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LAND SURVEYS, SITE

LOCATION AND MAP


READING
Speaker : Engr. Merlito Castor
Catolico
PRC Accredited Speaker No. 071
Real Estate Broker/Appraiser /Consultant

(4 hours)

WHAT IS GEODETIC
ENGINEERING ?

GEODETIC ENGINEERING LAW (RA 8560)


AN ACT REGULATING THE PRACTICE OF GEODETINC
ENGINEERING IN THE PHILIPPINES

The practice of Geodetic Engineering


is a professional and organized act of
gathering physical data on the surface of
the earth with the use of precision
instruments.

PRACTICE OF SURVEYING
RELEVANT TO REAL ESTATE
BROKERAGE

DETERMINE METES AND BOUNDS


is a system or method of describing land, real

property (in contrast to personal property) or


real estate
Metes = boundary defined by distances and
direction
Bounds = more general boundary description

SUBDIVISION / CONSOLIDATION SURVEYS


SKETCH PLAN
PARCELLARY SURVEYS

Source :
http://www.mooresbay.co.nz/subdivision_plan

WHY IS IT IMPORTANT FOR


BROKERS TO KNOW BASIC
LAND SURVEYING ?

Real Estate Brokers need to know basic surveying


Three elements of space in surveying
Cardinal direction in surveying

How Real Property described

What are the different kinds of land survey

Read maps?
Map symbols
Scale
Topographic maps
Important informations in a map?

DEFINITION OF SURVEYING
TERMS

WHAT IS LAND SURVEY?


MAP?
SITE?
LOCATION?
METES AND BOUNDS ?
SUBDIVISION / CONSOLIDATION
SURVEYS ?
SKETCH PLAN ?
PARCELLARY SURVEYS ?

COMMON SURVEYING TERMS


FOR REAL ESTATE BROKERS BROKERS

Cadastral Survey = creates or re-establishes,


marks, and defines boundaries of tracts of
lands.

Hectare = 10,000 square meters

Kilometer (km) = 1,000 meters

Meridian (or line of longitude) = true north


and south line extending from an initial point in
both direction

COMMON SURVEYING TERMS


FOR REAL ESTATE BROKERS BROKERS

True Meridian = Line or plane passing through geographical


north pole and geographical south pole

Ante meridiem ? (from Latin Meridies or mid-day)


Post meridiem ?

Magnetic Meridians = is an imaginary line connecting the


magnetic south and north poles and can be taken as the
magnetic force lines along the surface of the earth.

Magnetic Declination = angle between the magnetic and


the true meridian

Metes and Bounds = A common method of land


description that identifies a property by specifying the shape
and boundary dimensions of the parcel, using terminal points
and angles.

COMMON SURVEYING TERMS


FOR REAL ESTATE BROKERS BROKERS

Original Survey = cadastral survey which creates land boundaries


and marks them for the first time

Plat = A surveyed map of a town, section, or subdivision indicating


the exact locations and boundaries of individual properties, streets,
easements, and public recreation areas.

Setback = Zoning restrictions on the amount of bare land required


surrounding improvements; the amount of space required between
the lot line and the building line

Subdivision = Land that has been divided by the owner


(subdivider) into individual parcels or lots which have been
grouped into blocks. These lots, together with streets, alleys, parks,
schools, planned commercial areas, and public utility easements,
are recorded on a plat

COMMON SURVEYING TERMS


FOR REAL ESTATE BROKERS BROKERS

Survey = The process by which boundaries are measured and the


locations or forms of land areas are determined

Easement = areas of land owned by the property owner, but in which


other parties, such as utility companies, may have limited rights granted
for a specific purpose.

Right-of-way = a parcel of land granted by deed or easement for


construction and maintenance according to a designated use. This may
include highways, streets, canals, ditches, or other uses

Latitude = A measure of relative position north or south on the Earth's


surface, measured in degrees from the equator, which has a latitude of 0,
with the poles having a latitude of 90 north and south

Longitude = is a geographic coordinate that specifies the east-west


position of a point on the Earth's surface

COMMON SURVEYING TERMS


FOR REAL ESTATE BROKERS BROKERS

Prime Meridian = the longitude that passes through the


Royal Observatory, Greenwich, England, establishes the
position of zero degrees longitude.

