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THE SEVEN CLASSES

OF WASTE

What is Waste?
S

Value for Whom?

Find and Eliminate Waste.

#1 Excess Production

Examples:________________________
____________________________
Excess production hides problems
and creates:

Extra inventory, handling, equipment usage,


space, quality problem issues, etc.

Production should be determined by


the customer, not false targets
such as utilization.

#2 Waiting or Watching

Causes:

Waiting for Materials


Waiting for Equipment/Tools
Waiting for Repairs/Service
Waiting for Large Lots to Finish
Watching Unreliable Processes
Watching for Problems

Effects Wastes Time

#3 Conveyance or
Transportation
Causes:
Poor

Layouts (Long distances

between process operations)

Large

Production Lots
Batch Processes
Poor Scheduling
Effects

Wastes Time

#4 Processing Itself
Causes:
Poorly

Maintained Equipment
Improper/ Poor Tooling
Excess Checking/Stopping
Improper Materials
Errors in Processing/Setup
Poor/no Work Instructions

Effects

Wastes Time

#5 Inventory

Causes:

Long Setups
Large Batch Sizes
Mindset of Comfort
Reliance on MRP to reorder
Batch Processing

Effects Wastes Time & Hides


Real Problems (quality, scheduling,
suppliers, maintenance, attendance, etc.)

#6 Motion
Causes:
Poor

Layouts & Facilities


Poor Work Place Designs
Lost: Items/Searching
Lack of Needed Tooling &
Equipment

Effects

Wastes Time

#7 Producing Failures

Causes:

Poor Training
Poor Manufacturing Instructions
Poor Equipment & Tooling
Poor Materials
________________________________

Effects Wastes Time

How to Identify and


Target Waste with Kaizen
You cant eliminate
what you dont see.

PROCESS MODEL
Add Value?
Supplier
Internal or
External

Work
Station
Process

Customer
Internal or
External

CUSTOMER FOCUS
EACH PROCESS HAS ITS OWN
SUPPLIER AND CUSTOMER.

Ultimate or external customer.


Immediate or internal customer.

Define and understand your customers


needs and expectations.

WHO ARE YOUR


CUSTOMERS?
WHO ARE YOUR ULTIMATE CUSTOMERS?
WHO ARE YOUR IMMEDIATE
CUSTOMERS:
WHAT ARE YOUR
CUSTOMERS NEEDS, REQUIREMENTS,
AND EXPECTATIONS:

MANAGING UPSTREAM
Effective process focus requires you to go
back to the previous process to seek out
a problems causes.
Improvement requires that we always be
aware of what comes from the previous
process. (Supplier).

Defining Process Flow


Define and understand your processes to
identify and eliminate waste.
Use Visual process mapping/charting
techniques:

Process Charts for Products


Flow Charts for Systems
Functional Deployment Map for Actions and
Functions
Value Stream Maps (VSM) for Materials and
Information

PROCESS CHARTS
Aid in:
Visualizing and understanding the process
Identifying specific operations for improvement
Understanding effects of changes in one step on others
Purposes:
Reduce operator/material movement
Order activities properly
Balance work of operator and machine
eliminate unnecessary idle time and all forms of waste

I. Process Chart
*details all work done by or on one product
Symbol

Action Classification

Predominant Result

Operation

Produces or Accomplishes

Transportation

Moves

Inspection

Verifies

Delay

Interferes

Storage

Keeps

Casting

Sheet Steel
4 Tons
0-4

3 Tons
0-1

Turn

9 Tons

3.3 Tons
0-5

Blank

Turnings
Drill 0.3 Tons

0-2

Offal
Form 1 Ton

9 Tons
3 Tons

Turnings
0.3 Tons

0-3

Storage

Trim
Scrap
7 Tons
2 Tons
10.5 Tons

Bolts
0-6

Assemble/
Inspect

Operation Process Chart showing intensity of material flow and the out-flow of chips and scrap (Muther, R. Systematic Layout
Planning. CBI Publishing Company, Inc., Boston, 1973).

A.
Horizontal line indicates material feeding
into process

Vertical line indicates steps of process


arranged in chronological sequence

B. Horizontal lines give way when lines cross

Process sequence line

Material in-feed line

C. Typical process diagram


Symbol and Number
Time/Place
0.0240

Description
4

Paint

Test

D. Assembly work charting starts in upper right corner of


sheet with largest component or one having most
operations.

