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DR.

SHEKHAR RAJDERKAR
PRO VICE-CHANCELLOR.

MAHARASHTRA UNIVERSITY OF
HEALTH SCIENCES,
NASHIK.

WHAT IS M.S. ?
WHAT IS M.D. ?
WHAT IS Ph. D. ?

DOCTOR THE
FOLLOWS THE

ONE WHO
DOCTRINE.

DOCTRINE IS A SET OF
INDIVIDUAL PRINCIPLES
AND
SOCIALLY USEFUL MORAL VALUES,
LEARNT
THROUGH THE
EXPERIENCES, TESTED BY
INTELLECT, MIND AND EMOTIONS,
AND PRACTISED
BY AN
INDIVIDUAL WITH THE
RECOGNITION FROM
THE
SOCIETY / COMMUNITY

DOCTOR OF MEDICINE
MASTER OF SURGERY

PHILOSOPHY.

THE WAY OF THINKING,


LIVING, EXPRESSING, PREACHING
AND INTERPRETATIONS,
DERIVED
FROM THE ANALYSIS OF
PRACTISING
A
PARTICULAR DOCTRINE.

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

AN EXPERT, WHO PRACTISES


HIS DOCTRINE
BY COMBINING IT
WITH THE
SOCIALLY
PRODUCTIVE
PHILOSOPHY
TO ENSURE A SOCIOCULTURALLY
HEALTHY
COMMUNITY

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

EVERY EXPERT IN THE


FIELD OF HEALTH SCIENCES
MUST HAVE A
PENTA - DIMENTIONAL
PERSONALITY

SUCH A PERSON IS CALLED


A DOCTOR

CONSIDERING ALL THESE.


FOR OBTAINING DOCTORAL
AND POST-DOCTORAL DEGREE
IN ANY & EVERY
DISCIPLINE
OF
HEALTH SCIENCES,
RESEARCH IS MANDATORY.

WHAT IS RESEARCH ?
SEARCHING
THE THINGS
AGAIN AND
AGAIN i.e.
RE SEARCH.

RESEARCH DEFINITION

R
E
S
E
A
R
C
H

HIGHLY SYNCHRONISED, CHANNELISED

G
L
A
M
O
U
R
O
U
S

BIO-MEDICO-SOCIAL RESEARCH.
BASIC

APPLIED
COMBINED

ENVIRONMENTAL
ANIMAL

ECOLOGICAL

HUMAN

PROCEDURES
LABORATORY

TESTS

DRUGS / VACCINES
OPERATIONAL

INTEGRATED BIO MEDICO


SOCIAL RESEARCH ..

HEALTH SYSTEMS
RESEARCH
OPERATIONAL RESEARCH
THERAPEUTIC RESEARCH
CAUSE EFFECT
RESEARCH

INTEGRATED BIO MEDICO


SOCIAL RESEARCH ..

PHRMACO EPODEMIOLOGIC
RESEARCH
GENETIC RESEARCH
ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH
NUTRITIONAL RESEARCH

RESEARCH METHODS ..

OBSERVATIONAL
(NONINTERVENTIONAL)
DESCRIPTIVE
ANALYTICAL

EXPERIMENTAL
(INTERVENTIONAL)
ANIMAL
HUMAN

DISCRIPTIVE METHODS..

CROSS SECTIONAL

LONGITUDINAL

BIO-MEDICO-SOCIAL
RESEARCH
HOSPITAL
STUDIES
FIELD / COMMUNITY
STUDIES

PRO- LECTIVE / RETRO-LECTIVE


STUDIES

GRADE A
(Evidence levels quality Ia, Ib)
REQUIRES
AT LEAST ONE
RANDOMISED CONTROL TRIAL AS
PART OF THE BODY
OF
LITERATURE
OF
OVERALL GOOD CONSISTANCY
AND ADDRESSING
SPECIFIC
RECOMMENDATION

GRADE B
(Evidence levels IIa, IIb, III)
REQUIRES
AVAILABILITY OF
CONDUCTED
STUDIES

WELL
CLINICAL
BUT
NO
RANDOMIZED CLINICAL
TRIALS
ON THE TOPIC OF
RECOMMENDATION

GRADE C
(Evidence levels IV)
REQUIRES
EVIDENCE FROM
EXPERT
COMMITTEE REPORTS OR
OPINIONS
AND / OR
CLINICAL EXPERIENCE OF
RESPECTED AUTHORITIES.
INDICATES ABSENCE OF
DIRECTLY APPLICABLE STUDIES
OF GOOD QUALITY.

DESCRIPTIVE STUDIES ONLY


DESCRIBE .
HOST
TIME VICTIM
PROCEDURE

INJURY
PERSON

PLACE
IMPACT
AGENT
STANDERDISATIONENVIRONMENT
AUTHENTICATIO
AUTHENTICATI

DISSERTATION

ANY DISCRIPTIVE STUDY.

