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Lecture 3 : CONTROL SYSTEM

TERMINOLOGY

By

Oladokun Sulaiman
• Learning Objective: To be able to describe the
common TERMS OF CONTROL SYSTEMS

Specific Objectives:
System
Control components
Control elements
Performance of control system
Classification of control system
3.1 SYSTEM

• A system can be defined as an arrangement of parts within some


boundary which work together to provide some form of output from
a specified input or inputs.

JACKET WATER COOLER

INPUT • PNEUMATIC
CONTROLLER

FEED BACK

OUTPUT
CONTROL SYSTEM
• The operation of a system may be controlled externally (by an
operator) or automatically (by the system itself). When the control
action of a system is independent of the output, the system is said
to be an OPEN-LOOP control system. If It, it is called a CLOSED-
LOOP or FEEDBACK control system.

OUTPUT
INPUT
CONTROL
SYSTEM
The required The variable at
value of a the desired
variable value

• In a simplified definition - an input of the required value of some


variable and an output of the variable at the desired value.
BLOCK DIAGRAM
• A useful way of representing a system is as a block diagram.

• Within the boundary described by the box outline is the system and inputs to
the system are shown by arrows entering the box and outputs by arrows
leaving the box.

• Control system may be represented by a series of interconnected system


elements with each system element represented by a block having a
particular function.

nlet Pneumatic controller Valve positioner Cooler

• outlet
CONTROL SYSTEM COMPONENTS
• A control system consists of a controller and a plant. We use the general
term plant to describe the machine, vehicle or process which is being
controlled.
• The controller can be a person, in which case we have a manual control
system.
• Alternatively, in an automatic control system the controller is a device,
electronic circuit, computer, or mechanical linkage, etc. Figure below shows
the general arrangement.
• The interface between the plant and the controller requires actuators
(control elements) to provide the control action.
• In addition, instrumentation, detectors and sensors (measurement elements)
are needed to provide information about the plant status to the controller.
• The information passing between the controller and the plant is in the form
of signals. These signals can be very diverse, for example electrical,
pneumatic or mechanical, etc.
• The term ‘transmitter’ is commonly used to describe the measurement
element in a process control system because the transmitter sends an
electrical or pneumatic signal representing the measured value to the
controller.
Control System Components
• Controllers are usually implemented electronically, either
using analogue circuits or a digital computer
(microprocessor).
• Pneumatic and hydraulic controllers are also to be found.
Actuators are commonly pneumatic, electric or hydraulic
depending on the application and power level required.

• The behaviour and performance of a control system


depends on the interaction or all elements.
• The individual components cannot generally be
considered in isolation.
• The plant itself is probably the most important element in
any control system; the best controller in the world
cannot make an inadequate plant operate well.
3.2 CONTROL SYSTEM COMPONENTS
• Plant – a piece of equipment, or a set of machine parts
functioning together, the purpose is to perform a particular
operation

• System - a and perform a certain objective combination of


components that act together

• State variable - a quantity that change with time

• Controlled variables - these are the variables which quantify the


performance or quality of the final product, which are also called
output variables.

• Manipulated variables - these input variables are adjusted


dynamically to keep the controlled variables at their set-points.

• Disturbance variables - these are also called "load" variables and


represent input variables that can cause the controlled variables
to deviate from their respective set points.
3.3 CONTROL ELEMENTS
Control element: This determines the action to be taken as a
result of the input to the system.

Correction element: This has an input from the controller and


gives an output of some action designed to change the variable
being monitored.

Process: This is the process of which a variable is being


controlled.

Comparison element: This element compares the required value


of the variable being controlled with the measured value of
what is being achieved and produces an error signal.

Error: Reference value signal – measured actual value signal.


