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Republic of the Philippines

Department of Agriculture
BUREAU OF FISHERIES AND AQUATIC RESOURCES
National Freshwater Fisheries Technology Center
CLSU Compound, Science City of Muoz, Nueva Ecija

Pond Based Tilapia


Hatchery
Management

Demand for reliable source of fingerlings constantly


drives new technologies that can raise yields and
meet the nutritional demands of a growing
population.

Hatchery Operators
must have:
necessary education,
and adequate years of
experience
tenure security
are willing to adopt new
technologies and better
strains if these are made
available to them.

Introduction

Simplest and most common


method of fingerling
production

Breeders are stocked into


ponds and allowed to spawn
naturally

Fingerlings are collected 21


days after stocking of
breeders

After 45 to 50 days, ponds are


completely drained &
reconditioned

Advantages of Pond-based
Hatchery Method

The management is very simple


The pond serves as spawning and rearing

pond, thus the fingerlings produced are larger

The operational cost are low


No supplemental feeding is required at high
rates of fertilization

Disadvantages of Pond based


Hatchery Method

The number of fingerlings produced per


square meter is lesser

The fingerlings produced are not of the

same size and needed to be graded upon


harvesting

Operational Procedures

POND PREPARATION

(2-5 but not more than 15

days)

Seining prior to total draining


Conditioning of breeders (Segregation of and )
Pond harrowing / pond levelling
Pest elimination
Pond drying / weeding
Check H2O inlet and gate board / screen
Monitoring of the soil pH (Liming (optional)
Screening of water inlet and outlet
Water filling
Inventory and stocking of breeders
Fertilization
Routine activities
Daily observation of presence of fry/size fingerlings

POND PREPARATION
(2-5 but not more than 15 days)

A. Pond draining

to collect all stocks


to eliminate predators & unwanted species
to remove excess mud & dirt

B. Pest Elimination

if ponds cannot be dried out completely


it should be treated (7-10 days prior to stocking) to
eliminate predatory fish or other pests
Common pond treatments:
a. tea seed cake
b. rotenone
c. tobacco dust/powder

Tea seed cake/powder

a good type of pond-cleaning agent in


aquaculture
planting.

and of snail-killing agent in paddy

enhances microorganism reproduction,

improves soil structure, strengthens soil fertility

Recommended application rate:


100-200kg./ha

ROTENONE

odorless chemical serve as


insecticide, piscicide and
pesticide

250g/ha
mix extract with water
spray on ponds at 5 cm water
depth
let it stand for 3-4 days then
flush w/ fresh water
or leave the pond undisturbed
for a week

TOBACCO DUST POWDER

promotes the growth of lablab and use


as molluscicide at the same time to
eliminate snails and other pest
environment- friendly (free from chemical
residues)
500kg/ha.

C. Leveling of pond bottom

to slope towards the drainage structure to


ensure complete drainage
cultivation makes sub-surface nutrients
available at the surface for the growth of
natural food

D. Pond drying

to help eliminate toxic gases


essential especially when mud deposit in
bottom is already thick
periodic drying stabilize soil colloids &
oxidizes organic matters that enhance
growth of natural food

E. Application of Lime (as


needed)

10-20g/m2 or 100-200
kg/ha
Neutralizes acid soil
(soil should have a pH
value of 6.5-9.0
optimum for primary
reproduction )
analyze pond soil at
least once a year

Application of Fertilizers
Basal
A. Chicken manure

1,000 kg/ha and 2,000


kg/ha per month
Broadcast evenly
before or after pond
filling

B. Inorganic (16-20-0)

100 kg/ha and 200kg/ha per

mo.
apply through broadcasting,
hanging sack method ,
dissolved in water during or
immediately after pond filling

F. Installation of
Screens

Screens on inlet and outlet


pipes should be replaced
and repaired

Drains should be kept free


of wood, trash or any other
blockages

Screen water inlet/outlet to


prevent entry of unwanted
species in fry or egg form

G. Water filling

install

fine mesh
nets in the water inlet
and outlet
maintain the water
level at a depth of
0.4m- 0.8 meter

Conditioning of Breeders

after the breeding cycle (simultaneous w/ pond


preparation)
to restore energy depleted during the breeding
process
breeders are conditioned in separate ponds by
sex
required duration is 2 weeks before stocking
stocking density- 3-5pcs./m2
complete diet feeding rate (2-3% FR)
frequency of feeding (2-3 x a day)

Conditioning Area
Conditioning Hapa (5x10m)

7-10pcs./m2

Conditioning Pond

3-5pcs./m2

Selection & Stocking of Breeders

Papilla categorization
Stocking of ready to spawn (RS) &

swollen (S) female breeders in hapa.