Mean Sea Level = is a measure of the average height of the


ocean's surface (such as the halfway point between the mean
high tide and the mean low tide)

Datum = is a reference from which measurements are made

Contour Lines = a line on a map joining points of equal


height above or below sea level

Topographic Map = is a type of map characterized by largescale detail and quantitative representation of relief

Sample Contour Lines

How to Determine Elevation


Using Topographic Map

Find the location of the point in the map


Look for the Index Contour
Find the elevation
Determine the direction of the slope
Count the contour intervals
Interpolate

http://raider.mountunion.edu/~mcnaugma/
topographic%20maps/contour.htm

COMMON SURVEYING TERMS FOR


REAL ESTATE BROKERS BROKERS

Bearings = Bearings are used to indicate angular


orientation with respect to the earth

Benchmark = A survey mark made on a


monument having a known location and elevation,
serving as a reference point for surveying.

Tie Line = A survey line that connects a point to


other surveyed lines

Property Line = describes the legal boundary of


a parcel of land

BLLM = Bureau of Lands Location Monument

COMMON SURVEYING TERMS


FOR REAL ESTATE BROKERS BROKERS

TCT = Transfer Certificate of Title

OCT = Original Certificate of Title

Free-Patent = is a legitimate proof of ownership of


public land in the Philippines granted by the Philippine
government. It is an agreement between the
government and the grantee, that he or she is charged
of developing the land within a specified period of time.

Consolidation and Subdivision Survey = land


survey of more than two contiguous lots merging to
form a single lot, and a single lot subdivided into two or
more lots, respectively.

COMMON SURVEYING TERMS


FOR REAL ESTATE BROKERS BROKERS

CAD = Cadastral Survey

Csd = subdivision survey of Cadastral Lot

Psd = subdivision survey of a titled properties. All Psd


surveys are conducted by a Private Geodetic Engineer

Bsd - Is a subdivision survey on government titled properties


conducted by a Government Geodetic Engineer. If a private
titled land is being surveyed by a Government Geodetic
Engineer thru court order, the resulting survey is a Bsd.

Psu - is a survey on original land (not yet surveyed) by a


private Geodetic Engineer. This kind of survey will be used by
titling thru judicial proceedings (means thru court order).

FP - Free Patent survey by a Private Geodetic Engineer

COMMON SURVEYING TERMS


FOR REAL ESTATE BROKERS BROKERS

Triangulation = a series of connected triangles which


adjoin or overlap each other, with angles being
measured from determined fixed stations

Trilateration = uses electronic distance measuring


equiAMent to directly measure the lengths of the sides
of triangles from which the angles can be calculated

Traverse = consists of a series of lines, whose lengths


and directions are measured, connecting points whose
positions are to be determined
open traverse begins at a point of known position and ends at a

station whose relative position is unknown.


closed traverse begins and ends at the same point whose position is
known

COMMON SURVEYING TERMS


FOR REAL ESTATE BROKERS BROKERS

Leveling is the operation of determining


differences of elevation by measuring vertical
distances directly on a graduated rod with the use
of a leveling instrument such as a dumpy level,
transit or Theodolites. This method is called Direct

Leveling or Differential leveling

Indirect leveling can be done using the principle


that differences in elevation are proportional to the
differences in atmospheric pressure

Radiation is a surveying technique often used in


conjunction with a plane table

Total Station

Traditional Transit

LAND SURVEYS
FOR REAL ESTATE BROKERS

Land Surveying

is the science and art of making all essential


measurements to determine the relative position of
points or physical and cultural details above, on, or
beneath the surface of the Earth, and to depict them in
a usable form, or to establish the position of points, or
details.
Surveying Uses :
Mathematics
Geometry
Trigonometry
Physics
Engineering
Law

TWO TYPES OF SURVEY

Plane surveying =
considers the earth to be a
flat surface-- a plane
Geodetic surveying =
takes into account the true
shape of the earth.

TYPES OF SURVEYING
ACCORDING TO USE
Detailed Engineering:
These are carried for engineering feasibility
studies, ground terrain analysis, design planning
and during actual construction phase.

Topographic Survey
Contour Mapping
Hydrographic Survey
Construction Layout
Highway & Bridge Design Survey
As-built Construction Survey

TYPES OF SURVEYING
ACCORDING TO USE

Ground Control
Establishment :
These are carried in surveys that require a high degree of
accuracy with regards to both relative and absolute
geodetic position.

