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International Conference on

Trends in Product Life Cycle, Modeling,


Simulation and Synthesis
PLMSS
2014
Paper ID
: 1007

Design for Fatigue and Simulation of


Glass
Fibre / Epoxy Composite Automobile
Presented
By
Leaf
Spring
Amol Bhanage & Dr. K.
Padmanabhan SMBS,
VIT University, Vellore

Contents

Objective & Background


Specification & Material properties of Leaf Spring
FE Modelling of Leaf Spring
Static analysis & Ride Comfort
Finite Element Based Fatigue Analysis
Results and Discussion
Conclusion & Future scope
References

07/09/16

International Conference on Trends in Product Life Cycle, Modeling, Simulation


and Synthesis

1.Objective
In the present work, steel leaf spring used in passenger cars is
replaced with a composite leaf spring made of a glass/epoxy
composite. The primary objective is to compare fatigue
characteristics of SAE1045-450-QT steel and E Glass/ Epoxy
Composite material.
Factors like fatigue life, fatigue damage, biaxiality indication etc.
are plotted for steel and composite materials and predict the
fatigue performance using ANSYS Workbench software.
Therefore the objective of this paper is to present a design and
simulation study on the fatigue performance of a glass
fibre/epoxy composite leaf spring through design and finite
element method and prove the reliability of the validation
methods based only on simulation, thereby saving time,
material and production costs for a complete product realization.
07/09/16

International Conference on Trends in Product Life Cycle, Modeling, Simulation


and Synthesis

2. Background
Author

Conclusion

Senthilkumar
Mouleeswaran [2]

Composite multi leaf spring using glass fibre reinforced


polymer compared to steel spring, found to have
67.35% lesser stress, 64.95% higher stiffness and
126.98% higher natural frequency and also weight
reduction of 68.15% is achieved compared to steel leaf
spring.

D.N.Dubey,
S.G.Mahakalkar [7]

Composite leaf springs would offer substantial weight


savings by using mono leaf spring in passenger cars.
Mono parabolic leaf spring of a Maruti Omni used HM
and HS Carbon polymers composite material.

Makarand B. Shirke and


Prof. V .D .Wakchaure
[5]

The life of the spring is an important criterion. In this


aspect as well composite leaf spring proves to be much
better than EN45 steel leaf spring.

07/09/16

International Conference on Trends in Product Life Cycle, Modeling,


Simulation and Synthesis

2. Background
Author

Conclusion

Shishay Amare
Gebremeskel [4]

Constant cross section design of mono leaf springs is


employed to take advantages of ease of design
analysis and its manufacturing process. Resulting
design and simulation stresses are much below the
strength properties of the material, satisfying the
maximum stress failure criterion .

Sachin Kr. Patel,


A.K. Jain and
Pratik Gandhi [9]

Composite materials have high elastic strain energy


storage capacity and high strength to weight ratio
Therefore, composite leaf spring is an effective
replacement for the existing steel leaf spring in
automobile.

J.A.M. Ferreira,
J.D.M. Costa,
P.N.B. Reis, M.O.W.
Richardson [8]

The fatigue strength is strongly influenced by the layer


design.
0 laminate results have values 1.5-1.8 times higher
than +45/0/-45 and +30/-30/0 laminates which
exhibit similar fatigue strengths.

07/09/16

International Conference on Trends in Product Life Cycle, Modeling,


Simulation and Synthesis

3. Specification and Material Properties of


Leaf Spring
Table No.1 Specification of Existing
Leaf Spring
Parameters

Value

Total Length of the spring (Eye to Eye)

1200 mm

Free Camber (At no load condition)

120 mm

Thickness of leaf

8 mm

Width of leaf spring

60 mm

Maximum Load given on spring

3250 N

No. of full length leave (Master Leaf)

01

E Glass/ Epoxy Composite


No. of full length leaves

04

SAE1045-450-QT

07/09/16

Fig. 1 Isometric view & Dimension of


Mono
E Glass Epoxy Composite
Leaf
International Conference on Trends in Product
LifeSpring
Cycle, Modeling, Simulation
and Synthesis

3. Specification and Material Properties of


Leaf Spring
Table .2: Mechanical and Cyclic Properties of
SAE1045-450- QT [11,12]

Table .3: Mechanical and Cyclic Properties of E


glass/ Epoxy Composite material [11. 12]

