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NAME -ADITYA MANCHANDA


ROLL NO 4
CLASS 6TH D

The 7 states of the East India are : Meghalaya


Mizoram
Nagaland
Tripura
Arunachal
Assam
Manipur

Pradesh

About:The North East is a true frontier region. It has over 2000 km of border with Bhutan, China, Myanmar
and Bangladesh and is connected to the rest of India by a narrow 20 km wide corridor of land. One of
the most ethically and linguistically diverse regions in Asia, each state has its distinct cultures and
traditions.
From times immemorial, Indias North East has been the meeting point of many communities, faiths
and cultures. A place renowned for its magical beauty and bewildering diversity, North East India is
the home for more than 166 separate tribes speaking a wide range of languages. Some groups have
migrated over the centuries from places as far as South East Asia; they retain their cultural traditions
and values but are beginning to adapt to contemporary lifestyles. Its jungles are dense, its rivers
powerful and rain, and thunderstorms sweep across the hills, valleys ,and plains during the annual
monsoon.
The lushness of its landscape, the range of communities and geographical and ecological diversity
makes the North East quite different from other parts of the subcontinent. The festivals and
celebrations in the North- eastern states of India are a colorful reflection of the people and their
lives.

North East India comprises of seven states commonly known as the Seven Sisters.
They are Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura.

MEGHALAYA :

CAPITAL-Shillong
LANGUAGES- Khasi, Garo, English
CLOTHING Summer:-( April- October) Light tropical
Winter: - (November- March) Woolen
SEASON TO VISIT-October to April
Meghalaya, a Sanskrit word meaning "the abode of cloud", was created
as an autonomous State on 2nd April 1970. It is bound on north and east
by the state of Assam, and on south and west by Bangladesh. The three
physical division in the state are Garo (Western), Khasi (Central) and
Jaintia (Eastern) hill divisions.
In the Garo hills, the Tura range occupies dominantly a middle portion
running west to east where the Nokrek peak is located. Khasi -Jaintia
ranges are intertwined with a curved-alignment. Spurs of ranges in Jaintia
hills are shorter in height than the Shillong Plateau; hill bases lie side by
side with flat lands, valley and meadows.
Animals and birds that are found in the state are elephants, tigers, bear,
jackal, leopard, golden langurs etc .
The interesting birds found in the state include Hornbills, King Vulture,
Crested Serpent, Eagle, Partridges, Teals, Snipes, Quails etc.

People :

Meghalaya occupies a total area of


22,429 sq kms with a total population
of 2,306,069 persons as reported in
the census of 2001. The sex-ratio in
Meghalaya was 974 females per 1000
males; as against 923 females for the
country as a whole. The fairly high sex
ratio in Meghalaya may be attributed
to the existing tradition of matrilineal
society. The Khasi and Jaintia tribes are
matrilineal in character in which, the
immovable property of the deceased,
is inherited by females, especially the
youngest daughter. As a matter of fact,
the female babies and daughters get
adequate attention of the parents with
respect to education and health care.
Meghalaya is mainly a Christianity
dominated state. Before the arrival of
Christian missionaries in the late 19th
century and later, most natives
followed tribal religions.

Social
heritage:-

and

cultural

The Khasi, Garo and Jaintia are people


with a rich cultural heritage. The
important crafts of the Khasi and the
Jaintia districts are artistic weaving,
wood-carving and cane and bamboo
work. Carpet and silk weaving and the
making
of
musical
instruments,
jewellery and pineapple fibre articles
are among its minor craft.
The popular handicrafts of the Garo
hills district are artistic weaving, cane
and bamboo work including poker
work( in which designs are burnt into
the bamboo with a red-hot pointed
rod),wood carving, jewellery and
making of clay toys and dolls and
musical instruments.