SWOLLEN (S)

READY TO SPAWN (R)

Selection .

selection of ready to mate


male breeders
stocking of male breeders
follow 1-2 days after stocking
of female breeders
sex Ratio-1 male: 3 female
(5 male: 15 female)

Method

Stocking of
Breeders
Sex
ratio

Stocking rate

Weight method

1:3

200-500 kg/ha

Set method
(1 set= 1 male: 3
females)

1:3

1 set per 5-7 m2

No. per unit area

1:3

1 breeder/ 2-4 m2

No. per unit area method


Based from the breeders average body weight
If the breeders are:
100grams-200grams 1pc. Breeder
per 2 sq. m.
200grams-300grams 1pc. Breeder
per 3 sq. m.
300grams-above

1pc. Breeder
per 4 sq. m.

Overcrowding will result in:


Increase in male aggression: males will
have difficulty in maintaining nest sites
Increase in disturbance during spawning
Reduction in the proportion of females
actively spawning
Increased cannibalism rate of fry by nonspawning females and males

FN: Comp1/Desktop/Proposal/ExCEL 2010 Training (1st batch)/Current management Technique of Improved ExCEL 2010 broodstock

Routine Pond Activities


Fertilization(dressing)
Organic Fertilizer
500 to 750 kg/ha/wk
Inorganic Fertilizer
25 to 50 kg/ha/week

Feeding
- Breeders are fed 3 - 1 %
of the body weight with
commercial or formulated
feeds

Water Quality Monitoring


-Water temperature (26-28C)
- Dissolved oxygen (>5ppm)
- Water level (0.4-0.8m)
- Turbidity (30-35cm)

Weed Control
Manual (using scythe)
Mechanical (grass cutter)

Monitoring
Activities of fish
Presence of fry e.g.
school of fry
Mortality occurrence
Water inlet and outlet
Growth of aquatic
weeds, dike erosion

Collection of Fingerlings
Materials Needed in Harvesting of Fingerlings

Seine Net
Seine
Net

Trap Net

Collection of Fingerlings
Fingerlings are collected 21 days after
stocking of breeders by seining (A-net)
Ponds should be seined once per
harvest period

Conducted weekly
Early in the morning
or when the weather
is cool

Collection of fingerlings

Hauling of Fingerlings for Conditioning & Grading


Containers should not be overloaded & should be
hauled immediately to minimize mortality.

After 45-50 days, ponds are


completely drained and
reconditioned for next production
cycle.

Fry Production in
Earthen Pond Using
Dip Net

Dip net (materials use in fry collection)

Preparation for fry collection in pond (dip net)


Collection of fry 2-3 times daily (12-14 days)

12-14 days fry collection using dip net

Fry collection in pond using dip net


(for transfer in nursery hapa/for grading)

Grading of collected fry

Stocking of fry in nursery hapa


Size of Nursery hapa: 5x10x1.5
Stocking Density of fry per sq. m.: 1,000 pcs.
Feeding
Feeding of fry: 20-30% body weight
Frequency of feeding: 4-5 times a day

Seining/harvesting of fingerlings
1 cycle = 25-30 days

Data average in production of fry in pond


(using dip net/ 1 cycle per pond)
Area: 1,200 m2
No. of female breeders stock: 1,200 pcs.
ABW: 170 gm.
No. of male breeders stock: 400 pcs.
ABW: 180 gm.
Sex ratio: 1:3
Fry production: 420,500 pcs.
Fingerlings production before draining: 45,500 pcs.
Total production of fry/ fingerlings:
Duration of Production: 28 days

466,000 pcs.

Disadvantages of Hapa Based System


Hapa method requires more management effort
Incubating systems are capital intensive
Labor intensive
High risk of loss in high winds associated with typhoons
Needs expertise
Needs repair or replacement for damaged hapas
Clogging of hapas
brood fish in "hapa" are easy targets of
poachers