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Study of a Novel ADM Algorithm

with Pre-processing for


Performance Improvement
by
B.K.Sujatha
M.S. Ramaiah Institute of Technology, Bangalore
Guide: Co-Guide:
Prof. Dr. P.S. Satyanarayana
Prof.Dr. K. N. Haribhat
The Head, Dept of Electronics &Comm Engg The Head, Dept of Telecomm
Engg
B.M. Sreenivasaih College of Engineering Nagarjuna College of Engg and
Tech
Bangalore Bangalore

Topics
SPEECH CODING
DISCRIPTION OF EACH CODING TECHNIQUE
ADAPTIVE DELTA MODULATION
PRE-PROCESSING
STEP SIZE ALGORITHM
EXISTING STEP SIZE ALGORITHMS
SONG ALGORITHM
MODIFIED ABATE ALGORITHM
PROPOSED ALGORITHM
CONCLUSION
BIBLIOGRAPHY

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF DIGITAL


COMMUNICATION
ADVANTAGES:
Less distortion in the received signal.
Simple and less expensive digital circuitry.
Possibility of processing digital signals.
Better received speech quality.
Possibility of transmission of voice,video,data all in digital
form.
Possibility of correction of medium errors.
Encryption/decryption for message security.
DIS-ADVANTAGES:
Increased bandwidth.
Synchronization requirement

SPEECH CODING
Conversion of analog speech signals into
digital form
Types of speech coding:

Pulse Code Modulation


Differential Pulse Code Modulation(DPCM)
Delta Modulation(DM)
Adaptive Delta Modulation(ADM)

PULSE CODE MODULATION


Steps involved in PCM :
Sampling
Quantizing
Encoding n = log2L

Bandwidth of PCM depends on bit rate, R = nfs


For no aliasing,
fs >= 2 fm
BPCM >= R = nfs

DIFFERENTIAL PULSE
CODE MODULATION
To minimize redundant transmission
To reduce the bandwidth in comparison

with PCM

DELTA MODULATION

ONE BIT OR TWO LEVEL VERSION OF DPCM:


This one-bit codeword eliminates the need for' word
framing at the transmitter & receiver & makes DM
systems very attractive for many classes of digital
communications.
NOISE IN DM :
Smaller step size causes slope overload
distortion.
Larger step size causes granular noise.

DM WAVEFORMS

LIMITATIONS OF DM
Slope overload (positive)

Max slope
overload
m(t)
^
stair case approximate m(t)

LIMITATIONS OF DM
(contd..)
Slope overload (negative)

m(t)
^
m(t)

Negative slope overload

LIMITATIONS OF DM
(contd..)
Granular noise
(slow varying signal)

^
m(t)
m(t)

ADAPTIVE DELTA MODULATION


Improved version of DM by making the step

size of the modulator assume a time


varying form.
Here the step size is adapted to the level of

the input signal

ADM WAVEFORMS

Sample speech signal


The

sample speech waveform in the


illustration is taken from the speech sound i i
i i i which is shown in Figure. It is one of the
waveforms used repeatedly in the simulation
that is about 5s long.

Pre-Processing
A methodology for further improving the ADM

performance by pre-processing the speech


signal prior to the adaptation is presented.
The large variations in the speech are
removed/smoothened by a suitable preprocessing method, one of which is using an
integrator which can smoothen the rapid
changes.
At the receiver, the differentiator is followed
by a low pass filter(LPF).

PRE-PROCESSING OF MESSAGE SIGNAL


m(t)
m(t)
(1)
(1)

(2)
(2)

(1)Slope
overload
distorti
(1)Slope overload
distortion
region
n region (2)Granu
(2)Granular noise
m(t)dt smoothes out m(t) , rapid changes may disappear.
t

Frequency response of Pre-Processor


(Integrator) at the transmitter

Frequency response of the


Differentiator at the receiver

The block diagram of Conventional ADM

ENCODER

DECODER

The block diagram of proposed ADM

ENCODER

DECODER

STEP-SIZE ALGORITHM:
In the step-size algorithm, the processor detects the

pattern of e(t) where

^
e(t) = sgn [m(t)-m(t)]
To see if the delta modulator is operating in the
quantization region, in which case e(t) produces an
alternating 1010 pattern, or in the slope overload
region in which case e(t) produces an all 1s or all 0s
pattern. These cases are illustrated as shown.
If ADM senses a 1010 pattern, it decreases the step size,
and if it senses 1111 or 0000, it increases the step
size . The manner in which the step size is altered
determines the algorithm.

Linear delta modulation and the bit


pattern produced for each region
m(t)
^

m(t)

t
e(k)

1 01 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1

EXISTING STEP SIZE


ADAPTATIONS
SONG ALGORITHM
Here, we see that as long as e(k) is of the same sign

as e(k-1), the magnitude of the new step size s(k+1)


will exceed the magnitude of the old step size s(k) by
so, the min step size.
However, if e(k) and e(k-1) differ in sign , the
magnitude of s(k+1) will be less than the magnitude
of s(k) by the amount so.

The equation describing the song algorithm is


given by
s(k)+ so,

e(k) = e(k-1)

s(k) - so ,

e(k) e(k-1)

|s(k+1)|=

MODIFIED ABATE ALGORITHM


The need to maintain voice communications

as long as possible was a key factor in the


selection of the modified abate algorithm.
The equation describing modified abate
algorithm is
[|S(k)| + So] e(k); e(k)=e(k-1)
and S(k) < 8So
S(k+1)=
|S(k)| e(k); e(k)=e(k-1)
and S(k) = 8So
So e(k);
otherwise

The Proposed step-size


adaptation
The new proposed technique for the step-size adaptation is

described as

S(k+1)=

[|S(k)|+S0]e(k);

e(k)=e(k-1)

[|S(k)|-S0]e(k);

e(k)e(k-1)
and | S(k)|> S0
e(k)e(k-1)
and | S(k)|< S0

S0e(k) );

is the adaptation parameter, nearly equal to 1 but, greater than 1.


1/()

The Proposed step-size


adaptation (cont)
This adaptation parameter gives a

better performance to slope overload


The parameter takes care of the
granular noise as a result of which a
better performance is obtained as
compared to SONG and modified ABATE
algorithms.
Where is taken as 1.1 and S0 as equal to
0.1.

SIMULATION
SNR CALCULATION

{Xn }

samples of original signal (speech signal)

{Xn }

samples of final reconstructed signal

(Xn - Xn ) error signal

^ ) squared error signal

(Xn -X

where N is the total sample number of the input.


OR

(a)

(b)

(a) Performance Comparison of the proposed step-size adaptation


algorithm with the SONG and the modified ABATE algorithms.
(b) (b) the same plot of figure.(a) is shown but the input strength is
displayed for -7db to -1db.

(b)
(a)Performance Comparison of the proposed ADM with the SONG,
modified ABATE and the proposed algorithms.
(b) the same plot of figure.(a) is shown but the input strength is
displayed for -7db to -1db.

(a)

CONCLUSION
Simulations are carried out for all the schemes. S 0 is

taken as 0.1 and Simulations have also confirmed that


with the input strength for -7db to -1db on an average a
1.1dB performance gain in the SNR is got for the new
step-size adaptation algorithm compared to the SONG
and a 1.5dB performance gain compared to the modified
ABATE algorithm.
Next, with the proposed methodology(pre-processing)
and with the same input strength, on an average there is
1.4dB performance improvement in the SNR for the new
step-size adaptation algorithm as compared to the SONG
and a 1.7dB compared to the modified ABATE algorithm.

References
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