History :-

There are different legends, beliefs and


findings about the Khasis, Jaintias and
Garos. It is said that Khasis were the
earliest immigrants who made their
way across northern Myanmar to Khasi
in the plain of East Assam where they
established
new
centre.
Khasis
linguistically represents the Mon-Khmer

In 1950 Garo hills, United Khasi and


Jaintia hills were brought under the
purview of sixth schedule of Indian
constitution. District council had
administrative control. The creation of
Meghalaya in 1972 resulted in
formation of three autonomous district
councils for the development of the
hills. The three council were

The Khasi autonomous


district council.
The Jaintia autonomous
district council.
The Garo autonomous
district council.

speeches spoken in South-East Asia.

The ancient kingdoms of Khasis were


confined to the plain mostly in the
Kamrup and Nagaon Districts, Assam
and eastwards. The early history of
Garos is shrouded in mystery. Most
traditions locate that Tibet was their
home from where their forefathers
spread to different places. The Jaintias
tribe belongs to theHynniewtrepof
the Austric race. It is believed by the
scholars that they had migrated from
Tibet-China from Mohkhmer groups in
search of food and shelter.

Economy:

Meghalaya is basically an agricultural state in which about 80 percent of its


total population are dependent primarily on agriculture for livelihood. The
state has a vast potential for developing horticulture due to agro-climatic
variations, which offer much scope for the cultivation of temperate, subtropical and tropical fruits and vegetables.
Besides the major food crops of rice and maize, Meghalaya is known for its
oranges (Khasi Mandarin), pineapple, banana, jackfruits, temperate fruits like
plums, peaches and pears etc. The popular cash crops, which are traditionally
cultivated, include turmeric, ginger, black pepper, areca nut, Betelvina,
tapioca, short staple cotton, jute and Mesta, mustard and rapeseed. Special
emphasis is presently laid on non-traditional crops like oil seeds, cashew nut,
tea and coffee, orchids and commercial flowers.
The rich mineral deposits including mica gypsum and coal are unexploited.

Famous places:

Siju Caves
Imikhang Dare
Rongrengiri
Cherrapunji

MIZORAM :CAPITAL Aizwal


Winter:Woolens
SEASON TO VISIT

CLOTHING

- Summer: Cottons

-October- April

With the implementation of the North- Eastern Reorganization Act in 1972,


Mizoram became a Union Territory and as a sequel to the signing of the
historic memorandum of settlement between the Government of India and
the Mizo National Front in 1986, it became the 23rd state of the Indian union
on 20 February 1987.
Mizoram literally translated means "Land of the Highlanders". The hills
are steep with an average height of 900 meters. The highest peak in Mizoram
is theBlue Mountain(Phawngpui) with a height of 2210 metres. The
tropical forests of Mizoram abound in a wide variety of flora and fauna. The
thick bamboo groves strewn with wild plantations dominate the lower
altitude, slowly giving way to dense woods festooned with creepers and
canes as the hills rise higher.
Yellow sunflowers and many other colorful wild flowers, add a touch of
delightful tonal contrasts to the greeneries. Besides being an ornithologist's
delight, the jungles are home to tigers, wild boars, leopards, monkeys,
barking deer's, sandbars and elephants.

Cultural and social heritage :-

People:

Historians believe that the Mizos are a


part of the great wave of the
Mongolian race spilling over the
eastern and southern India centuries
ago.
Mizo is not just one tribe as normally
presumed but the term represents
several tribes taken together. The
term Mizo means "the "men who live
in the hills.
Mizos are of Mongoloid origin,
speaking a dialect of Tibeto- Burman
origin. Mizos are of Mongoloid origin,
speaking a dialect of Tibeto- Burman
origin.
All their activities revolve around this
cultivation and their festivals are
connected with such agricultural
operations.

The fabric of social life in the Mizo


society has undergone tremendous
changes over the years. Before the
British moved into the hills, for all
practical purposes the village and the
clan became units of the Mizo society.
The Mizo code of ethics or dharma
moved
round
"Tlawmngaihna"an
untranslatable term meaning on the part
of everyone to be hospitable, kind
unselfish
and
helpful
to
others.
Tlawmngaihna
Tlawmngaihna to
to a
a Mizo
Mizo stands
stands for
for
selfless service for others.
A gregarious and close- knit society,
they evolved some principles of self-help
and co- operation to meet social
obligations and responsibilities.
No
class
distinction
and
no
discrimination on grounds of sex are not
seen
seen in
in Mizo
Mizo society.
society.
Birth of a child, marriage in the village
and death of a person in the village or a
community feast arranged by a member
of the village are important occasions in
which the whole village is involved.