3.3 CONTROL ELEMENTS
• Stability:A system is said to be stable if, when given a
input or a change in input, it has transients which die away
with time and leave the system in a steady state condition.
• The system would be unstable if the transients did not die
away with time but grew with time and so steady condition
were never reached.
• Detecting Element: Responds directly to the value of the
variable. For example Bourdon tube is pressure detecting
element.
• Measuring Element: Responds to the signal from the
detecting element and gives a signal representing the
variable value. For example the pointer of the pressure
gauge.
• Measuring Unit: Comprises of detecting and measuring
element.
• Sensor: is a term used for the detecting element. By its
nature, it is essentially a transducer.
3.3.1 SIGNAL TRANSMITTING BY TRANSDUCER

TRANSDUCER

Transducer: A device to convert a signal (representing a physical


quantity) of one form into a corresponding signal of another form. For
example a microphone is a sound transducer.

A transducer may be an integral part of the measuring unit, for example


pressure to displacement in a Bourdon pressure gauge.

It may also be a separate unit converter especially suitable to change


the signal to a better form for remote transmissions, e.g. displacement to
electrical in a differential transformer.

VOLTAGE SIGNAL
THERMOCOUPLE AMPLIFIER THAT
REPRESENTS
THERMOMETER
3.3.2 TELEMETERING
• It may be defined as signal transmission over a
considerable distance.
• In measurement this involves information transfer from
detecting element to a central recording display station.
• In control this involves control operating devices and
related signal transfers.
• In telemetering systems the measuring unit is often
called the transmitter.
• Incorporating a transducer, and the recording unit some
distance away is then referred to as the receiver which
may have an associated transducer if required.
3.3.4 FEEDBACK
• In everyday life, feedback occurs when we are made aware of the
consequences of our actions. Feedback is so natural that we take it
for granted. Imagine trying to accomplish the simplest of tasks
without feedback, for example, trying to walk without visual
feedback. Feedback not only gives verification of our actions: it
allows us to cope with a changing environment by adjusting our
actions in the presence of unforeseen events and changing
conditions.
• Feedback has similar advantages when applied to automatic
control. Feedback occurs in automatic control systems when the
control action depends upon the measured state of the machine or
process being controlled. Feedback gives and automatic control
system the ability to deal with unexpected disturbances and
changes in the plant behaviour.

Actual
Desired course
fluid of travel
output
Error Tank
Human Valve
+ operator
-

Meter reading
FEEDBACK
• It is the measured value or
a multiplication of
measured value which is
brought back to the
comparator unit and X+ Error Y
compared with the G
required of reference
value. H

• To stabilize the system a


negative feed back is a
useful part of the control. Y G
=
• Negative feed back
reduces the overall gain of
the system and makes the
X 1 + GH
system more stable.
3.3.5 TRANSFER FUNCTION
• A controller’s input may be a function of time and of many forms, such as
ramp, sinusoidal, etc.
• As a result output will also be a function of time.
• Therefore gain will also be a function of time.
• A controller action may not be only be proportional.
• Controller action (output) may be a resultant of various actions –
proportional of input, integration of input with respect to time and derivative
of input with respect to time.
• Hence it is easier to express all the actions in terms of Laplace transform,
which will give an equation in terms of “s” domain.
• Linearity property allows two Laplace transforms of separate functions to be
added.
• Gain of controller is obtained mathematically and expressed in ‘s’ domain.
• Inputs and output described as function of s we define the transfer function

Y ( s)
G ( s) =
X (s)
3.3.6 GAIN
It is the ratio of “change of output” to “change of input”.

A controller’s input may be a function of time and of many forms, such as ramp,
sinusoidal, etc. As a result output will also be a function of time. Therefore gain
will also be a function of time.

Controller input may be composed of different type of action- proportional,


integration and derivative, so as output.
Hence it is easier to express all the actions in terms of Laplace transform,
which will give an equation in terms of “s” domain.
Linearity property allows two Laplace transforms of separate functions can be
added.
Gain of controller is obtained mathematically and expressed in ‘s’ domain.

Gain is also termed as Transfer function, G(s).