Purchased item
or material

E. Alternate routings shown by split and rejoined lines


1
3
2
4
5

F. Material returned for rework

G. Material flow with yield, loss or scrap


98 tons/day
4

14
1

Scrap

H. Complex charts aided by arrows, curved corners

2
7

PROBLEM SOLVING
ATTITUDE
Analyze the chart using the Questioning Attitude: Does
the activity add value for the customer?
IF NOT
Determine how can activities be:
Eliminated?
Simplified?
Changed in sequence?
Combined?
Standardized?

FLOWCHARTS
A flowchart is a pictorial representation of a logical decision process, which identifies
all of the major steps and decision points involved in progressing from the beginning
to the end.
Begin

Step 1

No

Decision 1

Yes

End

Step 2

Etc.
Flowcharts provide a global overview of a procedure
clearly identifying how each step is related to the others
in order to accomplish a particular objective.

FLOWCHART USE

To better understand and agree on what the process


is in terms of actions and decision points

To determine how the process currently works

To determine how the process should work

To identify waste and opportunities for


improvement

FLOWCHART USE Continued


To check if the procedure as written flows and
terminates in a logical sequence, ensuring that all steps
are considered and not left dangling.
To document procedures
(Common with ISO/QS 9000)
To facilitate new employee training

FLOWCHART SYMBOLS
Activity
or
Task
No
False
Reject
Fail

Depict time consuming steps in


a process. Examples: Inspect a
product, machine a part, record
the results, etc.

Depict questions/checks and


show alternative outcomes
depending on the result.
Decision
Examples: Is the part
Yes
nonconforming? If yes, do one
True
Accept thing. If no, do another.
Pass

FLOWCHART SYMBOLS Continued


Document or Record
(used or generated)

Depict documents used to


perform tasks or records
generated by the activity. Examples:
Work Instructions (in)
Scrap Record (out).

Terminator
(Begin or End)

Depict the beginning or end of


a procedure/process.

FLOWCHART SYMBOLS Continued

Flow

Depict the flow of logic,


decisions, or steps of
documentation.

Depict transfer of flow to a


location or show the identity of
a location.

Customer Issues Resolution Process (CIRP)


Process Map (Flowchart)
February 3, 2003
Start
Determine Budget Authority
Clarify Issue

Customer Issue Reported

GSE management
determines what budget will
be used to pay for work

GSE engineer contacts


customer directly to
clarify the issue,
problem, or concern

customer issue is received


by GSE department leader
either via e-mail, voicemail, or by direct contact

Authorize Work
GSE management
authorizes work to be done

Investigate & Perform


Research
Yes

Should issue be
redirected to another
department?

review CMM's
gather drawings
identify relevant sources
of information
determine scope of issue

GSE Engineer Performs Work

No
Record Issue
initial issue details
are recorded in
Franklin planner

Indentify Cognizant Engineer


GSE management identifies
responsible cognizant
engineer and schedules
transmittal meeting

Report Initial Finding

develop plan
develop schedule
make changes to drawings
write PAR
etc.

Report initial findings to


GSE management

Supply Customer With


Finished Product
Is work covered
under Product Support
Agreement?

provide customer with


finished product materials
and data

Yes

No
Transmittal Meeting

Notify Customer

GSE management
transmits all known
issue information to
cognizant engineer

scope of issue is
outside of product
support agreement

Prepare
Quote?

Yes

End
No

Responsible
Personnel

Task

EOS
Coordinator

Director

Division
Managers

Strategy
Teams

Start process
Distribute employee
survey results
Compare results of three divisions for
the previous three years
Determine the divisions having the best
and worst overall results
Discuss results with all division managers

Form strategy teams

Enough data to make improvement


plans?
Collect additional data

Analyze data and make improvement


plans
Satisfied with analysis and improvement
plans?
Do further analysis and modify
improvement plans

Implement improvement Plans and inform


director

End Process

No

Share Information
Yes

Functional Deployment Map

Value Stream Mapping (VSM)


A graphic tool for describing how material and
information actually move through your process, and
identifying the nonvalue-added activities within the
process.
Used to streamline and drive changes in the process
by removing queuing, movement, delay and other
activities for which a customer is unwilling to pay.
Typically created in two phases: current state and
future state.
Example from Quality Digest March 2006, pg 41-46

Step one: Meeting


Set up a meeting between the management team and
value-stream process owners

State the purpose of the VSM event to map the value


stream as it currently exists and works and gain an accurate
understanding of how the process operates.