Material Properties

Value

Elastic Modulus (E), GPa

207

Tensile modulus along X-direction (Ex), MPa

34000

Yield Tensile Strength , MPa

1515

Tensile modulus along Y-direction (Ey), MPa

6530

Ultimate Tensile Strength, MPa

1584

Tensile modulus along Z-direction (Ez), MPa

6530

Cyclic Strength Coefficient (K)

1874

Tensile strength of the material, MPa

900

Fatigue Strength Coefficient (Sf)

1686

Fatigue Strength Exponent (b)

-0.06

Compressive strength of the material, MPa

450

Fatigue Ductility Exponent (c )

-0.83

Shear modulus along XY-direction (Gxy), MPa

2433

Fatigue Ductility Coefficient (Ef)

0.79

Shear modulus along YZ-direction (Gyz), MPa

1698

Cyclic Strain Hardening Exponent (n)

0.09

Shear modulus along ZX-direction (Gzx), MPa

2433

Density , Kg/m

7.7 10

Poisson ratio along XY-direction (NUxy)

0.217

Poisson ratio along YZ-direction (NUyz)

0.366

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Material Properties

Value

Possions ratio

0.266

Behaviour

Isotropic

International Conference on Trends in Product Life Cycle, Modeling, Simulation


and Synthesis

4. Finite Element Modelling


Assumptions:
SAE1045-450-QT multi leaf and E-Glass Epoxy composite mono leaf spring
modeled with constant thickness and constant width design.
Unidirectional (0) E-Glass Epoxy composite layup are assumed along the
longitudinal direction of spring.
The constraints parameter i.e. dimensions and boundary condition of SAE1045450-QT multi leaf spring is same as that of E-Glass Epoxy composite leaf spring.
Fatigue life predication of leaf spring based on finite element analysis using

Stress life approach.

Element & Meshing:

Fig. 2 Geometric mesh model


SAE 1045-450-QT leaf spring
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Fig. 3 Geometric Mesh Model Mono


Composite Leaf Spring

International Conference on Trends in Product Life Cycle, Modeling, Simulation


and Synthesis

4. Finite Element Modelling


Boundary Condition and Loading:
D.O.F. Constrained

Front Eye

Rear Eye

Translation

X, Y & Z direction

Y & Z direction

X & Z direction

X & Z direction

Free Y rotation

Free X translation &

Constrained
Rotation
Constrained
Allowing

Y rotation
Table. 4 : Boundary condition Mono Leaf
Spring

For E-Glass Epoxy composite leaf spring modeling


(Element Shell 181)

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Fig.. 4 Boundary condition Leaf Spring

10 lamina of 0 degree fiber orie


(thickness of each lamina

International Conference on Trends in Product Life Cycle, Modeling, Simulation


and Synthesis

5. Static Analysis and Ride Comfort


Table. 5 Comparison result of Stress for
SAE 1045-450 - QT and E-Glass Epoxy Composite
Material
Parameters
Maximum load in N
Absolute

Maximum

SAE1045-

E-Glass Epoxy

450-QT

Composite

3250

3250

724.52

715

24.33

53.59

Stress , MPa
Stiffness, N/mm

Static Results :
Shear stress (12= 6.77 MPa) multiplied
by a factor of 9 (9*3 = 60.93 MPa) is
much less than the shear strength (S =
68.95 MPa) of the specified composite
material, E-glass/Epoxy.
Specifying the criteria : (9*12< S),
Design is safe even for the flexural
Table 6 Natural frequency of SAE 1045-450-QT and
failure. E-Glass Epoxy Composite material
SAE1045-450- QT

E- Glass Epoxy

Frequency Hz

Frequency Hz

13.13

17.15

54.55

56.16

78.59

72.19

116.89

119.36

178.49

202.78

243.27

288.43

Modes

Ride Comfort :
To avoid resonant condition The road
irregularities usually have the
maximum frequency of 12 Hz. [7]
In modal analysis only boundary
conditions are applied and no load is
acted on the leaf spring.
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International Conference on Trends in Product Life Cycle, Modeling, Simulation


and Synthesis

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6. Finite Element Based Fatigue Analysis

Main purpose of Finite Element Based Fatigue tool using for


leaf spring simulation during the design stage of
development process to enable reliable fatigue life
calculations.

