
position.

14

TEAM STRUCTURE /
COLLEGE FACILITIES
Departme
nts
Chassis

Steerin
g

Brakes
and Tires

Abhishek
Rathore
Om Prakash
Sahu
Ram
Agarwal(VC)
Kunal Kanoi

P Rahul
Palani
Pranay
Prakash
(C)
Sai
Manish

Vitthal
Pandey
Gaurav
Garg
Prashant
Luhana

Transmis
Karan
sion
Jakhar
Anant
Arya
Alok
Kumar
Shefali
Das
Amit
Pratap
Machining

Suspensi
on
Anpeksh
Saksena
Nitesh
Kumar
Sourabh
Jain
Ravi Anand
Jatin Kalra

Engin
e and
Exha
ust

Electri
cal

Saurabh
Gupta
Kushagra
Jain
Vishal
Singh

Piyush
Bhandar
i
Ayushi
Priyam

Manufacturing

Universal Milling

Wire EDM

Conventional
Lathe

3D Printing

Grinding Machine

CNC Lathe &


Milling

Pipe Bending
Machine

Welding-Arc,
Mig,Tig

Drilling Machine

Testing
Machines
Universal
Testing
Machine
Hardness
Testing
machine

Dr. Somnath Roy (This Year)


Faculty
Advisor
:
Faculty AdviserAkhilendra Singh
Dr. Akhilendra Singh (Last Year)