Used to quiet any defensiveness on the part of process


owners because the map will probe deeply into their work
life and make visible most of the waste.

Step two: Training


Train

The

the VSM team for two purposes.

First, the team needs to understand the concepts of lead


time, waste, value-added activities and nonvalue-added
activities as they pertain to lean methodologies.
Second, the team must work from a standard set of
definitions and icons when drawing the VSM.

team then assigns two to four of its members to


construct the current-state map.

Step three: Data Collection


Pick

a particular product of the value stream and follow it


through the process if the lead time is less than the number of
days scheduled for the event. (usually 2 days)
Data

on each activity within the value stream should be


collected and can include:

Cycle times
Changeover or setup times
Number of people involved
Quantity of units processed
Quantity of changeovers for a given time period
Downtime
Batch sizes
Number of items waiting

Step four: Map Construction


The current-state map can be constructed after each
activity has been observed and the data have been
collected.

Label each activity in a process box, with the data for that activity
listed below it.
Use arrows to show the flow of the product
Use triangles between the process boxes to depict inventory
levels of work in process before each activity.
Draw icons and arrows opposite the product flow to show
communication flows - they signal upstream activities that will
react to downstream information.

Step four: Map Construction cont.

The current-state map can be constructed.

Draw a saw tooth diagram underneath the value stream to depict


process and lead time. Write the time to process a single unit of product
on the diagrams upper teeth, and the queue time on the lower teeth.

Calculate the process time for the value stream by adding the times
along the upper teeth of the saw tooth diagram.

Calculate the total lead time by adding all the times on the upper teeth
and the lower gaps together.

Calculate the percent of the total lead time represented by the process
time.

Figure 1:

Drivers License Issuance:


Current-State Map

Legend
*C/T = Cycle time
**

Customers begin
arriving at 7 a.m.
for 9 a.m. opening

Customer

**

100 to 200 people

= Inventory

Customers sit
down and wait for
their number to be
called between
each station

3 to 8 people

5 to 10 people

Receive queuing
ticket

Processed for
written exam

*C/T=2 min
500 cust/day
2 examiners

Take test on computer testing station

C/T=6 min
80 cust/day
1 examiner

2 min
90 min

C/T=15 to 60 min
12 computers
Computerized
testing in English
only

6 min
20 min

20 min
0 min

15 min

Figure 1:

Drivers License Issuance:


Current-State Map

Total processing time = 34.5 minutes


Total lead time = 289.5 minutes
Legend
*C/T = Cycle time
**

Customers shuffle
back and forth
through service
center: no flow

= Inventory

5 to 10
people

100 to 200 people

60 to 120 people

3 to 5 people

15 min

Score test and


receive passing
documentation
CT=2 min for
comp
C/T=5 min for
foreign language
1 examiner
40% failure rate

Complete application, sign and


enter in system
C/T=2.5 min
450 cust/day
4 examiners
5% rejected for
lack of
documentation

2 min

2.5 min
75 min

Capture photo and


receive money

Pick up drivers
license

C/T=1.5 min
450 cust/day
2 cameras
4 printers
2 examiners

C/T=.5 min
425 cust/day
2 examiners
5% scrap rate

1.5 min
45 min

.5 min
10 min

Step five: Review


Once the current-state map is completed, call a meeting
of the managers and process owners to review the map
and validate the information.

The data on the map are open for questions, and a consensus
must be reached before going any further.

An 80-percent accuracy level is acceptable if the team struggles


to come to a consensus on any data because prior to completing
the map, no level of accuracy had existed at all.

Step six: Set Targets for Improvement


Use brainstorming to target improvement initiatives to
eliminate and reduce bottlenecks and lead times.

Use

plan.