Input Parameter and Fatigue Analysis Cycle

Figure 5 Fatigue Analysis Prediction Strategies

Figure 6 FEM Based Fatigue Analysis Cycle [11]


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International Conference on Trends in Product Life Cycle, Modeling, Simulation


and Synthesis

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6. Finite Element Based Fatigue Analysis


Fatigue life criteria and S-N Curves:

For E - Glass/ epoxy composite material, Hwang and Han developed an


analytical fatigue model to predict the number of fatigue cycles to
failure.

(1)

Where, N is the number of cycles to failure;


B = 10.33; C = 0.14012;
r = Applied stress level
-----(2)
Where,

max

= maximum stress ;

u = ultimate tensile strength


-------

(3)

07/09/16

International Conference on Trends in Product Life Cycle, Modeling, Simulation


and Synthesis

12

6. Finite Element Based Fatigue Analysis

The life data analysis is a tool to be used here to predict the fatigue
life of mono composite leaf spring.
Fatigue life results are based on analytical result and resulting S-N
graph for SAE1045-450-QT and E Glass Composite as shown in
Fig. 7 and 8
E glass-epoxy figure is for tension, torsion or bending ? Specify !
( Figure 7)

Figure 7 S-N curves for E-Glass/epoxy composite


[2]
07/09/16

Figure 8 S-N curves for SAE1045-450-QT


spring [11]

International Conference on Trends in Product Life Cycle, Modeling, Simulation


and Synthesis

13

7. Results and Discussion


Fatigue Life
In ANSYS Workbench, fatigue analysis is generally conducted by four
approaches namely Goodmans approach, Gerbers approach, mean stress
approach and Soderbergs approach .By using Gerber approach, applying a
load of 3250 N, with a loading condition from history data SAE
Transmission. The results obtained using ANSYS Workbench.

Fig. 9, Fatigue Life distribution of SAE


1045-450-QT

Fig. 10, Fatigue Life distribution of E- Glass Epoxy


Composite

Fatigue Life - SAE 1045-450-QT

1.025*105 cycles

Fatigue Life - E- Glass Epoxy


Composite

1.725*109 cycles

07/09/16

International Conference on Trends in Product Life Cycle, Modeling, Simulation


and Synthesis

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7. Results and Discussion


Fatigue Sensitivity
This plot represents the variation of fatigue results as a function of the
loading at the critical location on the leaf spring model

Fig. 11 Fatigue Sensitivity Plot E- Glass


Epoxy
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Fig. 12 Fatigue Sensitivity Plot SAE 1045450-QT

International Conference on Trends in Product Life Cycle, Modeling, Simulation


and Synthesis

15

7. Results and Discussion


Fatigue Damage
Fatigue damage is defined as the design
life divided by the available life. Fig. 13
shows Fatigue Damage plot for E- Glass
Epoxy material

Fig. 13 Plot of Fatigue Damage E Glass


Epoxy

Fatigue Safety factor


At resulted design life, this is factor of
safety with respect to a fatigue failure. The
maximum Factor of Safety displayed is 15.
For Fatigue Safety Factor, values < 1
indicate failure before the design life is
reached
Fig. 14 Fatigue Safety
Factor
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International Conference on Trends in Product Life Cycle, Modeling, Simulation


and Synthesis

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7. Results and Discussion

Biaxiality Indication
Biaxiality indication is defined as the
smaller principal stress divided by the
larger principal stress with the principal
stress nearest zero ignored

Fig. 15 Biaxiality Indication Plot - E Glass


Epoxy

Rainflow Matrix Chart

This results in nothing but a measure of


the composition of a loading history.
Where Z axis is nothing but counts for
given alternating and mean stress bin. It
consists of cycles corresponding to low
stress range and higher stress range

07/09/16

Fig. 16 Rainflow Matrix


Chart
International Conference on Trends in Product Life Cycle, Modeling, Simulation
and Synthesis

17

8. Conclusion & Future Scope


By using Stress Life approach, Absolute Maximum Principal
Stress used basis for calculating E- Glass Epoxy Composites
leaf springs life for passenger vehicles.
Due to Weight reduction and stress, stiffness criteria, multi
steel leaf spring is proposed to be replaced with E- Glass Epoxy
composite leaf springs.
It can be shown that, design and simulation stresses satisfy
maximum stress failure criterion; hence design is safe.
Ride comfort of both Steel SAE1045-450-QT Leaf Spring and
unidirectional E- Glass Composite Leaf Spring was found to be
1.3 times more than the 12Hz produced on road which
decreases resonance. This is compared by using modal
analysis for increasing ride comfort.
07/09/16