Economy :

Agriculture is the mainstay for about


60% of the population of Mizoram.
Only 5% of the total area is under
cultivation. About 7% of the total
cultivated area is under irrigation.
Forest account for nearly 21% of the
area.
Mizoram has no major industry. It has
remained backward industrially which
can
be
attributed
to
physical
alienation, lack of mineral resources in
the state, distance from the heart of
the
country
coupled
with
communication, etc.
The cottage industries comprise of
handloom and handicrafts. In the small
scale sector are the rice- milling, oil
and flour milling, mechanized bamboo
workshops, saw milling, brick making
and furniture workshops.

Festivals :-

The cottage industries comprise of


handloom and handicrafts. In the small scale
sector are the rice- milling, oil and flour
milling, mechanized bamboo workshops,
saw milling, brick making and furniture
workshops.
Mim Kut: Mim Kut or Maize festival is
celebrated during the months of August and
September, after the harvest of maize. Mim
Kut is celebrated with great fanfare by
drinking rice- beer, singing, dancing and
feasting.
Music is a passion of the Mizos. The most
colorful and distinctive dance of the Mizo is
calledCheraw.

Places of interest:o
o
o
o
o

Aizawl
Champhai
TamdilLake
Vantawng Waterfalls
Rengdil

NAGALAND :CAPITAL Kohima


Woolen

CLOTHING Summer:- Cotton ; Winter:-

SEASON TO VISIT -October to April

Nagaland is almost entirely inhabited by the Naga tribes except some Kukis,
Kacharis, Garos, Mikris,Benglalees, and Assamese etc. in the plains sector.
There are several views expressed by scholars regarding the origin of the
wordNaga.
The word Naga originated fromNagameaningSnakeorking of snakes.
Nagaland is a hilly state. The hills are a continuation of the Burma Arc being
joined with the Sub-Himalayan ranges in the north and stretching into the
hills of Manipur. Forests cover the main part of the land and jungles it is
natural that there will be lots of animal life.
The place being hilly and the expanse of the hills not being very large there
are a few rivers, which are quite small in both width and length until they
leave the state. No rivers of this state are navigable in any season.

Social and Cultural


Heritage :

The Nagas are not a composite


people. They speak many languages.
They differ widely in dress and other
cultural traits, as well as in physical
features. They belong to Mongoloid
stock but yet there are great
differences in the details between one
tribe and other, as well as between
different people of the same tribe.
Some are tall, some are short.
There is no caste system among the
Nagas or anyone of the non-Naga
tribes.
The cultural traditions of the Nagas
include features which are common to
all the tribes like head hunting,
common sleeping house for unmarried
men which are taboo to women, a sort
of trial marriage, or great freedom of
intercourse between the sexes before
marriage, disposal of dead on raised
platforms, the simple loom for weaving
cloth etc.

Festivals :

Life in Nagaland is replete with festivals


throughout the year as all the tribes have
their own festivals, which they greatly
cherish.
They
regard
their
festivals
sacrosanct and participation in them is
compulsory. They celebrate their distinct
seasonal festivals with pageantry, color,
music and fanfare. Most of these festivals
revolve round agriculture, which is still the
mainstay of the Naga society.
They
start
with
theChakhesang
Sukrunyefestival in January, followed
byKuki
Mimkut;Angami
Sekrenyiis
celebrated in February. The month of April
begins with the Konyak AolingandPhom
Monyu festivals in the firstweek. Ao
MoatsuandKhiamniungan Miufestivals
are
celebrated
in
May.
Sumi
TuluniandChang
Nkanyulumfestivals
are celebrated in the month of July. In the
months
of
August
and
September,
theYimchunger MetemneoandSangtam
Mongmongfestivals are celebrated. The
month
of
November
witnesses
the
celebration
of
theLotha
Tokhu
Emongand theRengma Ngadafestivals

