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BIRLA VISHVAKARMA MAHAVIDYALAYA

(ENGINEERING COLLEGE)
VALLABH VIDYANAGAR

PROJECT II: (180001)


B.E EIGHT SEMESTER

VADOSE ZONE SOIL SAMPLING, TESTING


AND CHARACTERIZATION

Prepared By : Abhishek Chaudhary

120070106121

Vijay Kumar Vadher

120070106124

Dhonde Nitesh Arvind

120070106127

Vaja Krupeshkumar Kiritkumar

Project guide : Dr. S.D.Dhiman

120070106126

INTRODUCTION
Soil

is a major component of the Earth's


ecosystem.
Soil is a natural body which performs important
functions like
It

is a medium for plant growth.


It is a means of water storage, supply and purification.
It is a modifier of earth's atmosphere.
It is a habitat for organisms.

Vadose zone: vadose zone or the zone of aeration, extends


downward from the land surface to the top of the underlying
saturated zone.
Capillary fringe is included in vadose
zone.
Water in the pores of this zone is at a
pressure that
is lower than atmospheric
pressure.

OBJECTIVES
To

determine the study area and collect soil samples.


To carry out geotechnical tests on the collected soil
samples.
To carry out mineral identification of soil samples using
X-RAY Fluorescence and X-RAY Diffraction.
To carry out analysis of test results and determine soil
characteristics.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Physico-Chemical Characterization of farmland Soil used in


some villages of Lunawada Taluka. Dist:Mahisagar (Gujarat)
India
Fifteen villages from Lunawada Taluka covering North, South, East
and West were selected for this study. A representative soil sample
collected from each village which represent soils of 5 to 10 farm's
depending upon area of village.
ii. The collected samples were analyzed for major Physical and Chemical
soil quality parameter like PH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Organic
Carbon (OC), Nitrogen (N) at Anand Agricultural University, Gujarat.
iii. The soil sample studied area of Lunawada Taluka. Dist : Mahisagar has
been found to be fit for crop productivity
i.

Determination of heavy metals in soils using XRF


technique.
In

this study various samples were taken from Iron and Steel
integrated works at Galati ,Romania and its nearby areas.
The samples were then tested for contamination using NITON
XRF analyzers.
From the analyses it was found that various heavy metals were
present in the soil in the vicinity and the concentration decreased
in the soil away from the facility.

XRD Analysis of Tapti River Sediment: A Case study


1.
2.

3.
4.

Sediment samples were collected from 2 stations located on Tapi river


ie Surat and Prakasha
500 gm fine powdered sediments sample were mixed with one litre of
distilled water using mechanical shaker and centrifugal machine and
were stored in glass bottles.
The analysis was done with direct X-ray spectrometer at SICART,VV
Nagar,Anand.
From this analysis it was found that minerals Quartz, Kaolinites,
Calcite, Vermiculite, Polygorskite, Micas and Gibbsite were present in
dominant quantity.

Elemental composition of crop field soil by X-Ray fluorescence


(XRF) spectroscopy, Bangladesh.
Samples were collected from four districts of Bangladesh. Every district
divided ten sub-areas and each sub-area has ten different areas. The ten
different areas soils were collected and mixed and were made one
sample for each sub-area.
2. Samples were collected from surface layer of soil (20 cm). pH, organic
matter and total nitrogen were analysed.
3. Pellets were prepared and samples were analyzed using X-ray
fluorescence spectrometer also the data was analyzed statistically using
SPSS Ver. 12.
4. From this analysis the concentration of various elements were found and
plotted in a tabular form.All essential nutrients were identified in the
entire investigation areas sample, without boron and molybdenum
1.

METHODOLOGY

To determine coordinates of sampling location using Google maps and


collect soil samples.
To perform various geotechnical tests like
Determination of moisture content
Determination of specific gravity
Grain size analysis
Determination of consistency limits
Permeability test

To carry out X-RAY Fluorescence(XRF) and X-RAY Diffraction (XRD)


Tests at SOPHISTICATED INSTRUMENTATION CENTRE FOR
APPLIED RESEARCH & TESTING (SICART) lab.

To analyze test results and determine characteristics of soil.

REFERENCES

http://www.sicart.res.in/

Rahman M M (2014) Elemental composition of crop field soil by X-Ray


fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy, BangladeshSky Journal of Soil Science and
Environmental Management Vol. 3(2), pp. 20 - 28, February, 2014.

R. B. Marathe (2012) XRD Analysis of Tapti River Sediment: A Case Study


Archives of Applied Science Research, 2012, 4 (1):78-84.

L Georgescu DETERMINATION OF HEAVY METALS IN SOILS USING XRF


TECHNIQUE.

K.P.Patel (2014) Physico-Chemical Characterization of farmland Soil used in some


villages of Lunawada Taluka. Dist : Mahisagar (Gujarat) India International Journal
of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 4, Issue 3, March 2014.

THANK YOU