International Conference on Trends in Product Life Cycle, Modeling, Simulation


and Synthesis

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8. Conclusion & Future Scope


Finite element analysis can be used directly to calculate fatigue
damage and the damage contour shows that the highest damage
value is inacceptable .
Finite element method using CAE tool like ANSYS Workbench prove the
reliability of the validation methods based only on simulation, thereby
saving time, material and production costs for a complete product
realization. The fatigue life of the leaf spring has also been improved.
In future, using different lay ups to calculate fatigue life can lead to
the choice of best lay up configuration. Accurate results can be
plotted using n code Design Life software ?.
It is proposed to conduct the fatigue analysis of a hygrothermally
saturation conditioned composite leaf spring in order to evaluate its
real environment fatigue life . Himalayan sub zero temperature fatigue
performance will also be evaluated .

07/09/16

International Conference on Trends in Product Life Cycle, Modeling, Simulation


and Synthesis

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9. References
1.

G Harinath Gowd et al, Static Analysis of Leaf Spring, International Journal of


Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST), ISSN: 0975-5462, Vol. 4 No.08 August
2012, Pg. No (3794-3803)

2.

Senthilkumar Mouleeswaran, Design, Manufacturing and Testing of Polymer


Composite Multi-Leaf Spring for Light Passenger Automobiles - A Review, Materials
Science and Technology, Prof. Sabar Hutagalung (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-51-0193-2

3.

4.

5.

6.

B. Raghu Kumar, R. Vijaya Prakash, N. Ramesh, Static analysis of mono leaf


spring with different composite materials, Journal of Mechanical Engineering
Research, ISSN 2141-2383 , Vol. 5(2), February 2013, pp. 32-37.
Shishay Amare Gebremeskel, Design, Simulation, and Prototyping of Single
Composite Leaf Spring for Light Weight Vehicle, Global Journal of Researches in
Engineering Mechanical and Mechanics Engineering, Volume 12, Issue 7 ,Year 2012,
21-30
Makarand B. Shirke and Prof. V .D .Wakchaure, Performance Association of Static
and Fatigue Behavior of Steel and Glass Epoxy Composite Leaf Spring of Light Motor
Vehicle, International Journal of Advanced Research in Science, Engineering and
Technology, Vol.01, Issue 04, year ?, pp. 08- 11
S. Abdullah, F.N. Ahmad Refngah, A. Jalar, L.B. Chua, A.K. Ariffin And A. FEA-based
durability assessment: A case study using a parabolic leaf spring, Proceedings of
the 7th WSEAS International Conference on System Science And Simulation In
Engineering (ICOSSSE 2008), ISSN: 1790-2769,
pp-67-72

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International Conference on Trends in Product Life Cycle, Modeling, Simulation


and Synthesis

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9. References
7.

D.N.Dubey, S.G.Mahakalkar, Stress Analysis of a Mono-parabolic Leaf SpringA


Review, International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER), ISSN: 22496645 Vol.3, Issue.2, March-April. 2013 pp-769-772

8.

J.A.M. Ferreira, J.D.M. Costa, P.N.B. Reis, M.O.W. Richardson, Analysis of fatigue and
damage in glass-fibre-reinforced polypropylene composite materials, Composites
Science and Technology 59 (1999), 1461-1467

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

Sachin Kr. Patel, A.K. Jain and Pratik Gandhi, Review of Effect of Material on Fatigue
Life of Leaf Spring, VSRD International Journal of Mechanical, Civil, Automobile and
Production Engineering, Vol. 2 (4), 2012, 161-165
Mahmood M. Shokrieh , Davood Rezaei, Analysis and optimization of a composite
leaf spring , Composite Structures 60 (2003), 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd, 317325
J. P. Karthik, K. L. Chaitanya and C. Tara Sasanka, Fatigue Life Prediction of a
Parabolic Spring under Non-constant Amplitude Proportional Loading using Finite
Element Method, International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology, Vol. 46,
September, 2012, 143-156
M.Venkatesan , D.Helmen Devaraj , Design And Analysis of Composite Leaf Spring
In Light Vehicle, International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER), ISSN:
2249-6645, Vol.2, Issue.1, Jan-Feb 2012, pp-213-218
D. Alfred Hancq, Fatigue Analysis Using ANSYS, Ansys Inc, year ? Vol ?, Issue ? Page ?

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and Synthesis

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Thank you

07/09/16

International Conference on Trends in Product Life Cycle, Modeling, Simulation


and Synthesis

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