Tripura :CAPITAL Agartala


CLOTHING :- Summer- Cottons
Winter: Tropical with heavy woolens for chilly days
SEASON TO VISIT ->September- March

Tripura, the ancient home of the Bodos, is the northeastern state of India located
by the side of Bangladesh. Politically, now it is a part of the area comprising seven
states aptly called `Seven Sisters`, because of many similarities in the social
milieu, cultural mosaic and economic landscape. These states besides Tripura are
Assam, Manipur, Nagaland ,Meghalaya, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh.
Tripura is strategically situated between the river valleys of Myanmar and
Bangladesh. Encircled almost on the three sides by Bangladesh, it is linked with
Assam and Mizoram in the northeast.

Places of Interest :Ujjayanta Palace ; Sepahijala Wild life Sanctuary;


Neer Mahal ; Deatamura ; Jampui Hills ; Unakoti ; Matabari .

People :o
o

o
o

o
o

According to the 2001 census, the total


human population of the state of
Tripura is 3,191,168. The highlands are
areas of sparse population and the
lowlands are densely populated.
In Tripura , there are not only people
hailing from different regions but also
people constituting different ethnic
groups. Each ethnic tribe has its own
language and distinctive forms of
cultural expressions, such as music,
dance and festivals. Tripura, for
instance, have the Garia dance,
Reangs have theHowzagiriand the
Chakmas have theBijhu dance.
There are people of all religious
groups.
Hindus
are
predominant
probably because the ancient rulers
were Hindus and their faiths may have
affected their subjects.

Social and cultural


heritage :

Tripura has a long historic past, its


unique tribal culture and a fascinating
folklore. Some scholars are of the
opinion that in the distant past it was
known as Kirat Desh. There are
references
of
Tripura
in
the
Mahabharata and the Puranas.
The early history of Tripura is shrouded
in mystery. Many myths and legends
are associated with it. . One version
traces its link with the Puranic
tradition, to the times of Yajati and
Pratit when the 71st Raja Tripura was
bonded by a Bodo alliance with Kachar.
Another version in the Rajmala
(Rajmala is one of the important
sources of Tripura history generally
datable to the 15th century) states
that the ruler of Tripura belongs to
lunar race and trace their descent from
the Rajput Kshatriyas.

Economy :

Tripura lacks an industrial base save


some cottage industries(handicrafts
and handloom) and small scale
manufacturing units. In the last 10
years the Indian government has
encouraged small scale industries
especially dealing with weaving,
carpentry, pottery and basket making.
Rice is the main crop. It is well-suited
to the marshy conditions of the
northern basin. Jute, cotton, tea, and
fruit are important cash crops. Sugar
cane, mustard and potatoes are also
grown. The state imports large
quantities of rice, wheat, maize,
pulses, sugar, etc.
Exports from the state include
plywood pulp, articles manufactured
out of bamboo, timber and canned
fruit.

Festivals :

Garia Puja-Celebrated on the 7th day


of the month of Vaishak(April)by the
tribal people who believe that the
celebration will bring prosperity and
enjoyment for the whole year.
Kharchi Puja(July)-Originally another
tribal festival.
Ker Puja-A traditional tribal festival
held within a specified boundary
specially
marked
with
prior
notification in the state government
gazetteer.
Durga Puja (Oct-Nov)-This festival of
the mother Goddess Durga in her
benign and protective form has
possibly come in from Bengal.
Tirthamukh-A popular pilgrim centre
for the tribal people of Tripura.