GPS Geodetic Control Survey


Vertical Control Leveling

TYPES OF SURVEYING
ACCORDING TO USE

Property Boundary :
These surveys are carried primarily to determine and
establish the legal boundary of real properties.

Cadastral Survey
Parcellary Survey
Subdivision Consolidation

Survey
Boundary Relocation Survey

TYPES OF SURVEYING
ACCORDING TO USE
Route Alignment :
These services are required during the
design & actual construction of road
alignment
and
river
embankment
structures to determine the condition of
the existing terrain.

Road Alignment
Profile Cross-Section Survey
River Survey

THREE ELEMENTS OF
SPACE IN SURVEYING
DISTANCE = the extent or amount of
space between two things, points,
lines, etc.
DIRECTION = a position on a line
extending from a specific point toward
a point of the compass or toward the
nadir or the zenith
ELEVATION = height above a fixed
reference point

FOUR CARDINAL
POINTS IN SURVEYING

NORTH
SOUTH
EAST
WEST

ROUGH DISTANCE
MEASUREMENT
PACING
Distance = Pace factor Number of
Paces

Determine your Pace


Factor
Homework:
A Real Estate Broker walked along a given straight
line in a horizontal ground that was known to be
60 m long, in order to determine her average
unit pace. She paced the line five times, recording
78, 76.5, 77, 87, and 76 paces, respectively.
a.

Determine her average unit pace, or Pace Factor (PF).

b. If the said broker then counted an average of 123.5


paces while
pacing off the line of unknown distance,
what is the distance?
Remarks:
Pace Factor (PF) = Distance Average
Paces

Other Ways to Measure


Distances

Taping EquiAMents
clisimeter
Transit, or Level; and stadia
Total Station
EDM

THE MEASURING WHEEL


A simple measuring wheel mounted
on a rod can be used to determine
distances, by pushing the rod and
rolling the wheel along the line to be
measured.
An attached device called an
odometer serves to count the
number of turns of the wheels
From the known circumference of the
wheel and the number of revolutions,
distances for reconnaissance can be
determined with relative accuracy of
about 1:200.

15 MINUTES BREAK

WHAT IS A COMPASS ?

WHAT IS A COMPASS?
is a navigational instrument that measures directions in
a frame of reference that is stationary relative to the
surface of the earth
The frame of reference defines the four cardinal directions
(or points) north, south, east, and west.
Intermediate directions are also defined.
a diagram called a compass rose, which shows the directions
(with their names usually abbreviated to initials), is marked
on the compass.

An iPhone can
be used as a
geological
compass
because of the
3-axis
teslameter and
3-axis
accelerometer
inside it

WHY IS IT NECESSARY TO KNOW


HOW TO USE A COMPASS
It is used for you to find north. The arrow
that stays
in a direction points north .
Can used for orienting a map
Can be use to find direction
Can be use to find location

What is a compass survey?


(BONUS PRESENTATION
FOR YOUR INFO STUDY
LATER )

ORIENTING A MAP
Orienting, or aligning, the
map is really easy with just
3 steps:
Lay your map out on a
relatively flat, smooth
surface.
Turn your declinationadjusted compass dial so
due North is at the index
pointer.
Place your compass on
your map with the edge of
the base plate parallel to
the north-south meridians
on the map.

HOW TO FIND TRUE NORTH


WITHOUT A COMPASS
The Shadow-Tip Method
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Place a stick upright in the ground so that you can see its shadow. Alternatively, you can use
the shadow of a fixed object. Nearly any object will work, but the taller the object is, the easier it will
be to see the movement of its shadow, and the narrower the tip of the object is, the more accurate the
reading will be. Make sure the shadow is cast on a level, brush-free spot.
Mark the tip of the shadow with a small object, such as a pebble, or a distinct scratch in the
ground. Try to make the mark as small as possible so as to pinpoint the shadow's tip, but make sure
you can identify the mark later.
Wait 10-15 minutes. The shadow tip will move mostly from west to east in a curved line.
Mark the new position of the shadow's tip with another small object or scratch. It will likely
move only a short distance.
Draw a straight line in the ground between the two marks. This is an approximate east-west
line.
Stand with the first mark (west) on your left, and the other (east) on your right. You are now
facing mostly toward true north, regardless of where you are in the world.
This method is based on the fact that the sun moves across the sky from East to West.

