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FOUNDATIONS

OF INDIVIDUAL
BEHAVIOR

PEOPLE IN A ORGANIZATION
AS

A STARTING POINT FOR


UNDERSTANDING THE BEHAVIOR
OF PEOPLE IN ORGANIZATIONS WE
FIRST EXAMINE THE BASIC NATURE
OF INDIVIDUAL ORGANIZATION
RELATIONSHIP. UNDERSTANDING
HELPS US APPRECIATE THE NATURE
OF DIFFERENCES

PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACTS
WHENEVER

WE BUY A CAR OR SELL A


HOUSE. BOTH BUYE AND SELLER SIGN A
CONTRACT THAT SPECIFIES THE TERMS
OF THE AGREEMENT WHO PAYS WHAT
WHOM WHEN ITS PAID AND ITS SO
FORTH A PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACTS
RESEMBLES A STANDARD LEGAL
CONTRACTS IN SOME WAYS BUT IS LES
FORMAL AND LESS DEFINED

THE PERSON JOB FIT


ONE

SPECIFIC ASPECT OF MANAGING


PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACTS IS
MANAGEMENT OF THE PERSON JOB FIT.
A GOOD PERSON JOB FIT IS ONE IN
WHICH THE EMPLOYEE CONTRIBUTION
MATCH THE INDUCEMENT THE
ORGANIZTION OFFERS.

INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES
AS

ALREADY NOTED EVERY NDIVIDUAL


IS UNIQUE. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERNCES
ARE PERSONAL ATTRIBUTES THAT VARY
FROM ONE PERSON TO ANOTHER.
INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES MAY BE
PHYSICAL, PSYCHOLOGIAL AND
EMOTIONAL

PERSONALITY AND
ORGANIZATION
PERSONALITY

IS THE RELATIVELY
STABLES SET OF PSYCHOLOGICAL
ATTRIBUTES THAT DISTINGUISH ONE
PERSON FROM ANOTHER A
LONGSTANDING DEBATE AMONG
PSYCHOLOGIST OFTEN EXPRESS AS
NATURE VERSUS NURTURE

THE BIG FIVE PERSONALTY


TRAITS
PSYCHOLOGIST

HAVE IDENTIFIED
LITERALLY THOUSANDS OF
PERSONALITY TRAITS AND DIMENSIONS
THAT DIFFERETIATE OONE PERSON TO
ANOTHER

THE BIG FIVE PESONALITY


FRAMEWORK
AGREEABLENESS REFERS TO A PERSONS ABLITY TO
GET ALONG WITH OTHER
CONSCIENTIOUSNESS -REFERS TO THE NUMBER OF
GOALS ON WHICH PERSON FOCUSES
EXTRAVERSION- REFLECTS A PERSONS COMFORT
LEVEL WITH RELATIONSHIP
OPENNESS- REFLECTS A PERSONS RIGIDITY OF
BELIEFS AND RANGE OF INTEREST
NEUROTISM- CHARACTERIZED A PERSONS TENDENCY
TO EXPERIENCE UNPLEASANT EMOTIONS SUCH AS
ANGER, ANXIETY, FEELINGS OF VULNERABILITY

THE MYERS-BRIGGS
FRAMEWORK
THIS

FRAMEWORK BASED ON THE


CLASSICAL WORK OF CARL JUNG,
DIFFFERENTIATE PEOPLE IN TERMS OF
FOUR GENERAL DIMENSION; SENSING,
INTUITING, JUDGING AND PERCEIVING

EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE
REFERS

TO THE EXTENT TO WHICH


PEOPLE ARE SELF AWARE CAN MANAGE
THEIR EMOTIONS CAN MOTIVATE
THEMSELVES EXPRESS EMPHATHY FOR
OTHERS AND POSSESS SOCIAL SKILLS

VARIOUS DIMENSIONS
SELF AWARENESS- THIS IS THE BASIS FOR THE
OTHER COMPETENT
MANAGING EMOTIONS- THIS REFERS TO A PERSONS
CAPACITIES TO BALANCE ANXIETY FEAR AND ANGER
MOTIVATING ONESELF- THIS DIMENSIONS REES TO
PERSONS ABILITY TO REMAIN OPTIMISTIC
EMPHATY- REFERS TO A PERSON ABILITY TO
UNDERSTAND HOW OTHERS ARE FEELING EVEN
WITHOUT BEING EXPLICITY
SOCIAL SKILLS- THIS REFERS TO A PERSON ABILITY
TO GET ALONG WITH OTHERS