Arunachal Pradesh :CAPITAL - Itanagar


CLOTHING: Summer- cotton; Winter- woolen.
SEASON TO VISIT -October to April.
Arunachal Pradesh the 24th state of the Indian Union, is bounded by Bhutan to
the west, Myanmar to the east, China to the north and north-east and the plains
of Assam to the south. Arunachal Pradesh is acknowledged to be one of the most
splendid, variegated and multilingual tribal areas of the world. Arunachal is the
largest state (area-wise) in the north-east region.
This land, encompassing wide alpine geographical diversity and corresponding
climatic conditions varying from tropical to temperate and Alpine, and a wide
variety of wild life flora and fauna with concomitant life form, has now started
gaining acclaim as a world biodiversity heritage spot. Arunachal Pradesh is
endowed with thick evergreen forests with numerous streams, rivers and gorges
and hundreds and thousands of species of flora and fauna covering more than
60% of the total area. Its rivers are ideal for angling, boating and rafting and its
terrain is suitable for trekking, hiking and holidaying in a serene atmosphere.
Places of Interest :Annini,Bhismaknagar(archaeological sites)
;Bomdila(at a height of 2530 mts provides a panoramic views of the Himalayan
landscapes and snow clad ranges ; Changlong,Doparijo, Itanagar(capital,
with excavated ruins of historical Ita Fort and attractive Ganga lake.

People :

There are 26 major tribes and a number


of sub tribes living in the state. Most of
these communities are ethically similar
having derived from an original
common stock but their geographical
isolation from each other has brought
amongst them certain distinctive
characteristics in language, dress and
customs.
The first group of people are the
Monpas and the Sherdukpens of
Tawang and West Kameng district. They
follow the Lamaistic traditions of
Mahayana Buddhism.
The second group of people Adis, Akas,
Apatanis, Bangnis, Nishings, Mishmis,
Mijis, Tangsas, etc., who worship the
sun and the moon namelyDonyi
PoloandAbotani, the original
ancestor for most of these tribes.
The third group comprises of Noctes
and Wanchos, adjoining Nagaland in
the Tirap district.

Social and cultural


Heritage :-

The whole population of Arunachal can


be divided into three cultural groups on
the basis of their socio- politico religious
affinities.
There are three kinds of religions
practiced here. The Monpas and
Sherdukpens in Kameng and Tawang
district, who met the Tibetans in the
north, adopted Lamaism of the Buddhist
faith, while the Khamptis in Lohit district
practice Mahayana Buddhism. The
second group, Noctes and Wanchos in
Tirap district, whose long association with
the Assamese in the south, converted
them to Hindus.
They are associated with the practice of
head hunting. The third group comprises
of Adi, Akas, Apatanis, Nishings, etc.- a
large majority of the total population,
who maintain their ancient belief and
indigenous concepts of nature and
worship- theDonyi-Polo(The Sun &
Moon).

Festivals :-

Economy :

For about 35% of the population of


Arunachal Pradesh, agriculture is the
main
occupation.
17%
of
total
cultivated area is under irrigation. The
main crop is rice, grown on valley
bottoms and on some terraced slopes.
Maize, millets, pulses, potatoes, wheat
and mustard are the other important
crops.
About 62% of the total area of the
state is under forests. There is no large
scale manufacturing industry, though
some coal and lignite are mined. The
principal industries are forest based.
Forest products, especially bamboo,
are vital resources. Saw mills, plywood
and veneering mills, rice mills, fruit
preservation units, soap and candle
manufacturing, steel fabrication, oil
expellers are in the medium and small
industrial sectors.

Festivals are an essential part of the


socio- cultural life of the people.
The festivals are usually connected
with agriculture and are associated
with ritualistic gaiety either to thank
God or to pray for bumper harvest.

Some of the important festivals


areMopinandSolungofAdis,Loss
arof
Monpas
&
Sherdukpens
andBoori-Bootof the Hill Miris, Dree
of
the
Apatanis,Si-Donyi
of
Tagins,Nyokumof Nishing,Rehof Idu
Mishmis,Tamladuof Mishmi,Lokuof
Nocte,Molof Tangsa,Sankenof the
Khampti and Singpho, Khan of the
Miji,Nechi Dauof the Akase of the
Tagins,Ojialeof the Wancho,KshyatSowaiof the Khowa,Longte Yulloof
the Nishing,etc.

