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CURRICULUM

PROCEDURE
Videos\How will you teach me in the 21st century .avi

THE CURRICULUM PROCESS

The development of a curriculum involves the


developer in decisions about the

nature and appropriateness of the


substantive elements, e.g. the:
outcomes
content
method
assessment strategies

These decisions are made in relation to the


context in which the curriculum will operate.

A CONTINUUM OF CURRICULUM
MODELS
Rational/objectives models:
Ralph Tyler
Hilda Taba

Tyler's Objective Model


(also called the Rational Model)

This model takes curriculum


as a means of aiming
toward an educational
objective.
Therefore, this model is also called
meansobjective model.
http://ged550.wikispaces.com/Tyler's+Objective+Model

E.g.

With the K to 12 Health curriculum, a


learner should be able to achieve,
sustain and promote lifelong and
wellness.

The programs rich and challenging


learning experiences promote the
development of the macro skills of
practicing desirable health habits.

It answers the following questions:


What is the object of education?
What teaching experience that we
have to provide in order to achieve
educational object?
How to effectively organize the
educational experience?
How can we know whether these objects
have achieved? (How to evaluate? )

The Objectives Model:

Cons of the Tyler Model

The objective has a

behavioural
orientation.

Behavioural objectives have many


advantages if applied to curriculum
design, but they have some
limitations on execution.

For example, they do not apply to all subjects or


the design of a subjects content.
Unacceptable verbs are as follow:

to know,
to understand,
to really understand,
to appreciate,
to fully appreciate,
to grasp the significance of,
to enjoy,
to believe and
to have faith in.

Building behavioural objectives

a very long time


and a very tedious
process.
takes

Besides,

this

model

narrows the span of


knowledge and skills
which the students must
actually be familiar with.

Pros of the Tyler Model


Notable for being the 1st model of
objectives for teaching.
Examples of the acceptable verbs
are:
(Students will be able) to write, to
recite, to identify, to differentiate,
to solve, to construct, to list, to
compare and to contrast, etc

A CONTINUUM OF CURRICULUM
MODELS
Cyclical models:
Wheeler
Nichols

What is cyclic model of curriculum?

Cyclical
elements
rational
models;

Model
includes
from
both
the
and
dynamic

But is basically an extension of the


rational models which are essentially
logical and sequential in approach.

http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_cyclic_model_of_curriculum#ixzz1zol9OHHn

In the Cyclical Models,


curriculum is a

continuous
cycle responding to the
changes within
education where any new
information or practice will
bring changes.

Cyclical models undertake

situational analysis

whereby the context or situation in


which curriculum decisions are to be
taken is thoroughly studied.
This helps curriculum developers take
correct decisions thus encouraging
active participation of staffs in school
based curriculum.

cyclic model of curriculum

Strengths of Cyclical Model


Provide logical sequence;
Provide baseline data for objectives;
Able to cope with changing
circumstances;
Provide flexibility (and relevant to
school situations and more appropriate to
cur dev by teachers)

Weaknesses of cyclical model


It is difficult to locate;
It is not different from objective
model since it adopts logical
sequence;
It takes time to undertake an
effective situational analysis

A CONTINUUM OF CURRICULUM
MODELS
Dynamic/interaction models :
Walker
Skilbeck

Dynamic/interaction model

Strengths of dynamic model


Curriculum developer can begin
with any of the elements;
The model allows cur developer to
change the order of planning (to
move to and fro amongst the cur
elements)
The model offers flexibility

Weaknesses of dynamic model


The model does not necessarily
specify objectives;
The model offers so little direction;
The cur developers need a lot of
time to determine the beginning
stage in cur dev

Samples of Curriculum
Sample Curriculum- marillac hs.docx
HEALTH-K-12-Curriculum-Guide.pdf

Curriculum Development
A dynamic Process

Some basic facts


As teachers we are not free to teach any topic we
choose,
Rather:
We are guided by national, local and/or
institutional standards that specify what
students should know and be
able to do;

These

standards provide
framework to help us

identify teaching and


learning priorities and
guide our design of curriculum and
assessment

Shift of paradigm from focusing


on teaching to focusing on
Learning;
if your students are not
learning, you are not teaching
Curriculum is used as a
means to an end

Curriculum Development
Is a systematic, logical and dynamic
process for achieving organized learning;
It allows educators to:
Articulate characteristics of:
Graduates (prior knowledge, experience,
professional goals, expectations);
Curriculum design;
Content;
Teaching Method;
Assessment of students achievement;
and Program Evaluation

WHY SHOULD WE CONSIDER VARIOUS


MODELS?

To keep the educational system up-to-date with prevailing


advancements in various subjects;

To reduce the gap between actual output and required


output;

To adopt blended mode of education;

To offer more meaningful education;

To offer international standard so that credit transfers,


student, faculty exchange program can take place.

Curriculum, defined as a
Structured Series of Intended Learning Outcomes;
Written Total Plan for Education of Learners for which
Action to be taken.
Domains of Curriculum consists of
Curriculum Development
Curriculum Design

CURRICULUM MODEL
Curriculum

Model is defined as a
plan of action that can be employed

to structure a subject
or knowledge area from a
theory into practice.

VARIOUS CURRICULUM MODELS

Curriculum Design in a Context of Widening


Participation in Higher Education;

New Design to face the challenges of 21st century;

Differentiated curriculum model;

Integrating Information Literacy into the Higher


Education Curriculum;

Interdisciplinary curriculum model;

Internationalizing the Higher Education Curriculum:

Using a Learning Outcome-Led Model


Prescriptive & Descriptive models
iCarnegie's dynamic curriculum delivery
model
Transformative curriculum model
Model based on faculty-driven processes and
practices through dept initiatives
Inquiry based model

According to Duncan McCallum, the deputy academic


secretary at the University of Cambridge,

A good curriculum
should engage and
challenge the student.
Videos\Reflecting on the Curriculum A Digital Story.avi

NEW DESIGN TO FACE THE CHALLENGES OF


21ST CENTURY.

The new design should take into account

Learning Environment;

Learning Process;

Learning Reward;

Design Process

Thank You