What is Latitude and Longitude

Lines of Latitude
Example: Equator = 0
latitude

Lines of
Longitude
- Also called meredian
- 0 Longitude passes at Greenwich,
England
(by convention)

Why Orient a Map?

If you know where you are on the map, you


should be able to look in any direction and
see the objects represented on the map in
the same direction.

If you can see a known mountain in one


direction and a lake off another way, then just
lay the map out, and turn it so the
corresponding marks on the map align with the
distant features.

You can verify the location of your


subject property on the ground

SITE LOCATION

USING A RULER FIND THE


FASTEST WAY TO MEASURE
THE HEIGHT OF THE 7 STOREY
BUILDING?

DEFINITION OF TERMS

LAND = the Earth's surface extending downward to the center of the


Earth and upward to infinity, including permanently attached natural
objects.

SITE = a parcel of land which improved to the extent that it is ready


for use for the purpose of which it is intended

LOT = is a tract or parcel of land owned or meant to be owned by


some owner(s), with documented defined boundaries (or borders)

LOCATION = an economic characteristic of real estate composed of


immobility, constant change, dependence, and elements of special
distribution

REAL ESTATE includes everything in the definition of Land, plus all


things permanently attached to it naturally or artificially.

REAL PROPERTY includes Real Estate plus the interests, benefits


and rights automatically included with the ownership of the Real
Estate - Possession, Control, Enjoyment, Exclusion, and
Disposition.

IMPORTANT DATA NEEDED FOR


SITE LOCATION

Direction (Using internet, example: Google


earth)
Lot Plan / Vicinity Map / Location Map
Means of Transportation
Access Roads/Routes
Reference Point (adjacent properties / land
marks) and Specific Distances, or Time
Frame
Land Use
Contact persons

SOURCES OF DATA FOR SITE


LOCATION

Survey Maps
Vicinity or Location Map
Tax map
Land Title
Sketch Plan
Owner
Owners Agent
Internet (ie Google Map)
Barangay/ Purok Officials
Neighbors

HOW TO IDENTIFY PROPERTY


IN A SITE LOCATION

Technical Approach

By relocation Survey

Laymans Approach
Direction

of a
knowledgeable person

Semi-Skilled Approach

Sketching/Plotting with the use of:


Compass and Tape
Angular estimate and Pacing

Use of a GPS

HOW REAL PROPERTY IS


DESCRIBED

Metes and Bound method = a "bounded by" description

Uses = appears in instruments such as sale contracts, deeds and


other agreements relating to the property

Boundaries = uses physical features and geographical references to


identify and describe the property's dimensions.

Importance = legal description is also helpful in identifying property


boundaries when making alterations or improvements, so a proper
description is essential in preventing or deciding boundary disputes
between neighboring property owners.

Lot and Block System = With a subdivision plat or map, the plat
or map is divided into smaller blocks, with individual lots demarcated
within the blocks.

PROPERTY DESCRIPTION IN THE TITLE

MAP READING

MAP SYMBOLS

MAP SCALE
Map Scale = indicates the relationship between a
certain distance on the map and the distance on the
ground. Often located in the legend box
Types of Scales:
1.

Ratio or Representative Fraction (RF)

2.

Word statement

3.

Example: 1/100,000 or 1:100,000

"One centimeter equals ten kilometers.

Graphic Scale

Map of the Philippines

LATITUDE

LONGITUDE

IMPORTANT INFORMATIONS
IN A MAP?
Legend, or Key = will show the user what different symbols mean
2. Orientation / Direction = a north arrow (pointing in the correct direction) for
user to determine direction
3. Scale = See previous explanation
4. Neatline = the border of a map, to define the edge of the map area
5. Title = provides important clues about the cartographer's intentions and goals
6. Color / Color Scheme = used on maps to signify a relationship to the object or
feature on the ground
7. Latitude and Longitude/ Projection = See previous presentation
8. Cartographer = The authority behind the composition of the map
9. Date of Production = needed for the user to determine the meaning and
value of some maps since such as those relating to current affairs or weather
are time sensitive.
10. Locator Maps = a "helper" or locator map that places the body of the map
within a larger geographical context
11. Inset Maps = additional close-up, "zoomed-in" maps of these small areas
12. Index Maps = labels and other information
1.

THANK YOU AND GOOD


LUCK !
For your Real Estate Brokerage.
Appraisal, and
Consultancy Needs
Contact: Engr. Merlito Castor Catolico
0917 716 5538