Assam :

CAPITAL Dispur
CLOTHING -Summer:-(April to October): Cotton Winter:-( November to March): Woolen
SEASON TO VISIT-October to April
Assam is the gateway to the north-east, a state known for its breath taking scenic
beauty, rarest flora and fauna, lofty green hills, vast rolling plain, mighty waterways
and a land of fairs and festivals.
It is also known that Assam is derived from the word Asama meaning uneven.
Assam is almost separated from central India by Bangladesh. Nagaland, Manipur
and Myanmar bound it in the east, west by West Bengal, north by Bhutan and
Arunachal Pradesh and south by Meghalaya, Bangladesh, Tripura and Mizoram.
It is dominated by the mighty Brahmaputra, one of the great rivers of the world
(length: 2900 kms), which not only has a fertile alluvial plain for growing rice, but
also is famous for tea. Earthquakes are common.There are nine national parks in
Assam and some of them are listed below:

Places of Interest:Kaziranga National Park ; Manas National Park ; Nameri National Park ;
Orang (Rajiv
Gandhi) National Park ; Chakrasila Wildlife Sanctuary ;
Bornadi Wildlife Sanctuary ; Guwahati ; Diphu ,etc.

People :

The ethnic origin of the Assamese


varies from Mongoloid tribes to those
of directly Indian stock. The earliest
inhabitants of Assam were probably of
Austric stock. They are termed as
proto- Austroloid, because they are
said to have migrated from the
Australian and some other islands of
the Pacific Ocean to the Asiatic
mainland.
The Khasis and Jaintias appear to be
descendents of the proto-Austroloid of
ancient Assam. . Of course, among
different races, the Aryans could
establish their cultural supremacy over
this country.
Broadly, the inhabitants of Assam can
be divided into three categories,
namely the tribal population, the nontribal population and the scheduled
castes. The Tribal's consist of different
ethno-cultural groups such as the
Kacharis (Bodos), the Miris, the Deoris,
the Rabhas, the Nagas, the Garos, the
Khasis,etc.

Social
Heritage

and
:-

cultural

There is a gradual development of


liberalism in religious system in Assam.
The indigenous groups are Aninmism,
Tantricism,
Brahmanism
and
Vaishnavism. The Assamese were
practicing Tantric forms of rituals until
the advent of the new Vaishnavite
religion
formed
by
Shrimanta
Sankardeva (1449-1568). The pristine
form of Hinduism began only when the
Aryans arrived in Assam.
The present Hindu caste system had
emerged with the immigration of
outsiders. Neo Vaishnavism entered the
land in the 15th century and is the
dominant faith if the Assamese people
at present. The Assamese society is an
open society based on the principles of
liberalism.
Assam is a land of fairs and festivals.
Most of the festivals celebrated in
Assam have their roots in the diverse
faith and belief of her inhabitants. They
reflect the true spirit, tradition and life
style of the people of Assam.

Festivals :-

Economy :
The
The

About

63% of the states working force is


engaged
in
agriculture
and
allied
activities. More than 79% of the total
cropped area is utilized for food crops
production. Rice is the principal food crop.
Jute, tea, cotton, oilseeds, sugarcane,
potato and fruits are the main cash crops.
Forest account for 22.41% of the total
area of the state.

Assams

tea gardens produce just over


half of the countrys tea and contributes
about one sixth of the worlds entire tea
production. Assam holds a unique position
in respect to mineral oil production. Coal,
limestone, refractory clay, dolomite and
natural gas are the other minerals found
in the state. Extensive oil reserves were
found in the 19th century and Digboi
became the site of Asias first oil refinery.

Assam

is the largest producer in the world


of the golden colored Muga Silk.

major
major festivals
festivals celebrated
celebrated in
in Assam
Assam
areBihuBhogaliorMagh
areBihuBhogaliorMagh
Bihu(January),RongaliorBohag
Bihu(January),RongaliorBohag Bihu(April),
Bihu(April),
andKongaliorKati
andKongaliorKati Bihu(May)
Bihu(May) celebrated
celebrated by
by
people
people irrespective
irrespective of
of caste,
caste, creed
creed and
and religion
religion
throughout
Assam.
Other
festivals
throughout
Assam.
Other
festivals
are-Baishagu(celebrated
by
Bodo
Kacharis
are-Baishagu(celebrated by Bodo Kacharis
during
during mid
mid April),Ali-Ai-Ligang(festival
April),Ali-Ai-Ligang(festival of
of the
the
Mishing
Mishing tribe,
tribe, February-March).
February-March).