AT THE END
OF SUCH STUDY,
IT IS ESSENTIAL
TO FORMULATE
AN HYPOTHESIS

A HYPOTHESIS IS
MANDATORY
REQUIREMENT
FOR A THESIS ..

HYPOTHESIS

A SUPPOSITION
ARRIEVED AT, FROM
OBSERVATION OR
REFLECTION

HYPOTHESIS
A SUPPOSITION
THAT APPEARS
TO EXPLAIN
A GROUP OF
PHENOMENA
AND IS
ADVANCED AS
BASIS FOR
FURTHER
INVESTIGATION

HYPOTHESIS
A TENTATIVE
ASSUMPTION
MADE IN
ORDER TO
DRAW OUT AND
TEST ITS
LOGICAL OR
IMPIRICAL
CONSEQUENCES

WORKING HYPOTHESIS

A PROPOSITION OR
SET OF PROPOSITIONS
SET FORTH AS AN EXPLANATION
FOR THE OCCURRENCE OF
CERTAIN
SPECIFIED GROUP OF PHENOMENA,
EITHER ASSERTED MERELY
AS A PROVISIONAL CONJECTURE
TO GUIDE INVESTIGATION OR
ACCEPTED AS HIGHLY PROBABLE
IN THE LIGHT OF
ESTABLISHED FACTS.

COMPONENTS OF HYPOTHESIS 1
PERSON CHARACTERISTICS OR
POPULATION CHARACTERISTICS
GENETIC FACTORS
AGE,
GENDER,
SOCIOECONOMY,
MARITAL STATUS,
HABITS,
BEHAVIOUR ,
STRESS ETC.

COMPONENTS OF
HYPOTHESIS 2
POSTULATED CAUSE / S
- SPECIFIC OR
OTHERWISE
AETIOLOGICAL
FACTORS
RISK FACTORS

MODIFIABLE

NON-MODIFIABLE

COMPONENTS OF
HYPOTHESIS 3
THE
EXPECTED
OUTCOME
i.e. THE
DISEASE
ITS
FEATURES

COMPONENTS OF
HYPOTHESIS 4
DOSE
RESPONSE
RELATIONSHIP

EFFECT
EFFICACY
SIDE-EFFECTS
TOXICITY
LETHAL DOSE

COMPONENTS OF
HYPOTHESIS 5

TIME
RESPONSE
RELATIONSHIP

HYPOTHESIS
SUPPORTIVE
COMPONENTS

VULNERABLE
SUCCEPTIBLE
PRONE NESS

HYPOTHESIS
ACCESSORY

COMPONENTS

LET US LEARN
BETWEEN THE

FOR THIS, READ FIRST.

TO READ
LINES.

TITLE (TOPIC)

SELF EXPLANATORY
CONCISE
COHERENT WITH
AIM,
OBJECTIVES,
TYPE OF STUDY,
METHODOLOGY
ETC ..

CONTENTS

1.

INTRODUCTION

2.

PURPOSE OF STUDY

3.

AIM and OBJECTIVES

4.

HYPOTHESIS AS & IF APPLICABLE

5.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

CONTENTS

6.

METHODOLOGY

7.

TIME UTILISATION CALENDER.

8.

RESULTS,
OBSERVATIONS
& DISCUSSION

CONTENTS

CONTINUED

9.

SUMMARY & CONCLUSIONS

10.

RECOMMENDATIONS

11.

LIMITATIONS OF STUDY IF ANY

12.

REFERENCES / BIBLIOGRAPHY

13.

ANNEXURES

14.

MASTER CHART - IF APPLICABLE.

INTRODUCTION

EMPHASIZE THE
IMPORTANCE OF THE
AND SUBJECT.

TOPIC

WHY THIS STUDY SHOULD


BE CARRIED OUT IN THIS
AREA ?

PURPOSE OF STUDY.

NON PURPOSIVE STUDIES


ARE NOT DESIRABLE.

SPECIFY THE PURPOSE OF


USING THE SPECIFIED TYPE
OF STUDY ON THE
PROPOSED TOPIC

PURPOSE OF STUDY.

QUOTE THE
RESEARCH QUESTION / S

RESEARCH QUESTION / S
DESCRIPTIVE QUESTIONS

Designed primarily to describe,


what is going on or what exists.

RESEARCH QUESTION / S
OBSERVATIONAL / CO-RELATIONAL
QUESTIONS
Designed to look at the relationships between
two or more variables.
Which stage of MITOSIS is longest?
If two sounds have the same pitch, do they
have the same FREQUENCY?
What COMPLIMENTARY COLOURS do
color blind individuals see?

RESEARCH QUESTION / S
CAUSAL:

CAUSE & EFFECT QUESTIONS

Designed to determine whether one or more


variables causes or affects one or more
outcome variables.