GAIN
It is the ratio of “change of output” to
“change of input”.
In a simple proportional only
controller it is a constant controller
action factor.

Assuming a proportional controller DV MV

consists of nozzle and flapper, as the


distance between flapper and nozzle
changes, outlet pressure changes
1bar
as shown in the sketch.

Here the gain can be expressed


as 0.02 bar/µm
• It is also expressed as the ratio of 0.2 bar
percentage of output range to the
percentage of input range.
20µm 60µm
• In many controllers there is provision
of adjusting gain.
3.4 PERFORMANCE OF CONTROL SYSTEM

The Standard Terms and Definitions used in Instrumentation and Control


Engineering are listed below.
• Accuracy: The accuracy of an instrument reading is defined as the
closeness with which the reading approaches the true value.
• Precision: The precision of readings is the agreement of readings taken
repeatedly when the same value is measured several times over.
• Sensitivity: Usually denoted the smallest change in the measured value to
which the instrument responds.
• Calibration: To calibrate a mechanism is the function of adjustment to give
a required accuracy of reading over a given range.
• Error: Instrument error is the difference between the indicated and true
reading as shown by a standard.
• Correction: The correction of an instrument is the amount to be added to or
subtracted from the indicated reading to obtain the correct value.
• Tolerance: Is the amount by which an instrument indication may depart
from the true reading and still perform its required function, i.e. permissible
error.
• Hysteresis: Hysteresis of an instrument is the maximum difference
between readings taken at given points moving up scale, to those taken
when moving down scale, i.e. hysteresis curves are potted from up scale
and down scale readings.
Performance of Control System
• Control condition: The physical quantity or condition of the controlled
body, process or machine which it is the purpose of the system to control.
• Measurement Element: The element which responds to the signal from the
detecting element and gives a signal representing the controlled condition.
• Desired Value: The value of the controlled condition which the operator
desires to obtain.
• Deviation: The difference between the measured value of the controlled
condition and the command signal.
• Proportional Action: That range of values of deviation corresponding to
the full operating range of output signal of the controlling unit resulting from
proportional action only.
• The proportional band can be expressed as a percentage of the range of
values of the controlled condition which is the measuring unit of the
controller is designed to measure.
• Offset: Sustained deviation between measured and desired values.
• Integral Action/Reset: The action of a control element whose output signal
changes at a rate which is proportional to its input signal.
• Derivative Action: The action of a control element whose output signal is
proportional to the rate at which its input signal is changing.
3.5 Classification of Control Systems
• Based on working medium
• Based on type of signal in the system
• Based on system structure
• Based on control action
• Response of control systems
• Proportional band
• Integral action time
• Derivative action time
3.5.1 Based on working medium
• Mechanical Control system
• Pneumatic Control Systems
• Hydraulic Control systems
• Electrical and Electronic Control Systems
• Hybrid Control systems
3.5.2 Based on Type of Signals
• Analog Control Systems
• Digital Control Systems
• ON-OFF Control
• Fuzzy Logic Control
• Neural Network
• Adaptive Control
• Optimal Control
• Stochastic Control
3.5.3 Based on Structure

• Open Loop Control system


• Close Loop Control system
• ON-OFF Control systems
• Cascade Control System
• Split Range Control system
• Ratio Control system
Based on Control Action

• Proportional
• Integral
• Derivative
• PD
• PI
• PID
Type of Controller Actions

• Two step action: Regulating unit open or shut/ on or off.

• Proportional action: Action of regulating unit is proportional to the


deviation, that is, output or
C p α e, or C p = K p e
Where ‘c’ is controller output
dC I
• Integral action: Rate of change of controller action or αe
dt
Integrating both sides C I = K I ∫ e dt

C = (Ki/s ) x e

• Derivative action: Controller action is proportional to rate of


change of deviation or de de
CD α , or C D = K D
dt dt
PROPORTIONAL CONTROLLER

‘e’ = MV-DV

DV MV

Why proportional control suffers offset and droop :

• Controller action is proportional to the input


signal and can maintain a desired value at certain
loading condition of the plant, accordingly
controller changes- the position of the regulator,
valve, etc.