tribe,
spring
Baikho(Rabha
Baikho(Rabha
tribe,
spring
season),Rongker(important
festival
of
season),Rongker(important festival of the
the
Karbis,
April),Rajini
GabraandHarni
Karbis,
April),Rajini
GabraandHarni
Gabra(Dimasa
tribe),Bohaggiyo
Gabra(Dimasa
tribe),Bohaggiyo
Bishu(spring
festival
of
the
Bishu(spring
festival
of
the
Deoris),Ambubashi
Mela(most
important
Deoris),Ambubashi Mela(most important
festival
festival of
of the
the Kamakhya
Kamakhya Temple
Temple is
is celebrated
celebrated
during
during mid
mid June
June every
every year.
year. It
It is
is a
a ritual
ritual of
of
austerities
austerities celebrated
celebrated with
with tantric
tantric rites)
rites)
andJonbill
andJonbill Mela(spectacular
Mela(spectacular fair
fair held
held every
every
year
during
winter
at
Jonbeel
of
Jagiroad,
year during winter at Jonbeel of Jagiroad, near
near
Guwahati)
and
so
on.
Guwahati) and so on.

people
of
Assam
also
The
The
people
of
Assam
also
celebrateJanmastmi(August),Durga
celebrateJanmastmi(August),Durga
Puja(October),Diwali,
Puja(October),Diwali, Idd,
Idd, Muharram,
Muharram, MeMeDam-Me-Phi,
the
birth
and
death
Dam-Me-Phi,
the
birth
and
death
anniversaries
anniversaries of
of theVaishnavite
theVaishnavite saints
saints
Shrimanta
Sankardev
and
Shri
Shrimanta
Sankardev
and
Shri
Madhabdev.
Madhabdev.

Manipur :CAPITAL
CAPITAL Imphal
Imphal

CLOTHING
;; Winter:
CLOTHING -Summer:-(
-Summer:-( AprilApril- October)
October) Cotton
Cotton
Winter: -- (November(November- March)
March) Woollen
Woollen

SEASON
SEASON TO
TO VISITVISIT- October
October to
to April
April

Manipur
Manipur is
is the
the land
land of
of rich
rich valleys
valleys surrounded
surrounded by
by beautiful
beautiful hills
hills and
and lakes,
lakes, a
a land
land of
of gentle
gentle
people
people full
full of
of laughter
laughter and
and joy.
joy. Many
Many legends
legends tell
tell us
us the
the origin
origin of
of Manipur.
Manipur.

Manipur
Manipur means
means the'land
the'land of
of gems'.
gems'. This
This north-eastern
north-eastern state
state was
was described
described as
as the
the land
land
of
gold
or
Suvarnabhu.
Manipur
was
a
princely
state
under
the
British
rule
in
1891.
of gold or Suvarnabhu. Manipur was a princely state under the British rule in 1891.

The
The natural
natural vegetation
vegetation occupies
occupies an
an area
area of
of nearly
nearly 67%
67% of
of the
the total
total geographical
geographical area
area of
of
the
the state.
state. It
It is
is blessed
blessed with
with amazing
amazing varieties
varieties of
of fauna
fauna and
and flora.
flora. Depending
Depending on
on the
the
altitude
altitude of
of the
the hill
hill ranges,
ranges, the
the forest
forest ranges
ranges from
from tropical
tropical to
to sub-alpine.
sub-alpine. The
The wet
wet forests,
forests,
the
the temperate
temperate forests
forests and
and the
the pine
pine forests
forests occur
occur between
between 900-2700
900-2700 m
m above
above sea
sea level
level
and
and they
they together
together sustain
sustain s
s host
host of
of rare
rare and
and endemic
endemic plant
plant and
and animal
animal life.
life.

