Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 34

ENVIRONMENTAL

MICROBIOLOGY

APPLIED & ENVIRONMENTAL


MICROBIOLOGY
Applied microbiology is the
interaction of the microbial world
and the rest of the world
genetic variances
microbial effect on soil, water, our
food
Microorganisms are present in most
every aspect of our lives
microorganisms are critical to our
survival on Earth
To be a successful ecosystem on
Earth, youd best be nice to the
microorganisms!

MICROBIAL ECOLOGY:
RELATIONSHIP OF MICROORGANISMS
WITH EACH OTHER AND THEIR
ENVIRONMENT
Ecosystem: interaction of
living and non-living
components
oceans, deserts,
marshes, forests, tundra,
lakes
microorganisms play a
key role in ecosystem
structure

MICROBIAL ECOLOGY:
RELATIONSHIP OF MICROORGANISMS WITH
EACH OTHER AND THEIR ENVIRONMENT
Microenvironment: immediately
surrounds a microorganism
relevant to survival and
growth of the microorganism

NUTRIENT ACQUISITION WITHIN AN


ECOSYSTEM
3 main levels exist in every ecosystem in
regards to nutrient acquisition
1. producer
2. consumer
3. decomposer

NUTRIENT ACQUISITION WITHIN AN


ECOSYSTEM
1. Primary producers:
convert CO2 to
organic material

NUTRIENT ACQUISITION WITHIN AN


ECOSYSTEM
2. Consumers
heterotrophs
utilize organic
material created by
producers

NUTRIENT ACQUISITION WITHIN


ECOSYSTEM
3. decomposers
heterotrophs
digest leftovers of primary
producers and consumers
detritus ( fresh or partially
decomposed organic
matter)

bacteria and fungi are key


players in the process of
decomposition

LOW NUTRIENT ENVIRONMENTS:


COMMON IN NATURE
Bacteria do best in biofilms
if nutrition availability is low
biofilms are a polysaccharide
encased community of
microorganisms(Surface
attached community of
bacterial cells) Form In aqueos
enviroment etc;Rivers,ocean
microorganisms extract
nutrients that are absorbed by
water from air or nutrients that
are adsorbed onto the biofilm

TYPES OF INTERACTION

Interaction
Interaction
Interaction
Interaction

with
with
with
with

other microbes
plants
animals
human

MICROBIAL COMPETITION AND


ANTAGONISM
Most environments are suitable to many kinds of
microorganisms
Only one or a few can actually occupy the
environment at a given time

COMPETITION AND ANTAGONISM:


AMONG MICROORGANISMS
Competition:
fierce competition for nutrients and water
the faster a microbe reproduces the larger the
population
the larger population competes better
critical, especially if the microorganisms competing utilize
similar nutrients

Antagonism
The method of using established cultures of
microorganisms to prevent the intrusion of foreign
strains. When introduced to an already-colonized
environment, an invasive strain of bacteria tends not to
thrive and may go completely extinct .
bacteriocins: protein produced by bacteria that
destroys similar strains

EXAMPLE OF COMPETITION
Stability of microbial community in human intestine
is attributed to competition and antagonism
amongst its members
compete nicely for nutrients
produce toxins to limit growth of new microbes

ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE AFFECT


MICROBIAL POPULATION
Environmental fluctuations are common and
resident microorganisms may respond by
producing enzymes to help adapt to changing
environment
additional or different enzymes may be necessary for survival

mutation
domination by other species (cant compete any more)

MICROBIAL MAT:
THICK, DENSE, ORGANIZED BIOFILM
generally found attached to a solid substrate or
at air-water interfaces

Microbial mat attached to


rocks

Microbial mat in stream bed

THE STUDY OF MICROBIAL ECOLOGY


somewhat difficult to
accomplish
less than 1% of environmental
microorganisms can be
successfully cultured in the lab

MICROBIAL HABITAT
aquatic
Example marine:
deep waters are usually stable and consistent
shoreline habitat varies due to nutrient rich run-off

MICROBIAL HABITAT
Freshwater:
Example: lakes

algae
stratification allows for the mixing of the water seasonally.
Increases the presence of O2 in the deeper H2O

paramecium

MICROBIAL HABITAT
Moving water
Example: rivers
generally aerobic due to
turbulence facilitating O2
circulation

river ostracod

MICROBIAL HABITAT

Terrestrial
microorganisms are critical to soil habitat
composition of microbes is dependent on soil conditions
wet soil: anaerobic conditions due to water filling the pore
space in the soil, soil dries and microbes go produce
endospores for survival

Endospores

MUTUALISM WITH EUKARYOTES


Mychorrhizae: fungus
assist plants in the uptake of phosphorous
mychorrizae gain nutrient from plant

MUTUALISM
nitrogen fixers: fix
nitrogen and make it
available for the use by
their partner plant
most common is
Rhizobium, a
microorganism found in
many root nodules

Rhizobium in root nodules

NITROGEN CYCLE

CARBON CYCLE

PHOSPHOROUS CYCLE

MUTUALISM: MICROORGANISMS AND


THE WORLD
Microorganisms and herbivores
animal with a rumens (cow) or cecums (horse)
need microorganisms to digest the plant food
they ingest

Bacillus in a
cow rumen

MICROORGANISMS IN SEWAGE
TREATMENT
Decreasing
biochemical oxygen
demand (BOD)
decreases impact of
sewage on the
environment
BOD is the amount of
O2 needed for
microbial
decomposition of the
organic material in a
sample

Grit chamber

Biological filter

Clarifier

MICROORGANISMS IN SEWAGE
TREATMENT
not treated the high BOD found in sewage could
deplete the O2 level in the receiving water

If

in other words if raw sewage is deposited into a


lake or stream without treatment, it would
effectively suck the oxygen out of the water,
leaving very little for the fish and other organisms

MICROORGANISMS IN SEWAGE
TREATMENT
sewage treatment is a controlled process
that strives to eliminate the excess
organic material, thus diminishing the
BOD
most of the removal of organic matter is done
by microorganisms

bacterial filaments

MICROORGANISMS AND WATER


TREATMENT AND TESTING
Municipal water
supplies are tested
and treated for the
removal of pathogenic
microorganisms and
chemicals
this is done with the use
of chemicals

MICROORGANISMS AND SOLID


WASTE TREATMENT
The elimination of organic waste
material can be enhanced by
microorganisms
increase cost to separate organic
material from inorganic (glass, metal,
plastic)
composting: natural decomposition of
organic solid materiel results in
excellent fertilizer

COMPOST

Microorganisms are
needed to breakdown
the organic material

BIOREMEDIATION:
USE OF MICROORGANISMS TO ELIMINATE OR
MAKE HARMLESS POLLUTANTS IN AN
ENVIRONMENT
Pollutants
removed can
include
organic solvents
toxic chemicals
hydrocarbons

oil spill