• If load of the controlled plant changes the


same amount of regulating action will not bring
back to desired value.
Response of controller action

Change in load
offset

Proportional only control

Proportional + Integral No
Control offset

Less recovery
time
Proportional + Integral +
Derivative Control
PROPORTIONAL BAND
P SET

ADJUSTING
SCREW

-k=V/ ө= 0.05MM/M

ө =1M UP
FLOAT

20 M

V=0.05 MM TRAVEL 10 M
DOWN

VALVE TRAVEL= 0.5 MM


Proportional Control system
Proportional Band
P-control Response
Example of offset

• In the following figures control valve opens on a decrease in


controller output. Controller output decreases with its liquid level
decreases.
• Desired level is 0.6 meter flow through regulating valve is 60
litre/min. Assuming the regulating valve at 0.2meter, level remains
full open when it passes 120 litre/min. At 1m level the valve will be
fully closed.
1m
0.6m
0.2m
Process

Regulating
unit
e
Controller Desired value
0.6m
Example of offset
• The system is trimmed so that with the valve half open, inflow and
outflow are the same, i.e. 60 litre per minute.

• Now if the outlet valve is further opened so that the outflow is now
90 lpm. With 60 lpm flowing into tank the level will obviously drops,
and will not stop dropping until the input flow is 90 lpm. This can
only occur if the level is much below than 0.6 m.

• The controller will now be in equilibrium with the control point offset
from the desired value

• The level can not rise any more because at that value the controller
will regulate to cause less inflow than 90 lpm, subsequently level
falls.
Integral Control Action


Integral Control (I)
Controller output proportional to integral of
error signal ‘e’
C ∝ ƒ e dt
Integral Control Response
(P + I ) Control

(P+I) Control
Controller action combination of (P)
and (I) actions
C ∝ ( e + ƒ e dt)
C = (Kp + Ki/s) e
(P + I) Control System
P+I -Controller output
PROPORTIONAL + INTEGRAL CONTROLLER

DV MV
contd
• (P + I + D) Control
– Controller action is combined effect of (P)
(I) and (D) control actions.

c ∝ ( P + ƒ e dt + de/dt)
C = (Kp + Ki/s + Kd x s) e
Most accurate control, but very complex
(P + I +D ) Control system
PNEUMATIC THREE TERM CONTROLLER (P + I + D)
INTEGRAL RESTRICTOR

DERIVATIVE
RESTRICTOR

INTEGRAL BELLOW DERIVATIVE BELOW

RELAY VALVE

DV MV
CORRECTING
UNIT

ONE CAN ADJUST THE OVERALL GAIN OF THE CONTROLLER BY ADJUSTING THE INTEGRAL AND
DERIVATIVE RESTRICTOR.
SINGLE ELEMENT CONTROL

AIR SUPPLY

Controller

SW IN

Fresh water Return


SENSING ELEMENT

COOLER 3 way Fresh water supply

valve

SW OUT
Single elements means the controlled element (variable) is controlled by a
single sensing element- For example it senses the Jacket Cooling Water inlet
temperature and tries to maintain this temperature at constant set level
Based on Structure

• Open Loop Control system


• Close Loop Control system
• ON-OFF Control systems
• Cascade Control System
• Split Range Control system
• Ratio Control system
Open loop Control systems
TYPES OF CONTROL

• Broadly classified into two types:


• 1) Open loop: Controlled manually. No automatic
feedback from the measured value of the plant output
(being controlled).

Process
Measuring
Regulating
unit
unit
• 2) Closed loop: Feedback of measure values is
compared with desired value and the error is used as
input signal of the controller.