In
In Manipur
Manipur natural
natural habitat
habitat growing
growing in
in soil
soil or
or on
on trees
trees and
and shrubs,
shrubs, spreading
spreading their
their beauty
beauty
and
and color,
color, stunning
stunning the
the eye
eye that
that is
is not
not used
used to
to seeing
seeing them
them in
in such
such profusion.
profusion. There
There are
are
500
500 varieties
varieties of
of orchids,
orchids, which
which grow
grow in
in Manipur
Manipur of
of which
which 472
472 have
have been
been identified.
identified.
Places
Places of
of Interest
Interest ::The
The most
most important
important places
places which
which are
are worth
worth seeing
seeing is
is theGovindajee
theGovindajee temple,
temple, a
a
Vaishnavite
Vaishnavite temple,
temple, adjoining
adjoining the
the royal
royal palace
palace of
of the
the former
former rulers
rulers of
of Manipur.
Manipur. The
The other
other
places
places whish
whish are
are worth
worth seeing
seeing are
are thewar
thewar cemetery,
cemetery, Khwairamband
Khwairamband Bazar,
Bazar, Shaheed
Shaheed
Minar,
Minar, Manipur
Manipur state
state museum,
museum, Manipur
Manipur zoological
zoological park,
park, Langthabal,
Langthabal,
Khonghampat
Khonghampat Ochidarium.
Ochidarium.

Social and cultural


heritage :-

People :

Manipur is a place where different waves


of races and culture met through the
ages, which ultimately mingled together.
The territory is divided into two distinct
zones- the valley and the surrounding
hill areas. The main population of the
people
is
of
Manipuri's
known
asMeities.

They claim their descent from


Parkhangba who ruled Manipur and had
the power of changing his shape into a
serpent with a straight tail. The 29 tribes
inhabiting Manipur hills may broadly be
divided into NagasandKuki. It is not
possible
to
make
a
clear
cut
classification of the Naga group from the
Kukis- the important Naga groups
areTangkhul,
KubuisandMao.
TheZemeis,
theLiangmei,
theMaram, theThangal, theMaring,
theAnal, theMoyonare also included
under the Naga group.

The society is patrilineal though the


women bear the major yoke of labor.
Women share the responsibilities of
earning and are not confined only to
household duties. The household is a
true social unit ant the head of the
family has to perform certain religious
duties. Their families consist of man, his
wife and unmarried children. They
practice both types of marriage by
engagement and elopement.
By nature, they are lovers of flowers with
which
they
bedeck
themselves
beautifully. Their dresses are simple but
tasteful. The woman wears colored long
stripped skirt, blouse and white chaddar
gracefully and the man uses white dhoti
and
chaddar
and
in
ceremonial
occasions a pagri.
The people of Manipur have inherent
love of performing art with lyrical beauty
and rhythm. Their rich culture and
tradition are also reflected in their
handloom, tasteful clothes and in finer
workmanship of handicrafts.

Festivals :-

Economy :

Agriculture is the main stay of the


people. About 88% of the total working
population in the hills and about 60%
of the working population in the valley
depend entirely on the agriculture and
allied pursuits like animal husbandry,
fisheries and forestry.
This is possible because the deposit of
alluvial clay from rivers enriches the
soil of the valley, and the large number
of hill streams ensures irrigation. The
staple food is rice and the minor
agricultural produces are tobacco,
sugarcane, mustard, etc.
The weaving industry is well
developed and each household owns a
loom with the women busy in the
creation of typically unique native
designs. The handloom industry is the
largest cottage industry in Manipur,
with the finished items often been
exported.

The Manipuri's rarely perform any


festival which is not accompanied by
dance, music and song. TheirLai
Haraobafestival is very interesting
dance drama led by priests (Maibas)
and priestesses (Maibis), depicting the
creation of life. It is celebrated during
March-April for about 10-15 days
before the village temples of gods and
goddesses and the entire village
participates in it. This festival of merry
making of gods and goddesses is an
example of the pre- vaishnavite culture
among them.
Holiis one of the most important
festivals of the Manipuri's and is
performed on the Vasant Purnima day
associated with the birth of Lord
Chaitanya of Bengal. During the holi,
festival young and all come out
accompanied by the groups of
musicians and go in procession to the
temples, with sprinkling of colored
water to each other.

k
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