PERSONALTY TRAITS OF
WORK

SELF EFFICACY- IS A RELATED BUT SUBTLY DIFFERENT


PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS
AUTHORITARIANISM- THE EXTENT TO WHICH A PERSON BELIVE
THAT POWER STATUS DIFFERENCES ARE APPROPRIATE WITHIN
HIERARCHICAL SOCIAL SYSTEM
MACHIAVALISM- EXPLAIN HOW NOBILITY COULD MORE EASILY
GAIN AND USE POWER
SELF ESTEEM-IS THE EXTENT TO WHICH PERSON BELIEVES THAT
HE OR SHE IS WORTHWHILE AND DESERVING INDIVIDUAL
LOCUS OF CONTROL- IS THE EXTENT TO WHICH PEOPLE BELIEVE
THAT IF THEY BEHAVIOR HAS AREAL EFFECT ON WHAT HAPPENS
TO THEM
RISK PROPENSITY- DEGREE TO WHICH PERSON IS WILLING TO
TAKE CHANCE

ATTITUDES IN ORGANIZATION
ATTITUDES

ARE COMPLEXES OF BELIEFS


AND FEELINGS THAT PEOPLE HAVE
ABOUT SPECIFIC IDEAS SITUATONS OR
OTHER PEOPLE

HOW ATTITUDES ARE FORMED


ATTITUDES ARE FORMED BY VARIETY OF
FORCES INCLUDING OUR PERSONAL VALUES
OUR EXPERIENCES AND OUR PERSONALITIES
ATTITUDE STRUCTURE- VIEWED AS STABLE
DISPOSITIONS TO BEHAVE TOWARD OBJECTS
IN A CERTAIN WAY
COGNITIVE DISSONANCE- OCCUR WHEN
PEOPLE BEHAVE IN FASHION
ATTITUDE CHANGE- ARE NOT STABLE AS
PERSONALITY ATTRIBUTES

JOB SATISFACTION
JOB

SATISFACTION- REFLECT TO EXTENT


TO WHICH PEOPLE FIND GRATIFICATION
OR FULLFILLMENT IN THEIR WORK

ORGANIZATONAL
COMMITMENT
REFLECTS

AN INDIVIDUALS
IDENTIFICATON WITH ATTACHMENT TO
THE ORGANIZATION. A HIGHLY
COMMITED PERSON WILL PROBABLY SEE
HERSELF AS TRUE MEMBER OF THE
FIRM

PERCEPTION IN ORGANIZATION
PERCEPTION-

THE SET OF PROCESSES


BY WHICH INDIVIDUAL BECOMES AWARE
OF AND INTERPRETS INFORMATION
ABOUT ENVIRONMENT

BASIC PERCEPTUAL
PROCESSES
SELECTIVE

PERCEPTION- IS THE
PROCESS OF SCREENING OUT OF
INFORMATION THAT WE ARE
UNCOMFORTABLE WITH OR THAT
CONTRADICTS OUR BELIEF
STEREOTYPING- IS CATEGORIZING OR
LABELING PEOPLE ON THE BASIS OF A
SNGLE ATTRIBUTE.

PERCEPTION AND
ATTRIBUTION
ATTRIBUTION

THEORY- HAS ETENDED


OUR UNDERSTANDING AFFECTS
BEHAVIOR IN ORGANIZATIONS , THIS
THEORY SUGGESTS THAT WE OBSERVE
BEHAVIOR AND THEN ATTRIBUTES
CAUES TO IT

TYPES OF WORKPLACE
BEHAVIOR
WORKPLACE BEHAVIOR- IS A PATTERN IN
ORGANIZATION THAT DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY
INFLUENCES THE ORGANIZATION
EFFECTIVENESS
PERFORMANCE BEHAVIORS- ARE THE TOTAL
SET OF WORK RELATED BEHAVIORS
DYSFUNCTIONAL BEHAVIORS- ARE THOSE THAT
DETRACT FROM RATHER THAN CONTRIBUTION
TO ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE

ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP
REFERS

TO THE BEHAVIORS OF
INDIVIDUALS WHO MAKE A POSITIVE
OVERALL CONTRIBUTION TO THE
OGANIZATION

END

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