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Alcohol

Lets Recall
Homologous Functional
Formula
Series
Group

Alkane

Alkyl

RH

Alkene

Alkenyl

R2C=CR2

General Formula
(m0, n1)

Suffix

Example

Lets Recall
Homologous Functional
Formula
Series
Group

General Formula
(m0, n1)

Suffix

Example

Alkane

Alkyl

RH

CnH2n+2

-ane

Ethane

Alkene

Alkenyl

R2C=CR2

CnH2n

-ene

Ethene

Lesson objectives
1. Describe the alcohols as a homologous series
containing the OH group.
2. Draw the structures of alcohol, C1 to C5, and name
the unbranched alcohols, methanol to butanol
3. Describe the properties of alcohols in terms of
combustion and oxidation to carboxylic acids
4. Describe the formation of ethanol by the fermentation
of glucose

What are Alcohols?


Belong

to a homologous series of organic


compounds similar to alkanes and alkenes.

The

hydrocarbon chains contain the


functional group -OH (hydroxyl group)
Structural Formula

Chemical Formula
C2H5OH (molecular formula)

OH

or
CH3CH2OH

(condensed structural formula)

Naming the Alcohol


OH

OH

OH

Methanol

Ethanol

Propanol

Total of one
carbon atom
(meth-)
CH3OH

Total of two
carbons atoms
(eth-)
CH3CH2OH

Total of three
carbon atoms
(propan-)
C2H5CH2OH

*Take note of the functional groups location, highlighted by the


dotted box

Naming Alcohol
Replace

the e with anol at the end of


the name of the hydrocarbon

Example:

H H
ethane

H
H

C
H

H
O
I

I
H

ethananol

Naming the Alcohol


No. of carbon Name of Alcohol
atoms

Methanol

Molecular
Formula

CH3OH

OH

Ethanol

CH3CH2OH

C2H5OH

OH

Propanol

CH3(CH2)CH2OH

C3H7OH
OH

Butanol

C4H9OH
OH

Pentanol

C5H11OH

Condensed
Structural Formula

CH3OH

OH

Structural Formula

CH3(CH2)2CH2OH

CH3(CH2)3CH2OH

Naming the Alcohol

The names of alcohol end with anol.

Alcohol are a homologous series


with
the
general
formula
CnHn+1OH, where n is the number of
carbon atoms in a molecule.
The simplest alcohol is methanol,
with one carbon atom.

Physical Properties of ALcohols


State at r.t.p.*

Name

Molecular formula

Solubility In Water

Methanol

CH3OH

Very Soluble

Liquid

Ethananol

C2H5OH

Soluble

Liquid

Propananol

C3H7OH

Soluble

Liquid

Butananol

C4H9OH

Slightly soluble

Liquid

(solid/liquid/gas)

Physical Properties of
Alcohols
Alcohols are soluble in water
but

their solubility decreases as their


molecular size increases.

Unlike

the alkanes and alkenes, the first four


alcohols are liquid at room temperature and
pressure.

Although

alcohols contain the OH group, they


are not alkalis. In fact, they are all neutral.

Chemical Properties of
Alcohols
Alcohols

can take part in these

Combustion and
Oxidation

reactions:

Combustion
An alcohol burns in air to produce
carbon dioxide and water vapour.
ethanol + oxygen carbon dioxide + water vapour
C2H5OH + 3O2 2CO2 + 3H2O

C2H5OH + 3O2 2CO2 + 3H2O

Combustion
Flame

produced is clean

Combustion

of alcohols are useful because:

1. Methanol is less likely than conventional fuel


to explode in an accident.
It is a clean fuel.
2. When alcohol beverage is burnt with food, it
gives a distinct flavour.

Oxidation
We can oxidise an alcohol (for example,
ethanol) by warming it with acidified potassium
dichromate(VI).
Experimental setup:
(ethanol)
C2H5OH
+ acidified K2Cr2O7

cold
water
heat

CH3COOH
(ethanoic acid)

Oxidation
Chemical

equation:

+ 2 [O]

Ethanol

Ethanoic
acid

H 2O

Oxidation

The colour of potassium dichromate(VI) changes


from orange to green.

Oxidation of alcohol is used in:

Breathalyzer to test the amount of alcohol


consumed by drivers.

Formation of ethanol
Ethanol can be manufactured from:
1. hydration of ethene
2. fermentation of carbohydrates

Formation of ethanol
- Hydration of ethene
Ethanol is manufactured by the catalytic
addition of steam to ethene.
Conditions:
phosphoric(V) acid at 300 C and 60 atm.
Phosphoric(V) acid (H3PO4) acts as a catalyst.

CH2 = CH2(g) + H2O(g) CH3CH2OH (g)

Formation of ethanol
-Fermentation of carbohydrates
Fermentation is a chemical process in
which microorganisms such as yeast act on
carbohydrates to produce ethanol and
carbon dioxide.

Formation of ethanol
-Fermentation of carbohydrates
Instructions:
In your own groups of four, set up an experiment
according to the experimental set up (A, B, C or
D) which you can find on the last page of your
worksheet.
Each group will only be allocated to one of the
four set ups.

Formation of ethanol
-Fermentation of carbohydrates
Instructions:
Record your observations under the observations
column after one week and upload your
observations onto the class blog according to
your allocated set up.
Your group is suppose to complete a series of
questions pertaining to the experiment and hand
in one set of answers per group two weeks later.
(You can find the questions on the class blog).

Uses of Ethanol?
solvents for paints,
varnishes, perfumes

alcoholic
drinks

oxidation
ethanol

fuel for vehicles

making ethanoic acid for


preserving food and making
esters

Concept map construction


In your groups of four
construct a concept map on the concepts that you
have learnt today
present your concept maps at the end of 5 minutes.
(Use the space in your worksheet to construct your
concept map and make sure that it would be visible
on the visualiser).

How it all ties up

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