Process
Measuring unit
Regulating
unit e
Controller Desired value
Cascade Control

2. CASCADE C

Used for contro


Cascade Control System
Ratio Control System

• One parameter is controlled in a fixed ratio


to another parameter of the system
• Boiler air-fuel ratio control is an example
of ratio control system
Split–Range Control System
Control signal divided into two range of
magnitude
• Lower magnitude signal controls one
corrective action input
• Higher magnitude signal controls second
corrective action input
• Control of lubricating oil temperature is
split range control system
contd
DV

Master Controller

M/E
Slave Controller

LO Sump

ATC
ATO
Steam Valve SW VV

Steam Heater Sea Water Cooler

L.O Pump
Digital Control System
• All the signals flowing through control system
are converted into digital form
• This is done to simplify processing of plant
parameters to achieve better control
• All the signals flowing into the final control
elements are reconverted from digital to analog
form
• System utilises A/D and D/A converters
• Control functions are distributed rather than
centralised
Digital Control System
Consists of a number of microprocessors based control
modules that work together
Control modules distributed geographically
Reduces risk and improves reliability

5. DIGITALCONTROL
DCS Configuration
Essential features of Distributed
Control Syetm(DCS)
• Distributes its functions into smaller sets of
semi-autonomous subsystems which
cover specific process or area of the plant
• Performs following functions-
• Process analysis and supervision
• Data Logging
• Process control
• Storage and retrieval of Data
• Presentation of information and reports
Basic DCS functions
• DCS is connected to primary control
elements such as temperature and
pressure transmitters, flow meters, gas
analysers etc
• From these field devices, it receives
electrical signals, such as 4-20 mA, 1-5 V
DC etc
• DCS converts these signals into
equivalent digital form
Contd
• Digitized signals can be used by the
computer to variety of use, such as
• Control loops
• Execute special programmable logic
• Monitor inputs
• Set alarm operations through use limiters
• Trend,Log and report Data
• Perform many other functions to implem-
ent superior control strategy
Feedback Control
Measured
Controlled signal Process or outputs
System to be
Controlled

Control system involve with the analysis, design, modeling,


estimation, identification, and control of physical systems or
processes
Feedback Control

Desired Measured
Controlled signal
Value outputs
Error Control System Process or
+ (analog or System to be
-
digital) Controlled
Motor Control Process

Desired
Angle
Error Motor Voltage Angle
+ Microcontroller Motor Assembly
-
Process Control

From R. Stenz and U. Kuhn, Automation of a Batch Distillation Column Using Fuzzy and Conventional
Control," IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, vol. 3, no. 2, June 1995, page 172.
Power System

From:P. Kundar, Power System


Stability and Control, McGraw Hill,
1994, page 9.
Printed
Circuit
Board test

From: J. Shim, H. Cho and S. Kim, "An


Actively Compliable Probing System," IEEE
Control Systems Magazine, vol. 17, no. 1,
February 1997, page 15.
Biomedical

From: R. Dorf and R. Bishop, Modern Control Systems, Addison


Wesley, 7th edition, 1995, page 706.
Baking Processes
Applications
• Power Systems
• Manufacturing
• Robotics
• Process Control
• Flight Control and Navigation
• Network Control
• Biomedical
• Process Scheduling (in Computers)
Courses
• Software Fundamentals for Engineering
Systems
• Neural Networks and Fuzzy Logic in Control
• Industrial Controls and Manufacturing
• Computational Computer Vision
• Embedded Control Systems
DCS General Architecture
• Input/Out put module
– to scan and digitise process instrument input/output
• Local I/O bus link
– Input/output links to controller modules
• Controller modules
– to perform control calculations and logic from field data
• User interfaces include human interface system,
Engineering and workstations
• Data Highway, a plant wide communication network
• Communication modules, provide a link between Data
highway and other modules
Summary
• The following has been discussed:
• General control system
• Control system components
• Control system elements
• Performance of control system
• Classification of control system
• Thank you for listening

• Questions???