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Andrew Goodwins Music Video

By Conor Window

The 6 Key Aspects

Goodwin explained his theory through six different key conventions within a
music video:

Links between lyrics/visuals.

The beat.

Genre related style.

Close ups of the artist.


Intertexual reference.

Links Between Lyrics & Visuals

Illustrate this is where the
images in camera shots are
used to denote/connote the
lyrics and their meaning, as
seen in R Kelly The Words
Greatest (bellow).

Amplify this is where certain

images are emphasized, being
repeatedly shown in order to
encode these images to the
audiences mind, such as the
mirrors repeatedly denoted in
Justin Timberlake Mirrors.

Contradicting this is where

the meaning of the song/lyrics
are opposite to the denoted
images, as seen in Jessie J
Price Tag, where she is shown
surrounded by money,
contradicting the lyric: Its
not about the money.

Through the Beat

Labrinth Earthquake ft Tiny Tempah uses
multiple bright, attractive colours in order
to appeal to target audiences visually.
However there are also many animated
speakers around the artists as he performs
the lyrics to the song. These provide a
physical denotation of the bass behind the
songs beat, providing additional emphasis
on this aspect of the soundtrack.

Genre-Related Style
There are many pieces of common iconography in
the hip-hop genre that can be denoted throughout
many of the genres music videos. One of these can
be denoted in the music video for 2Pac Hit Em Up
(top, right) where 3 artists can be denoted in baggy
jeans and Timberland boots, two common pieces of
clothing commonly connoted with urban American
gangster culture. Another common piece of
iconography for the hip-hop/rap genre is multiple
pieces of expensive jewelry worn by the artists.
This can be denoted in the music video for Kid Ink
Promise ft. Fetty Wap (right, bottom) where both
artists in the two shot are denoted wearing such
items as gold chains, rings and watches.

Multiple Close Ups Of Artists

This technique is used throughout all genres. It could possibly be used
in order to connote the male and female gaze theories, allowing
attraction of audience members of the opposite gender. However it
could also be used in order to present the artist as a star, as they can
be denoted in luxurious clothing, whilst the HD cameras used in many
mainstream music videos allow them to appear even better. These
multiple close ups of the one artist denote them as the center of
attention, with this being able to improve their public image, possibly
translation to the media, e.g. news stories all about them. Such close
ups can be denoted in Drake Take Care ft. Rihanna (left) and Adele
Hello (right).

Voyeurism is defined as the action of looking in order to receive
sexual pleasure. This is connoted in many music videos, with many
attractive young people, usually women, that have no contribution to
the song in terms of vocals, in order to attract audiences. This may
also be done by having women in bikinis or skimpy clothing, a
common denotation in music videos in the rap genre. This can be
denoted in 50 Cent Im The Man (Remix) ft. Chris Brown, where not
only are women in bikinis, but an attractive man (Chris Brown) is
surrounded by attractive women, connoting male/female gazes.

Intertexual References
This is where a music video connotes/denotes another piece of media
text, such as a movie or a book. This may be used as a method of
targeting a larger demographic, as this may attract fans of the
reference. This is done in the music video for Katy Perry Last Friday
Night, where the artist is portrayed similar to Ugly Betty, a popular
TV show, before being returned to look like her normal self once
again, connoting the male gaze theory.