Use an Affinity Diagram, Interrelationship Digraph, or Tree


Diagram as appropriate.
Avoid developing improvement initiatives that only focus on the
process steps where products are being transformed. Often more
than 95 percent of the time in a value stream is spent performing
activities that dont add value. [Remember, the goal of VSM is to
target these nonvalue-added activities for waste elimination or
reduction.]

an effect/cost approach to prioritize the improvement

Step six: Set Targets . Cont.

The team brainstormed the following improvement initiatives:

A creative staffing plan that allows for extended hours to eliminate a deluge at the
beginning of the day.
Written instructions in multiple languages detailing exactly the forms and
documentation needed for each service a customer may need.
Redesign the application forms for easier understanding and create a desk with
template examples where customers can fill out their own paperwork.
Create online practice exams in multiple languages.
To decrease the failure rate, charge for a second test attempt.
A computer-based testing in multiple languages, eliminating paper and pencil testing
and manual scoring.
One more camera at the photo station to keep up with demand.
A a first-in, first-out line for photos and license receipt to prevent customers from
sitting and returning to the process.
Redesign the layout of service centers to eliminate confusion and create a continuous
flow of customers.
Create a one-stop help desk for customers who have unusual circumstances so they
dont disrupt the flow.

Step seven: Draw the Future-state Map


Data in the future-state map are derived from targets that
will evolve as a result of implementing the improvements.

In most cases, the future-state map will look similar to the


current-state map, with the addition of improved metrics.

If activities in the current-state map can be eliminated or


combined, this should be reflected in fewer process boxes
in the future-state map.

Figure 2:

Drivers License Issuance:


Future-State Map
Customer

Redesign layout for


service centers to
create flow from
beginning to end

Extend service hours


Open at 7:30 a.m.

10 to 20
people

1 to 2 people

Receive queuing
ticket and handout
specific to service
requested

Processed for written


exam

Take test on computer


testing station

C/T=6 min
Self-service

C/T=3 min
80 cust/day
1 examiner

C/T=15 to 60 min
12 computers
Tests offered on
computer in many
languages

6 min

3 min

Fill out appropriate


applications and
forms

C/T=2 min
500 cust/day
2 examiners

10
min

3 to 5
people

2 min
0 min

6 min

20 min
0 min

8
min

Figure 2:

Drivers License Issuance:


Future-State Map

Total processing time = 36.5 minutes


Total lead time = 84.5 minutes

Develop online
practice tests and
charge for tests after
one failure

I
3 to 5
people

10 to 15 people

10 to 15 people

3 to 5 people

Score test and


receive passing
documentation

Sign application and


enter in system

C/T=2 min
1 examiner
<5% failure rate

8
min

Create a help desk for


any customers with
special needs or
problems that cannot be
resolved in a timely
fashion

C/T=1.5 min
450 cust/day
4 examiners
<1% rejected for
lack of
documentation

2 min

Capture photo and


receive money

Fifo Line

1.5 min
6 min

Take test on computer


testing station

C/T=1.5 min
425 cust/day
3 cameras
4 printers
3 examiners

C/T=.5 min
425 cust/day
2 examiners
5% scrap rate

1.5 min
8 min

.5 min
10 min

Step seven: Draw the Future cont.


This future state accomplished two goals of VSM and lean

techniques.

First, the improvement initiative strategy was created with a six-month


time frame and the improvements that were called for were doable in
this time period.

Second, the team focused on improvements that were of little or no


cost. This is a key learning point within lean systems: Avoid significant
investment in capital until the process cant be improved without it.

Clearly there are many more options to further improve the future-state
map.

Step eight: Formalize the Improvement

Establish a detailed implementation plan that includes:

The area where the improvement will occur,


A description of the improvement,
A quantifiable and measurable goal,
The people responsible for the improvement
Targeted start and completion dates.
The sequence of tasks

Set a target thats achievable and measurable.

VSM Comments
VSM is a powerful tool that can help an organization learn how a
process looks from its customers perspective.

The tool can be used to depict the activities within any business
process, from shop floor activities to administrative tasks in the front
office.

VSM will help people from different departments bridge gaps


throughout the organization and begin to appreciate the importance of
their roles in the overall process.

Employees will begin to think differently about the tasks they perform
and develop their own improvement ideas. This is when continuous
improvement becomes a way of life.