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CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS

A Process Review

By
Andreas Chandra

Table Of Content

CLASSIFICATION OF PUMPS
DEFINITION OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMP
IMPORTANT PARAMETERS WHILE SELECTING A PUMP
TYPICAL PUMP CHARACTERISTIC CURVE
STARTING OF PUMPS
CAPACITY REGULATION
MULTIPLE PUMPS INSTALLATION

CLASSIFICATION OF PUMPS
PU M PS
D y n a m ic ( C e n t r ifu g a l)

P o s it iv e D is p la c e m e n t

M e d iu m t o la r g e flo w s
L o w t o m e d iu m p r e s s u r e s
V is c o s it y < 2 0 0 C s t

L o w t o m e d iu m flo w s
P r e s s u r e n o lim it a t io n

H o r iz o n t a l

V e r t ic a l

R o ta ry

R e c ip r o c a t in g

S in g le / T w o S t a g e

Sum p Pum p

S c re w

M e t e r in g

M u lt is t a g e

T u r b in e T y p e

G ear

P is t o n / P lu n g e r

B a rre l P u m p

L iq u id R in g

PUMP SELECTION CHART

DEFINITION OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMP


DYNAMIC PUMP :
The energy is continuously added to the Pumping liquid to
increase the fluid velocities. Subsequently the velocities are
converted into pressures in the Casing and Nozzle area.

PUMP PERFORMANCE CURVES

IMPORTANT PARAMETERS WHILE SELECTING A PUMP

Capacity (min/nor/rated)
Differential head
Suction press (nor / max)
Discharge pressure
NPSHA
Pumping temperature
Vapor pressure, Specific gravity, Viscosity, Congealing temperature
Corrosive / toxic / erosive nature

Differential head required:


Capacity of a pumping installation cannot be determined without an
accurate determination of the head requirements of the system. This is
determined by system head curve. System head curve is the graphical
plot of total static head and friction losses for various flow rates. Static
head is due to elevation or pressure differences.

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Cavitation
NPSHR is the minimum NPSH that must be
available at the pump suction in order to
avoid cavitation. As the liquid passes from
the pump suction to the eye of impeller the
velocity increases and pressure decreases.
Also there are pressure losses due to
shocks and turbulence as the liquid gain
velocity in impeller vanes. Pressure at all
points should be sufficient so as to remain
above the vapor pressure of the liquid. This
is ensured by maintaining required NPSH at
the suction.

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Spesific Gravity :
pumps will generate the same head uninfluenced by the specific gravity of
the liquid.

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Viscosity :
Hydrodynamic losses vary with viscosity. With increase in viscosity, there
is decrease in head generated and efficiency.
Also size of pump has significant effect of losses. Smaller the pump,
greater the effects of viscosity. As physical size of the pump increases,
the maximum viscosity it can handle increases.

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Liquid characteristics:
Pump materials must be compatible with the liquid to the pump.
User has to either specify material to manufacturer or other relevant
information, since liquid ranges from clear to those containing gases,
vapors, solid materials.
Essential information should include temperature, specific, gravity, pH
level, solid content, amount of entrained air, or dissolved gases and
whether liquid is corrosive or not.
For material selection, pump manufacturer must also consider operating
stresses and effects of corrosion, erosion and abrasion.

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TYPICAL PUMP CHARACTERISTIC CURVE

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STARTING OF PUMPS
PRIMING :
The Pump is filled with pumping liquid before starting. When so filled
the pump is said to be primed.

PRIMING IS DONE BY:

By providing a foot valve in the suction line. ( It involves frictional


losses. It may leak enough to prime the pump before each start.
By closing the discharge valve and then release the entrapped air
in the casing by opening the air release plug at the highest point of
the casing.
By providing a priming chamber. A priming chamber has a capacity
enough to fill the Pump. These pumps are called Self Priming
Pumps

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CAPACITY REGULATION
Capacity and power input to Pumps with Specific Speeds up to 2500
( Medium and Low Specific Speeds) increase with decrease in head.
The drivers of such pumps may be over loaded if the head falls
below a safe minimum value.
Increasing the head of high specific speed pumps decrease capacity
but increase the Power input. The drivers of these Pumps should
either be able to meet possible load increase or be equipped with
suitable over load protection

CAPACITY REGULATION BY:

Discharge Throttling
Suction Throttling
Bypass regulation
Speed regulation
Regulation by adjustable guide vanes

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CAPACITY REGULATION BY DISCHARGE THROTTLING:

This method is used to Low Specific Speed Pumps. Partial closing of any
valve increases the system head. System resistance curve moves upwards
and intersects the head curve at lower capacity and some power is lost in
the throttle valve.
Throttling to a point of cut off may cause excessive heating of liquid. This
may require bypass to maintain necessary minimum flow.

CAPACITY REGULATION BY SUCTION THROTTLING:


This method can be used if sufficient NPSH is available. Some power can
be saved by this method.

BYPASS REGULATION:

All or part of the pump capacity is diverted to Pump suction or some other
point through the bypass line. Bypass line contains one or more metering
orifices and suitable control valves.
This method is particularly used for propeller pumps ( High Specific Speed
pumps) for Power saving.

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Head

CAPACITY REGULATION BY DISCHARGE THROTTLING AND BYPASS

Capacity

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CAPACITY REGULATION BY SPEED VARIATION:

Used to minimize the Power requirements and eliminate over heating during
capacity modulation.
Steam Turbines Internal Combustion Engines are readily adaptable with little
extra cost.

CAPACITY REGULATION BY ADJUSTABLE VANES:

These Vanes produce a positive pre whirl, which reduces the Head, Capacity
and Efficiency.
Relatively low regulation is obtained for Pumps with Specific Speed ranging
from 2400 650.
For Propeller Pumps ( High Specific Speed Pumps), wide capacity variations
can be obtained at constant head with relatively little loss in the Efficiency.
These methods are complicated and expensive and probably will have limited
applications in practice.

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MULTIPLE PUMPS INSTALLATION

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MULTIPLE PUMPS INSTALLATION

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REFERENCES
1. Stewart, Maurice, Arnold, Ken, Surface Production Operations Vol.1
Design of Oil-Handling System and Facilities, Butterworth-Heinemann,
1999.
2. GPSA Engineering Data Book 12th ed.
3. Girdhar, Paresh, Moniz, Otto, Practical Centrifugal Pumps Design,
Operation and Maintenance, IDC Technologies, 2005.
4. Lobanoff, Val S., R.R, Robert, Centrifugal Pumps Design and Application,
Butterworth-Heinemann, 1992.

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