What is affect of exercise on heart rate?


What is the effect hand fatigue on Reaction Time ?
What are the most potent vectors for disease
transmission?

RESEARCH QUESTION / S

AIM & OBJECTIVES

AIM

QUALITATIVE, IDEAL,
USUALLY SINGLE

OBJECTIVES
: QUANTITATIVE, MULTIPLE

MENTION AIM AND


SEPERATELY

OBJECTIVES

METHODOLOGY

STUDY AREA
STUDY SAMPLE & SIZE
STUDY PERIOD
PILOT TESTING
INCLUSION AND EXCLUSION
CRITERIA
PROFORMA / QUESTIONNAIRE

METHODOLOGY

CONTINUED

TIME UTILIZATION
CALENDER

TIME UTILIZATION CALENDER

TOTAL SAMPLE SIZE COVERED

AVERAGE TIME TO COVER ONE


SUBJECT / QUESTIONNAIRE

NUMBER OF TOTAL WORKING


DAYS AND TIME SPENT PER DAY

MATERIALS USED

STANDARDIZATION OF
EQUIPMENTS / INSTRUMENTS /
PROCEDURES

LISTING REAGENTS / CHEMICALS,


THEIR SPECIFICATIONS AND
QUANTITY ETC.

MENTION ABOUT THE RECORDS


NEEDED FOR THE STUDY, WITH
THE PERMISSION LETTER.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

QUALITATIVELY AND
QUANTITATIVELY ADEQUATE.

UP TO DATE, WITH
HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

CROSS REFERENCES & TABLES

AYURVEDIC REVIEW
maUL saMihtomaQaIla
Xlaaok Aqavaa Xlaaok
samauccaya
%yaatIla
raogasamaudayaaMcao va
raogalaxaNaaMcao ivavarNa
AaiNa ivavaocana

AYURVEDIC REVIEW

maUL saMihtomaQyao
idlaolyaa ivakaraMSaI
jauLNaara va AaQauinak
vaOVkat namaUd
ivakar AaiNa yaa
daonhI caI tulanaa.

AYURVEDIC REVIEW ..

SPECIFY :
WHAT COMPONENTS ARE
TO BE INCLUDED UNDER
THE STUDY.

JUSTIFY..

REVIEW OF
CONTEMPORARY
AYURVEDA

REVIEW OF THE WORK


IN THE OTHER
BRANCHES OF
CONTEMPORARY HEALTH
SCIENCES.

INCLUDE TABLES IN THE


REVIEW OF LITERATURE.

OBSERVATIONS & DISCUSSION

TEXT

TABLES

DISCUSSION

GRAPHS, CHARTS,
ILLUSTRATIONS

OBSERVATIONS & DISCUSSION


CONTINUED

COMPARATIVE ACCOUNT OF
VARIOUS OTHER SIMILAR
STUDIES INLAND AND ABROAD

PERTINENT UNIVARIATE /
MULTIVARIATE STATISTICAL
APPLICATIONS

STATISTICS

W
H
Y
?

RESEARCH - PHOBIA ?

STATISTICALLY
YOURS

STATISTICS
CONSULT
THE
STATISTICIAN
BEFORE
PLANNING
THE STUDY.

QUALITATIVE STATISTICS
PILOT TESTING
OF

PROFORMA

SAMPLE
PARAMETERS

ERRORS

STATISTICS
PROCEDURE

AUTHENTICATION
STANDARDISATION

STATISTICS

SAMPLE SIZE
CALCULATIONS

RANDOMISATION

WHICH STATISTICAL TEST


TO BE APPLIED
TO WHICH DATA

SAMPLE SIZE ..

WHY ONLY THE MAGIC


FIGURE OF ..
30 ?
45 ?

SAMPLING

PLEASE TRY TO
UNDERSTAND THE
METHODS OF SAMPLING

SAMPLE SIZE
CALCULATIONS

CONTROL CONFOUNDING

MINIMIZE THE CHANCE


OF BIAS

RESULTS

QUOTE FACTUAL RESULTS

DO NOT COOK THE DATA

DO NOT TAMPER THE


DATA

SUMMARY
&
CONCLUSIONS

LIMITATIONS OF STUDY

HOSPITAL BASED
INSTITUTIONAL
NON REPRESENTATIVE
SAMPLE SIZE
ETC ETC ETC ..

FUTURE PERSPECTIVES
FOR THIS, USE ..
LOGIC
COMMON SENSE
INTELLIGENCE
TAKE HELP OF GUIDE

REFERENCES /
BIBLIOGRAPHY

VANCOUR STYLE

HARWARD STYLE

ANNEXURES

PROFORMA
QUESTIONNAIRE
METHODOLOFY OF ANY
PROCEDURE OR
TEST
ETC.

Ph. D. MEANS ..
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

LET US TRY TO
UNDERSTAND THE
MEANING OF THIS.